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研究生:呂宜樺
研究生(外文):YI-HWA LU
論文名稱:兒童讀經與節奏樣式對記憶之影響
指導教授:吳昭容吳昭容引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:教育心理與諮商學系碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:兒童讀經群集記憶
外文關鍵詞:Chinese Literary ClassicsGroupingMemory
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近年來讀經教育在國內蔚為風氣,許多人相信讀經可以增進記憶力。本研究以三個實驗探討兒童讀經對領域特定性與廣泛性記憶之影響,並瞭解讀經特有的節奏樣式在單一嘗試與多次嘗試短期記憶中所扮演之角色。實驗一以五個條件配對出20對一年級的讀經組與對照組兒童,個別施測語文短期記憶、語文工作記憶、語文長期記憶、數字短期記憶,以及數數工作記憶五項作業。實驗二則比較記憶研究慣用的「間斷群集」與讀經使用的「節奏群集」對一、三、五年級兒童短期記憶之影響,包括單一嘗試與多次嘗試兩種作業方式。實驗三修改實驗二的限制,同樣在單一嘗試與多次嘗試兩種方式下,比較未群集、間斷群集與節奏群集三種呈現方式對兒童短期記憶之影響。
實驗一結果顯示,在語文工作記憶和語文長期記憶兩項作業表現上,讀經組兒童顯著優於控制組,但是在語文短期記憶作業、數字短期記憶作業與數數工作記憶作業之表現上,兩組則無顯著差異。顯示讀經未增進兒童一般性的記憶力,但能提高識字量、提升語詞的處理速度及儲存容量。
實驗二和三,在單一嘗試的短期記憶作業上,節奏群集與間斷群集的記憶表現一樣好,但是節奏群集並未顯著優於未群集。而在多次嘗試的短期記憶作業上,節奏群集與間斷群集的學習力表現相似,兩者均顯著優於未群集。顯示節奏群集的呈現方式需經由重複多次來活化與熟悉節奏樣式,並藉由群集中的首位重音,來幫助提取群集中的記憶項目,與著重複誦的間斷群集覺知方式不同但效果相似。
最後,建議從事教學工作者能將節奏群集的複誦方式適時運用在需要自動化的技能或記憶材料之上,並可利用教學上非正式課程之零碎時間來幫助記憶,以達事半功倍之效果。
In the past few years, Chinese Literary Classics education has become popular. Many people believe that studying Chinese Literary Classics can improve the memory abilities. This research conducts three experiments to investigate the effects of children studying Chinese Literary Classics on the domain-specific and domain-general memory abilities and to understand the effects of rhythm patterns, unique to Chinese Literary Classics, on short-term memory. The first experiment selects 20 pairs of first graders forms a Chinese Literary Classics group and a control group of children based on five criteria. Each child is individually examined on five memory tasks. The second experiment compares the effects of “temporal grouping,” generally used for memory research, and “rhythmic grouping,” used in Chinese Literary Classics on the short-term memory of children in grades one, three, and five. The task includes single trials and multiple trials. The third experiment, modifying the restrictions in the second experiment, compares the effects of ungrouping, temporal grouping, and rhythmic grouping, on the short-term memory of children.
The results of the first experiment indicate that performances of working memory of language and long-term memory of language for children in the Chinese Literary Classics group show significant advantages over the control group. However, the performances of short-term memory of language, short-term memory of numbers, and working memory of counting show no significant differences between the two groups. The results show that studying Chinese Literary Classics does not increase the general memory of children, but can enlarge the number of recognized vocabulary as well as increase the processing speed and storage capacity of words.
The second and third experiments show that under the single trial short-term memory tasks, the memories of children with the rhythmic grouping and the temporal grouping were performed equally well, but the rhythmic grouping does not have a significant advantage over the ungrouping. Yet, under multiple trial tasks, children with the rhythmic grouping and the temporal grouping performed similarly, both with significant advantages over the ungrouping. The results indicate that the rhythmic grouping needs to be repeated over many times to become an active and familiar rhythm pattern. Through the grouping of the initial accent, it helps retrieve the memory items in the grouping; though the perception method is different from the temporal grouping which emphasized on repeated recitation, its effects are similar.
緒論.....................................................1
兒童讀經教育...........................................4
記憶理論..............................................13
領域特定性與領域廣泛性記憶..............................16
測量記憶之作業.........................................23
節奏樣式..............................................35
實驗一:兒童讀經對領域特定性及廣泛性記憶之影響................47
方法..................................................48
結果分析..............................................55
討論..................................................58
實驗二:節奏樣式對記憶之影響................................64
方法..................................................66
結果分析..............................................71
討論..................................................86
實驗三:不同群集樣式對記憶之影響............................92
方法..................................................93
結果分析..............................................96
討論.................................................104
綜合討論.................................................106
研究結論..............................................106
研究之限制與啟示.......................................108
未來研究之建議.........................................109
參考文獻.................................................111
附錄一 實驗一語文短期記憶作業題本範例.......................119
附錄二 實驗一語文短期記憶作業紀錄紙範例.....................121
附錄三 實驗一數字短期記憶作業題本範例.......................122
附錄四 實驗一數字短期記憶作業紀錄紙範例.....................124
附錄五 實驗一語文工作記憶作業題本範例.......................125
附錄六 實驗一語文工作記憶作業紀錄紙範例.....................127
附錄七 實驗一數數工作記憶作業題本範例.......................128
附錄八 實驗一數數工作記憶作業紀錄紙範例.....................130
附錄九 實驗一作業施測順序之組合............................131
附錄十 實驗二單一嘗試短期記憶作業試題範例...................132
附錄十一 實驗二多次嘗試短期記憶作業試題範例.................133
附錄十二 實驗二單一嘗試短期記憶作業紀錄紙範例...............134
附錄十三 實驗二多次嘗試短期記憶作業紀錄紙範例...............135
附錄十四 實驗二12個數字廣度各年級嘗試次數分佈一覽表..........136
附錄十五 實驗二18個數字廣度各年級嘗試次數分佈一覽表..........137
附錄十六 實驗三單一嘗試之短期記憶作業試題範例...............138
附錄十七 實驗三單一嘗試之短期記憶作業紀錄紙範例..............139
附錄十八 實驗三多次嘗試之短期記憶作業紀錄紙範例..............140
附錄十九 實驗三多次嘗試作業各年級嘗試次數分佈一覽表..........141
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