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研究生:許靖宜
論文名稱:泰國西北部達府地區古應力之探討
論文名稱(外文):Paleo-stress evoluation in Tak region, northwestern Thailand
指導教授:李通藝李通藝引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:地球科學系(暑期)教學碩士學位班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:泰國達府應力構造王朝斷層
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西北-東南走向的王朝 (Wang Chao) 斷層切過中南半島地塊的西部,在泰國西北部的達府 (Tak) 地區,其剪切帶出露在藍山 (Lansang ) 國家公園,而在斷層帶北邊的普密蓬 (Bhumibol) 水壩附近則有CM-L帶的變質岩露頭。為了釐清此區域於不同變形時期中應力所造成的應變史,我們針對從藍山剪切帶及普密蓬水壩變質岩帶所採集的定向標本進行顯微構造分析。藉由測量葉理及葉理交軸之位態,以了解各變形期應力之結構。顯微構造觀察分析結果顯示此兩區各有三期的葉理構造,亦即各有三期的塑性變形,而且此兩區的塑性變形期是一致的。
第一期的變形作用中,主應力方向為東-西向的水平擠壓力,因此藍山剪切帶與普密蓬水壩變質岩帶均有南-北向的陡峭葉理產生,其可能為晚白堊紀到早第三紀之間,西緬甸板塊碰撞撣邦 (Shan-Thai) 塊體的造山運動所產生;第二期的變形作用中,主應力方向為東-西向水平擠壓力,因此在普密蓬水壩變質岩帶產生南-北向的褶皺,在藍山剪切帶產生了左移運動及西北-東南向的陡褶皺,其可能為漸新世時,印度碰撞歐亞板塊的造山運動所產生;第三期的變形作用中,主應力方向為鉛直的岩壓,因此在普密蓬水壩變質岩帶產生偃臥的褶皺,在藍山剪切帶產生近乎水平的葉理,其可能為漸新世之後,印度持續碰撞歐亞板塊使岩石圈增厚所導致。
此與 Tapponnier 等人 (1982) 所提出的「碰撞-脫逸地體構造運動」理論認為脫逸運動在陸塊內產生的變形很少之現象不符。與 Chung 等人 (1997 and 1998) 所提出的「碰撞-岩石圈增厚-岩石圈拆層-板塊張裂-地體脫逸」的地體運動模式有時序上不符之處,因為此區域觀察到的現象是先有左移運動之後才有岩石圈增厚的產生。
目錄
誌謝 i
摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 前人研究 2
1.2.1 東亞地體構造的演化 2
1.2.2 王朝-藍山剪切帶的構造史 4
1.3 地質背景 7
1.3.1 泰國西北部的主要地體構造 7
1.3.2 王朝-藍山剪切帶 9
1.3.3 普密蓬水壩的變質岩 10
1.4 研究動機與目的. 11
第二章 研究方法與相關理論 13
2.1 定向標本採樣 13
2.2 葉理交軸 (FIA) 的原理與應用 16
2.3 葉理交軸 (FIA) 的分析方法 21
2.3.1定向薄片製作與薄片影像數位化 21
2.3.2葉理交軸的測量方法 22
第三章 結果與分析 28
3.1 藍山剪切帶 28
3.1.1 各期葉理測量結果與分析 28
3.1.1.1 S1的測量結果與分析 28
3.1.1.2 S2的測量結果與分析 29
3.1.1.3 S3的測量結果與分析 29
3.1.2 各期葉理交軸 (FIA) 測量結果與分析 33
3.1.2.1 第一組葉理交軸 (FIA set 1) 33
3.1.2.2 第二組葉理交軸 (FIA set 2) 35
3.2 普密蓬水壩的變質岩帶 38
3.2.1 各期葉理測量結果與分析 38
3.2.1.1 S1的測量結果與分析 38
3.2.1.2 S2的測量結果與分析 38
3.2.1.3 S3的測量結果與分析 39
3.2.2 各期葉理交軸 (FIA) 測量結果與分析 42
3.2.2.1 第一組葉理交軸 (FIA set 1) 42
3.2.2.2 第二組葉理交軸 (FIA set 2) 44
第四章 討論 47
4.1各期葉理分析結果所代表的地質事件意義 47
4.2葉理交軸 (FIA) 對於研究區域的適用性 50
4.3 應力分析結果對於研究區域構造史的意義 53
第五章 結論 56
參考文獻 58
附錄一 顯微構造之各期葉理面位態分析 67
附錄二 礦物組成一覽表 87

圖目錄
圖1.1 東亞地體脫逸示意圖及泰國西北部地質圖 (修改自LACASSIN ET AL., 1997)。 6
圖1.2 水平線顯示每個平移斷層活動的時期 (引自LACASSIN ET AL., 1997)。 7
圖1.3 在泰國西北部王朝斷層帶的達府-湄索公路附近,藍山片麻岩帶及普密蓬水壩CM-L變質岩帶地質圖 (修改自LACASSIN ET AL., 1997)。 11
圖2.1 本研究區之地理位置及各定向標本的採樣地點地質圖。(依據 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF MINERAL RESOURCES, BANGKOK, THAILAND, 1999 出版之泰國地質圖繪製)。 14
圖2.2 三期塑性變形作用之應力結構、葉理疊置情形與葉理交軸位態的關係示意圖 (引自佘寶珠, 2004)。 19
圖 2.2 (續)。 20
圖2.3 以斑狀變晶轉折型態改變判斷FIA的走向 (HAYWARD, 1990) 。 23
圖2.4 TM0620水平與垂直薄片中的兩期葉理交疊的情形。 24
圖2.4 (續)。 25
圖2.4 (續)。 26
圖2.4 (續)。 27
圖3.1 藍山糜嶺片麻岩帶整合後的第一組葉理交軸玫瑰圖。 34
圖3.2 藍山糜嶺片麻岩帶整合後的第二組葉理交軸玫瑰圖。 37
圖3.3 普密蓬水壩變質岩帶整合後的第一組葉理交軸玫瑰圖。 43
圖3.4 普密蓬水壩變質岩帶整合後的第二組葉理交軸玫瑰圖。 46
圖4.1 晚白堊紀到早第三紀之間,西緬甸板塊碰撞掸邦塊體示意圖(引自MORLEY ET AL., 2004)。 50
圖4.2 以藍山片麻岩為例,兩個不同走向的陡傾斜葉理面,其葉理交軸的走向必定不同於兩個葉理面的走向。 52
圖4.3 王朝-藍山剪切帶應力結構圖。 53
表目錄
表2.1 本研究區採樣地點之位置和定向標本之岩性。 15
表3.1 藍山糜嶺片麻岩帶各期葉理面之位態。 31
表3.2 藍山糜嶺片麻岩帶各期葉理面顯微構造測量之結果。 32
表3.3 藍山糜嶺片麻岩帶第一組葉理交軸玫瑰圖與S1和S2等角度南半球赤平投影圖之對照表。 34
表3.4 藍山糜嶺片麻岩帶第二組葉理交軸玫瑰圖與S2和S3等角度南半球赤平投影圖之對照表。 36
表3.5 普密蓬水壩的變質岩帶各期葉理面之位態。 40
表3.6 普密蓬水壩變質岩帶各期葉理面顯微構造測量之結果。 41
表3.7 普密蓬水壩變質岩帶第一組葉理交軸玫瑰圖與S1和S2等角度南半球赤平投影圖之對照表。 43
表3.8 普密蓬變質岩帶第二組葉理交軸玫瑰圖與S2和S3等角度南半球赤平投影圖之對照表。 45
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