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研究生:謝金憲
研究生(外文):Jin-Xian shieh
論文名稱:貨櫃船螺槳引致的週圍底床上流場
論文名稱(外文):Experimental Studies on the Flow Fields near above Bed Induced by a Container Ship Propeller
指導教授:臧效義臧效義引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shiaw-Yih Tzang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:河海工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:河海工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:螺槳碼頭岸壁流場淘刷
外文關鍵詞:propellerquay wallflow fieldsscour
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本研究是調查貨櫃船在港口碼頭靠離岸時,貨櫃船推進螺槳引致螺槳水流與不同碼頭岸壁位置所產生的底床淘刷現象。研究工作分成兩個部份,一為整理分析前人研究數據,探討碼頭岸壁附近底床,因主推進螺槳所引致的底床淘刷坑類型。結果顯示,於轉速低於300RPM時,底床淘刷坑洞類型可以分成四種類型,尤其當側向邊界存在時,受水流擴散方向影響,淘刷坑型的類型略有改變,且發現前人研究鮮少提及之螺槳正下方坑洞。
另一為定床流場及動床淘刷試驗量測部分,為清楚螺槳週圍附近,當碼頭岸壁距離螺槳軸心4Dp及3Dp、2Dp時,發展區底床之流場行為。試驗模型螺槳為比例縮尺 之六葉貨櫃船螺槳。主要針對碼頭岸壁與螺槳中心間距離的變化對底床淘刷的影響。量測工作分為四個重點部分:(1)螺槳軸心水平面擴散;(2)軸心至底床之速度剖面分佈;(3)螺槳週圍附近底床流場;(4)螺槳週圍附近底床動床量測。結果顯示,由於碼頭岸壁影響水流的擴散方式,致使水流產生偏轉,使得主推進螺槳引致淘刷坑類型包括後方TYPE2之外,尚有因水流偏轉導致往岸壁方向延伸之TYPE3、碼頭岸壁堤趾淘刷之TYPE4及螺槳正下方之TYPE1等四類型坑洞。螺槳週圍附近底床之流速分佈並非趨近於零,而是呈現擾動的三維速度分佈,其中螺槳轉動時周圍水體受誘導向螺槳中心之流場是產生TYPE1類型坑洞主要的原因。TYPE1之坑洞形狀近似橢圓形,其短軸方向上游坑壁斜率較陡,下游則較緩,長軸方向以遠離岸壁方向較陡,往岸壁方向則較緩。當碼頭岸壁接近螺槳軸中心時,受誘導向上揚升速度分佈有朝岸壁方向增加的趨勢,進而造成淘刷坑向岸壁延伸。
This study is aimed at investigating container ship's propeller-induced flows and resulting bed scours in the vicinity of a quay wall during berthing operations for different lateral distances between a quay wall and the center of a propeller. It consists of two tasks, one of which is to analyze data of previous scour tests due to flows induced by a 6-blade model stern propeller. The results have shown four types of scour pits for rotational speeds less than 300 RPM. The effects of a lateral quay wall would only slightly change the configuration of the scour pits. In particular, a seldom-reported scour pit right under the propeller has been identified.
The other task includes experimental investigations of propeller flow fields over a rigid bed and scour development on a sandy bed. In particular, effects of different lateral distance (4Dp, 3Dp, and 2Dp) of a quay wall from the center of the propeller on the flow fields within the developing flow zone near above the bed have been studied. All experiments utilize a model propeller of reduction ratio of 1/30. The measurements include four subjects, i.e. horizontal distribution of axial velocity component, depth profile of axial velocity component, bed flow fields in the vicinity of the propeller, and scour development under the propeller. The measurements have illustrated that scours occur at the toe of the quay wall, in the downstream of the propeller flows and under the propeller. Flow fields under the propeller have displayed clear oscillating characteristics and induced flows from near the bed toward the propeller. As a result, configuration of the scour pit under the propeller is in elliptic shape while the pit slopes are steeper in the upstream and on the quay-wall side. In addition, scour pits tend to extend towards the quay wall as the lateral distances from the propeller decrease.
目錄
致謝......................................................І
摘要.....................................................ІІ
Abstrac..................................................III
目錄......................................................IV
圖目錄...................................................VII
表目錄....................................................XI
符號說明.................................................XII
第一章 緒論................................................1
1.1 研究動機...............................................1
1.2 研究目的...............................................1
1.3 研究方法...............................................2
第二章 前人研究............................................3
2.1 螺槳水流初始射流速度探討...............................6
2.2 最大軸向速度遞減探討...................................6
2.3 側向邊界對發展區內流場影響探討.........................7
2.4 淘刷介紹..............................................8
2.4.1 最大淘刷深度.........................................8
2.4.2 淘刷分佈.............................................9
第三章 淘刷坑洞分類與螺槳水流試驗.........................12
3.1 淘刷坑類型分類........................................12
3.1.1 典型淘刷坑洞類型定義................................12
3.2 碼頭岸壁距離螺槳軸中心距離影響.......................13
3.2.1 4Dp距離.............................................14
3.2.2 3Dp距離.............................................14
3.2.3 2Dp距離.............................................15
3.3 速度場量測...........................................28
3.4 流速資料處理.........................................28
3.5 試驗設備.............................................30
3.5.1 平面水池與試驗區域..................................30
3.5.2 舖砂設備............................................30
3.5.3 流速量測系統........................................33
3.5.4 模型螺槳與驅動系統..................................34
3.5.5 試驗條件............................................36
3.5.6 試驗底部與側向邊界..................................37
3.6 試驗配置..............................................38
3.7 量測網格..............................................40
3.8 流場整流..............................................42
3.9 試驗步驟..............................................43
3.9.1 初始射流橫剖面量測..................................43
3.9.2 初始射流縱剖面量測..................................43
3.9.3 螺槳週圍底床流速分佈量測............................43
3.9.4 螺槳週圍底床流速分佈量測............................44
第四章 試驗結果分析與討論.................................45
4.1 軸心水平面速度場......................................45
4.2 軸向速度深度剖面分佈..................................51
4.3 底床流場變化..........................................52
4.4 動床模擬試驗..........................................58
第五章 結論與建議........................................103
5.1 結論.................................................103
5.2 建議.................................................104
參考文獻.................................................105
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