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研究生:白德禮
研究生(外文):Bradley
論文名稱:透過文化四構面比較區域經濟績效--制度個案研究
論文名稱(外文):A Case Study of Institutional Understanding using Four Cultural Dimensions comparing Regional Economic Performance
指導教授:施正屏施正屏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tony Cheng-Ping Shih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:國際人力教育與發展研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:其他教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:貿易績效文化價值制度改變
外文關鍵詞:Trade PerformanceCultural ValueInstitutional Change
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根據新制度學派的理論說明制度與制度的改變會影響到經濟績效,本研究建立一經濟模型以解釋文化與美國價值對於美國經濟績效中的自由貿易之影響。透過本模型,獨立文化之價值與區域變數將使用多變量分析之。研究方法則是透過Hofstede的文化四構面分析與施正屏教授的數量模型來分析美國與六大區域三十個國家自1990年到2004年間的貿易往來。
ABSTRACT
Based on the theory of the neo-institutional school states that institution and institutional changes affect economic performance, this study examines the impact of culture and American values of free trade on United States’ economic performance by building an econometric model. Through the use of this model the value of independent cultural and regional variables are be measured through the use of econometrics. The approach takes the cultural dimensions defined by Hofstede and an econometric model first build by Shih. The U.S trade with six regions and thirty countries for the period of 1990 to 2004 were examined first. Afterwards, two studies examine if a regional analysis shows significant change in economic performance in conjunction with the regional variables. The first regional study examines the regions rich in human resources against countries rich in natural resources. The second regional study examines different regions that have had long standing trade relationships with the United States.
Significant results indicate countries that send students to the United States are prime locations of U.S. import and export. Significant results also indicate that counties that host American students studying abroad are prime locations of U.S. imports and exports. Other significant indicators of economic performance are WTO membership, the disputes filed within the WTO, population, and official language. A regional study pinpoints areas that the United States should focus its effort on so that trade performance can be increased.
Key words: Cultural value、Institutional Change、Trade performance
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract…………….….………………………………………………………….……….. 4
Table of Contents…...….………………………………………………………………….. 5
List of Figures…………..…………………………………………………………………. 7
List of Tables………..…………………………………………………………………….. 9
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION……………….……………………………………........ 1
1.1 Background of the study……………..………………………………….…….. 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem……………………...………………………….…….4
1.3 Purposes of the study…………………………...……………………….….….. 5
1.4 Questions of the study…………………………...………………………..…… 7
1.5 Significance of the Study……………………...………………………….……. 9
1.6 Delimitations and Limitations……………………...……………….…….…….11
1.7 Definition of Terms…………….…………………….……………….……….. 13
CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………….……….................... 20
Culture……………………………………………………………….....………….. 20
2.1 The Evolution of Culture..................................................................................... 20
2.2 The Importance of Cultural Knowledge Today………….…………...………... 21
2.3 The Culture Cycle of Economic Success………………………………………. 23
2.4 Subdivisions of Culture…………………………………………………………25
2.5 Social Identity through Cultural Classification………………………………… 26
2.6 Informal Culture or Institutions………….…………...………………………... 27
Institutions and Trade………………………………………………….................... 30
2.7 The Organization………………………………………………………............. 30
2.8 Organizations in Play…………………………………………………............... 30
2.9 Why Neo-Institutional Economics……………………………………………... 31
2.10 The Definition of Property Rights……………………………….…………… 33
2.11 Transaction Costs and Institutional Understanding……………………………35
2.12 Transaction Costs Incurred…………………………………………………… 35
2.13 Power Distance Theory……………………………………………………….. 36
Types of Institutions, Aspects of Culture………………………………………….. 40
2.14 Hofstede’s Original Four……………………………………………………... 40
2.15 Problems with the 5th Dimension…………………………………………….. 43
2.16 The Globe Study……………………………………………….………………45
2.17 THT…………………………………………………………………………… 48
Economic Performance Measured by Culture as Institutions……………………… 51
2.18 Power…………………………………………………………………............. 51
2.19 Institutional Influence on a Societal Framework……………………………... 52
2.20 Path Dependence……………………………………………………………… 53
2.21 Ranking Countries……………………………………………….....................54
CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………...........56
3.1 Research Model……………………………………………………….………. 56
3.2 Source of Data……………………………………………………..…………... 65
CHAPTER IV. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION…………………………………………. 66
Empirical Results Six Regions……………………………... ………………………66
4.1 Americans Studying Abroad…………………………………………………… 66
4.2 Foreign Students in the United States……………….…………………………. 71
4.3 Summary and Conclusions for Six Regions………..………………………….. 77
Empirical Results Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East…………………….. 82
4.4 Americans Study Abroad
for Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East…………………………………….. 82
4.5 Foreign Students Studying in the U.S
for Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East ……………………………………. 88
4.6 Summary and Conclusions
for Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East…………………………………….. 92
Empirical Results Europe, Latin America, and Africa…………….………………. 96
4.7 Americans Study Abroad
for Europe, Latin America, and Africa ……………………………………………. 96
4.8 Foreign Students Studying in the U. S.
for Europe, Latin America, and Africa …………….……………… ………………101
4.9 Summary and Conclusion
for Europe, Latin America, and Africa…………………………….......................... 105
CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS………………… ………109
5.1 Conclusions about Objectives…………………………………………………..109
5.2 Conclusions on Six Regions…………………………………………………… 110
5.3 Conclusions on Asia, Southeast Asia & Oceania, and the Middle East……….. 115
5.4 Conclusions on ………………………………………………………………… 120
Further Recommendations…………………………………………………………. 126
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………..… ………128

List of Figures
Figure 1 Power Distance Theory…………………………………………………………... 38
Figure 2 Institutional Change on Societal Framework ……………………………………. 53
Figure 3 Reading the Table………………………………………………………………… 64
Figure 4 Explanation of Six Regions………………………………………………………. 112
Figure 5 Explanation of Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East………………………. 118
Figure 6 Explanation of Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East………………………. 122

List of Tables
Table 1 Hofstede’s four dimensions of culture
based on his 1967 and 1973 study in IBM ……..……………………………….. 41

Table 2 The Chinese Cultural Connection four
dimensions of Chinese culture from their 1987 study…………………………… 42

Table 3 Long-term orientation vs. Short term orientation
(Confucian dynamism) as Hofstede’s fifth dimension…. ………………………. 43

Table 4 The Cultural dimensions taken from GLOBE
research project introduction 2001……………………………………………….. 47

Table 5 The THT Model………………………………………………………...... ……... 50

Table 6 Country Classification……………………………………………………………. 58

Table 7 Economic Performance for Six Regions………………………………………….. 63

Table 8 Cultural and Regional Variables………………………………………………….. 64

Table 9 Cultural and Regional Variables for Six Regions
and Americans Studying Abroad……...............…..……………………………... 70

Table 10 Cultural and Regional Variables for Six Regions
Foreign Students Studying in the United States……………………….………… 76

Table 11 Cultural and Regional Variables for Asia, SE Asia, and the Middle East
for Americans Studying Abroad………………………………………………… 87

Table 12 Cultural and Regional Variables for Asia, SE Asia, and the Middle East
for Foreign Students Studying in the United States……………………………... 91

Table 13 Cultural and Regional Variables for Europe, Latin America, and Africa
for Americans Studying Abroad………………………………………………… 100

Table 14 Cultural and Regional Variables for Europe, Latin America, and Africa
for Foreign Students Studying in the United States………………………..…….. 104
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