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研究生:吳蕙如
研究生(外文):Hui-ju Wu
論文名稱:連環圖片及其呈現次序對台灣國中生讀後內容回想及推論之效益研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Comic Strip and the Sequencing of Its Presentation on the Reading Recall and Inference Generation of EFL Junior High Students in Taiwan
指導教授:朱錫琴朱錫琴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsi-chin Chu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系在職進修碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:視覺輔助連環圖片回想推論
外文關鍵詞:visual aidscomic striprecallinference
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結合視覺輔助,如連環漫畫,已在語言學習及教學中彰顯其效益。然而,連環圖片及其呈現次序(看連環圖片於讀文章前、讀文章時、讀文章後)對台灣以英語為外國語的國中生在英語閱讀方面的效益值得加以探討。本研究目的在探討此效益對於台灣國中生在讀後回想及推論能力的幫助。同時也探討學生對連環圖片影響其閱讀效益的看法。
本研究的受試者為中台灣某國中四班共144位三年級學生。其中一班為控制組,在沒有連環漫畫的輔助下閱讀一篇237字的敘述文。另外三班為實驗組,閱讀相同的敘述文,並皆閱讀與文章相關的連環圖片。但此三組連環圖片以不同的呈現次序出現: 先看圖再讀文章組,同時看圖片及讀文章組,先讀文章後看圖組。內容回想用來評估學生在試後回想故事內容,及在回想中產生文本推論與讀者推論的能力。問卷及訪談目的在了解學生對閱讀文章加入連環圖片的看法及助益。最後以變異數分析,來比較組間在內容回想、推論、及學生看法的差異。
本研究主要的發現如下。一、對內容回想而言,只有同時看圖片及讀文章組表現優於控制組。另外,同時看圖片及讀文章組也比先讀文章後看圖組回想更多文本內容。二、對推論能力而言,三組實驗組皆比控制組產生更多的文本推論及讀者推論。此外,先看圖再讀文章組及先讀文章後看圖組,比同時看圖片及讀文章組產生更多文本推論。三、學生對文章的看法,問卷顯示三組實驗組皆比控制組認為文章較有趣及較高心智圖像的聯想。然而只有同時看圖片及讀文章組比控制組認為文本難度明顯降低。另外,先看圖再讀文章組及同時看圖片及讀文章組比先讀文章後看圖組及控制組,在閱讀文章時產生較高心智圖像的聯想。大致上,三組實驗組的學生對於連環圖片對他們閱讀意願、猜字、理解、及記憶方面的效益,大多抱持正面的態度,即使三組間並無顯著差異。
本研究證明連環圖片對閱讀回想與推論的效益,並證明連環圖片的呈現次序會影響學生的閱讀回想及推論能力。本實驗結果也對教學設計及未來研究提出建議。
Integration of visual aids such as comic strip has been proved its facilitative effects on language learning and teaching. Still, how well and in what sequencing of comic strip presentation (comic strip presented before text, during text, and after text) would enhance Taiwanese EFL junior high school students’ reading comprehension deserves attention. This study aims to investigate such effects on reading recall and inference generation of junior high school students in Taiwan. Students’ perceptions toward the efficacy of comic strips are also explored.
The participants of the study were one hundred forty-four ninth graders from four classes in a junior high school in Central Taiwan. One class of students was a Control Group, receiving no comic strips when reading a 237-word narrative while the other three groups formed as three Experimental Groups, reading the same narrative text with comic strips presented in different sequencing: Pre-reading Group, During-reading Group, and Post-reading Group. Written recall was used as a post-treatment measure to see how well students recalled the story and made text-based and reader-based inferences in recall. Questionnaire and Interview were employed to understand how students perceived the text and benefited from the inclusion of comic strips. ANOVA analyses were applied to compare group differences on recall, inference generation, and perceptions.
The major findings of the present study are as follows. First, for recall, only During-reading Group performed significantly better than Control Group. In addition, they recalled significantly more text than Post-reading Group. Second, for inference generation, all three Experimental Groups made significantly more text-based inferences and reader-based inferences than Control Group. Besides, Pre-reading Group and Post-reading Group generated more text-based inferences than During-reading Group. Third, for perception of the text, analysis of questionnaire data revealed that all three Experimental Groups significantly perceive higher text interest and higher mental imagery association than Control Group while only During-reading Group perceived significantly lower text difficulty than Control Group. Moreover, Pre-reading Group and During-reading Group perceive significantly higher mental imagery association when reading text than Post-reading and Control Group. Overall students in all three Experimental Groups held positive attitude toward the effects of comic strip in terms of their willingness to read, word guessing, comprehension, and memory, though no significance found among these groups. The implications for instructional design and future study were drawn.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………………i
English Abstract………………………………………………………………ii
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………iv
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………v
List of Tables………………………………………………………………viii
List of Figures………………………………………………………………ix

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………1
Background and Motivation……………………………………………1
The Need to investigate the effect of visuals………2
The Need to investigate the best timing of visual
aid presentation……………………………………………………3
Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………5
Research Questions………………………………………………………6
Definition of Terms……………………………………………………6
Significance of the Study……………………………………………7
Organization of the Study……………………………………………8

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………9
Reading Comprehension…………………………………………………9
Models of Reading Process……………………………………9
Dual-Coding Theory……………………………………………………11
Logogens and Imagens…………………………………………12
Three Levels of Processing…………………………………12
Reading Process in Dual Coding Theory………………14
Schema Theory……………………………………………………………15
The Effect of Visual Aids on Reading Comprehension……16
The Functions of Visual Aids………………………………17
The Types of Visual Aids in Reading……………………18
Illustrations………………………………………………18
Graphic Presentations……………………………………19
Studies on Comic Strips as Visual Aids………………20
Studies on the Effect of Different Presentation
Sequencing of Visual Aids on Reading Comprehension……21
Summary……………………………………………………………………26

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY………………………………………………28
Pilot Study………………………………………………………………28
Selecting Text……………………………………………………28
Examining the English Textbook Currently
in Use…………………………………………………………29
Selecting the Texts with Comic Strips……………29
Modifying the Texts………………………………………29
Confirming Text Suitability…………………………31
Confirming the Appropriateness of Time Allotment
for Each Instrument…………………………………………31
Main Study…………………………………………………………………33
Participants………………………………………………………33
Instruments………………………………………………………34
The Text………………………………………………………34
The Comic Strip……………………………………………35
The Perception Questionnaire…………………………35
The Written Recall Sheet………………………………36
The Perception Interview………………………………37
Data Collection Procedure …………………………………39
Data Analysis……………………………………………………40
Scoring…………………………………………………………41
Scoring of Written Recall…………………………41
Scoring of Inference Generation…………………41
Statistical Analysis……………………………………43
Statistical analyses of written recall………43
Statistical analyses of Inferences……………43
Statistical analyses of Written
Questionnaire……………………………………………43

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS……………………………………………………45
Results of the Effects of Comic Strips and the Effects
of Sequencing On Written Recall…………………………………45
Effects of Comic Strips on Written Recall…………45
Effects of Sequencing of Comic Strips on Written
Recall………………………………………………………………47
Results of the Effects of Comic Strips and the Effects
of Sequencing On Inference Generation………………………48
Effect of Comic Strips on Text-based Inference…48
Effect of Sequencing of Comic Strips on Text-based
Inference…………………………………………………………50
Effect of Comic Strips on Reader-based Inference.51
Effect of Sequencing of Comic Strips on Reader-
based Inference…………………………………………………53
Students’ Perception toward the Comic Strip and the
Sequencing of Its Presentation…………………………………54
Results of Written Questionnaire………………………54
Effect of Comic Strips on Three Text
Perceptions…………………………………………………55
Effects of the Sequencing of Comic Strips
Presentation on Three Text Perceptions…………56
Perceptions toward the Effects of Comic Strips
among Three Experimental Groups……………………58
Results of Perception Interview…………………………60
Responses from Pre-reading Group…………………60
Responses from During-reading Group……………62
Responses from Post-reading Group………………64
Summary of the Results………………………………………………65

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS………………………68
Discussion…………………………………………………………………68
Effects of Comic Strips ……………………………………68
Effects of the Sequencing of Comic Strips
Presentation………………………………………………………71
During vs. Post………………………………………………71
During vs. Pre………………………………………………75
Pre vs. Post……………………………………………………75
Null Effects among the Experimental Groups…………76
Reader-based Inferences……………………………76
Perceptions of Willingness, Cognition,
Memory, and Speed……………………………………77
Implications………………………………………………………………79
Pedagogical Implications……………………………………79
On Material Design…………………………………………79
On Teaching……………………………………………………80
Implications for Future Study……………………………82
References………………………………………………………………………84
Appendix A. The Text………………………………………………………94
Appendix B. The Comic Strip……………………………………………95
Appendix C. The Written Questionnaire (Chinese Version)…96
Appendix D. The Written Questionnaire (English Version)…98
Appendix E. The Recall Sheet…………………………………………100
Appendix F. The Interview Questions (Chinese Version)……101
Appendix G. The Interview Questions (English Version)……102
Appendix H. Total Pausal Units of the Text……………………103
Appendix I. Sample of Scoring Student’s Recall……………104
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