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研究生:姜永浚
研究生(外文):Yung-Chun, Chiang
論文名稱:探討優質環境學習中心之特質—一個德懷術研究
指導教授:周儒周儒引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ju Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:環境教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:264
中文關鍵詞:環境學習中心自然中心環境教育
外文關鍵詞:environmental learning centernature centerenvironmental education
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本研究計畫經由德懷術(Delphi method)的實施,來探討優質的環境學習中心所呈現出的特質,以供台灣在發展類似產業時的參考。經過三回合德懷術問卷調查,本研究得到廿七條特質,並可區分為五大類別,分別為:一、整體關切;二、場域與設施;三、經營與管理;四、人員;五、軟體方案。其中有十一項特質被評定為最重要,分別為特質一:「環境學習中心基於其設立目的及所擁有之資源特色(不論是既有的或新開創的),來發展出具體的環境教育使命、目標或願景」;特質四:「環境學習中心應透過制度上的設計,公開且客觀的對其人員、設施、活動方案及經營管理等進行持續的評鑑(evaluation)與改進」;特質七:「環境學習中心內的各項設施與設計能融入當地的環境或反映當地的特色,並廣泛且深入的考量其節能設計、妥善利用能源、趣味性、知性、美學、人文與教育的意涵」;特質九:「環境學習中心應主動連結在地組織或個人,共同落實地方生活、生產與生態的均衡發展」;特質十一:「環境學習中心在經營管理上,應考慮當地的遊憩承載量(recreational carrying capacity),其衝擊參數包括有:1.生態承載量;2.實質承載量;3.設施承載量;4.社會承載量等,以盡可能減少對環境的衝擊」;特質十五:「環境學習中心的工作人員需具備適當的環境素養與永續發展的理念」;特質十八:「環境學習中心最少需有一位具備環境教育專業的全職工作人員」;特質十九:「中心的環境教育專職人員在環境教育的專業能力上,最少需具備下面的六個層面:1.環境素養;2.對『環境教育』的基本認識;3.對身為環境教育者的專業責任;4.規劃並執行環境教育課程與方案的能力;5.促進學習的能力;6.檢討與改進的能力」;特質廿一:「環境學習中心的活動方案通常具備某些特質,如:重啟發而非教導、強調互動而非單向的灌輸、協助參訪者獲得親身的體驗等」;特質廿三:「環境學習中心的活動方案的目的在於協助參訪者發展環境覺知、學習環境知識、培養環境倫理、熟習行動技能,甚至獲得環境行動的經驗」;及特質廿七:「環境學習中心透過設計或安排,使活動方案及設施的使用者能在此體驗與履行對環境友善及永續發展的承諾」等。在廿七項特質中被認為相對上較不重要的有:特質八:「環境學習中心需考慮身心障礙者的學習權利並加以回應,其回應的內容則視中心的需求而定」;特質廿五:「環境學習中心能推陳出新展示、課程及活動方案,吸引參訪者回流、持續運用中心的服務」。
The study used Delphi method to explore the characteristics of a high quality environmental learning center. The result of the research can be reference to develop similar industry in Taiwan. The study performed a three-round Delphi survey with a group of experts and identified 27 characteristics which can be categorized into 5 types: overall concern, site and facilities, operation and management, staff, and programs.
Among all the characteristics, 11 of them are appraised as more important than others. These characteristics are listed below. Characteristic 1: An environmental learning center develops concrete mission of environmental education based on its objectives and its distinguished resources whether the resources are already there or are created. Characteristic 4: An environmental learning center should regularly evaluate its staff, facilities, programs, operations and management through systematic design. Characteristic 7: The facilities and design in an environmental learning center should blend with local environment or reflect local features, and they should take into consideration energy saving design, energy efficiency, fun, intellectuality, aesthetics, humanism, and education. Characteristic 9: An environmental learning center should actively connect with local organizations or individuals in order to strike a balance among local life, production and ecology. Characteristic 11: To reduce impact on the environment as much as possible, the operation and management of an environmental learning center should consider local recreational carrying capacity whose impact parameters include ecological carrying capacity, actual carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, and social carrying capacity. Characteristic 15: The staff in an environmental learning center should possess suitable concepts of environmental literacy and sustainable development. Characteristic 18: An environmental learning center needs at least one full-time staff whose expertise is environmental education. Characteristic 19: The expertise of the full-time environmental educator should have at least six aspects listed below: environmental literacy, basic understanding to environmental education, responsibilities as an environmental educator, ability to plan and execute environmental education programs, ability to improve learning, ability to review and to improve. Characteristic 21: The programs in an environmental learning center usually have some features such as inspirations rather than teaching, interactions rather than instillation, and helping visitor to experience. Characteristic 23: The objectives of the programs in an environmental learning center is to assist visitors to develop environmental awareness, environmental knowledge, environmental ethics, action skills, or even to have experience of environmental actions. Characteristic 27: Through design and arrangement, an environmental learning center enables users of the programs or facilities to experience and fulfill commitment to environment friendliness and sustainable development.
Among the 27 characteristics, the less important ones are listed below. Characteristic 8: According to the need of each center, an environmental learning center should consider and respond to the learning right of disabilities. Characteristic 25: An environmental learning center can bring forth new exhibitions and programs to attract visitors to come back again and use the service in the center constantly.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究需求與重要性 1
第二節 研究目的與目標 5
第三節 名詞定義 5
第四節 研究限制 7

第二章 文獻探討 9
第一節 環境學習中心的發展脈絡及內涵 9
第二節 環境學習中心與環境教育的實踐 20
第三節 優質環境學習中心的分析面向及其特徵 30
第四節 德懷術 36

第三章 研究設計與實施 45
第一節 研究流程 45
第二節 研究對象與德懷術專家小組的選取 48
第三節 研究工具的發展與分析方式 50
第四節 德懷術的實施 57

第四章 研究結果分析與討論 59
第一節 第一回合問卷結果分析與回應 60
第二節 第二回合問卷結果分析與回應 77
第三節 第三回合問卷結果分析與回應 96
第四節 綜合比較與討論 107

第五章 結論與建議 119
第一節 研究結論 120
第二節 建議 126
第三節 研究者反思 129

參考文獻 133

附錄 141
附錄一 德懷術專家小組成員名單 141
附錄二 專家訪談名單 143
附錄三 專家訪談邀請函 145
附錄四 專家訪談說明函 147
附錄五 專家訪談關切面向與重要敘述句整理 153
附錄六 第一回合德懷術研究說明及問卷(初稿) 161
附錄七 針對問卷初稿進行內容審查之專家名單 177
附錄八 第一回合德懷術結構式問卷工具組 179
附錄九 第二回合德懷術結構式問卷工具組 199
附錄十 第三回合德懷術結構式問卷工具組 231
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行政院國家永續發展委員會(2002)。永續發展行動計畫。2006年11月6日,擷取自:http://ivy2.epa.gov.tw/nsdn/ch/PAPERS/FUTURE.DOC
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