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研究生:陳郁翔
研究生(外文):Chen, Yu-Shiang
論文名稱:中小型餐館創業人應具備專業能力分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):Professional Competencies Required for Small and Medium Size Restaurant Entrepreneur
指導教授:洪久賢洪久賢引用關係孫瑜華孫瑜華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Horng, Jeou-ShyanSun, Yu-Hua
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:人類發展與家庭學系
學門:人文學門
學類:人類學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:247
中文關鍵詞:餐飲業創業專業能力OCAPs中小企業
外文關鍵詞:SMEentrepreneurshiprestaurantcompetencyOCAPs
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本研究主要關注於餐飲業創業家研究的議題,針對餐飲業的創業者為研究的範疇,探討中小型餐館創業人所應具備的專業能力,以因應餐飲教育及整體企業環境所需。本研究之主要目的有六點:一、確認餐飲業中小型餐館創業人應具備之專業能力;二、探討中小型餐館業創業人應具備專業能力之重要性、出現頻率、未來需求;三、確認中小型餐館業創業人應具備之認知、技能與態度;四、建構中小型餐館創業人之專業能力指標;五、探討中小型餐館創業人應具備專業能力之重要性及層級;六、剖析中小型餐館創業人應具備之條件。
研究的方法主要以Occupational Competency Analysis Profiles(OCAPs)法為主,包括資料蒐集、評估、訪談、Developing a Curriculum(DACUM)會議發展能力目錄草案、從業者問卷確認、專家檢核等過程。此外,為提高專家取向的廣度,研究方法並輔以「餐廳現場觀察」與「餐廳創業者訪談」,以使研究資料得以相互印證而更臻完整。
研究的結果發現,在現場觀察的部份,餐館創業人分階段有不同的工作項目。第一階段為規劃期;第二階段為發包期;第三階段為監工期;第四階段為驗收期;第五階段則為正式開幕。另外,由DACUM會議發展出職責8大項;任務82項。八大職責為:創業計劃、開店裝修計劃、現場營運管理、財務管理、營運計劃、行銷計劃、人事管理及危機管理。在專業知能的部份,則發現餐館負人應具備的知能項目共有94項,包含認知層面23項、技能層面34項以及態度層面27項。
  最後以問卷針對292位餐館創業人作調查,發現所有的職責及專業知能皆被列在必備的項目。另外,針對不同的特性的餐館創業人作比較分析,在重要性的部份,發現性別在人事管理項目的重要性有顯著的差異;另外,經營型態對商業趨勢的重要性有顯著的差異。在使用頻率的部份,不同的服務型態的餐館創業人對創業計劃、行銷計劃及人事管理三項的使用頻率有顯著的差異存在。
  依據上述之研究調查結果,本研究對餐館業創業人、餐飲業、學校相關科系及職訓單位提出建議,並針對未來研究的方向作一建議。
This research focuses on issues regarding entrepreneurship in the food and beverage industry, and in particular, explores the professional competencies required by the operator of a small and medium entrepreneur (SME) restaurant in order to cope with the needs of the industry environment. The six main purposes of the research are: (1) to verify the occupational competencies required by the entrepreneurs of SME restaurants. (2) to review the degree of importance, the frequency of use, and the future needs with respect to an entrepreneur acquiring professional competencies. (3) to verify the acknowledgement, skill, and attitude an entrepreneur should have. (4) to establish a benchmark of occupational competencies for entrepreneurs of SME restaurants. (5) to review the degree of importance and the level of competency that an entrepreneur of an SME restaurant should acquire. (6) to analyze the required qualifications for the entrepreneurs of SME restaurants.
The Occupational Competency Analysis Profiles (OCAPs) method is mainly utilized, which includes procedures for data collection and evaluation, interviews, a draft index for development capability for Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) profession conference, verification by survey of business operators and experts' examination. In addition, in order to increase the diversity of the expert selection, the research also applies job-site observation and interviews with the restaurant entrepreneurs to ensure that the research materials will be consistent and more comprehensive.
Based on job-site observation, that entrepreneurs are faced with different tasks in different stages. The first stage is the planning period, the second stage is the contracting period, the third stage is the inspection period, the fourth stage is the acceptance period, and the fifth stage is the opening period. In addition, 8 major duties and 82 job tasks were developed by the DACUM profession conference. The 8 duties are: entrepreneurship plan, restaurant interior design plan, on-site operation and management, financial management, operations plan, marketing plan, personnel management, and crisis management. It turned out that a restaurant entrepreneur requires 94 competencies, including 23 items in the area of knowledge, 34 skill items, and 27 attitude items.
In the end the questionnaires are used to survey 292 SME restaurant entrepreneurs. It appears that all the job items and occupational competencies were listed as required items. In addition, in the comparison among and analysis of different entrepreneurs' characteristics, regarding the degree of importance, different genders are significantly different in the personnel management items; in addition, the management styles of entrepreneurs of different business types are also significantly different. As for the frequency of use, entrepreneurs of different service types are significantly different in their entrepreneurship plan, marketing plan, and personnel management.
Based on the research findings, the suggestions for SME restaurant entrepreneurs, the food and beverage industry, and school and vocational training institutes, as well as for future studies are proposed .
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景……………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究動機……………………………………………………… 4
第三節 研究目的……………………………………………………… 8
第三節 名詞解釋……………………………………………………… 9
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 創業家的定義………………………………………………… 13
第二節 創業精神……………………………………………………… 14
第三節 創業理論學派………………………………………………… 17
第四節 餐飲業的重要性、特性及變遷……………………………… 23
第五節 國內外創業家相關文獻探討………………………………… 30
第六節 專業能力 ……………………………………………………. 38
第七節 餐飲業專業能力 …………………………………………… 48
第八節 創業能力……………………………………………………… 71
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構……………………………………………………… 81
第二節 研究方法與步驟……………………………………………… 82
第三節 研究工具……………………………………………………… 87
第四節 研究限制……………………………………………………… 95
第四章 結果與討論
第一節 餐館創業人現場觀察之分析………………………………… 97
第二節 餐館創業人專業能力目錄之發展..………………………… 103
第三節 餐館創業人職責任務問卷調查結果與討論………………… 122
第四節 餐館創業人專業知能因素分析……………………………… 160
第五節 不同類型餐館創業人看法之結果比較……………………… 169
第六節 綜合討論……………………………………………………… 183
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論…….…………………………………………………… 187
第二節 建議………………………………………………………… 197
參考文獻 …………………………………………………………… 205
附錄一 專家審核前問卷…………………………………………… 217
附錄二 中小型餐館創業人應具備之專業能力分析研究調查問… 229
附錄三 專家會議邀請涵…………………………………………… 241
附錄四 DACUM會議說明…………………………………………… 243
附錄五 DACUM會議結果確認傳真涵………………………………… 244
附錄六 專家檢核小組信涵…………………………………………… 245
附錄七 問卷預試信涵……………………………………………… 246
附錄八 問卷信涵…………………………………………………… 247
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