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研究生:賴文璇
研究生(外文):WEN-SHYUAN LAI
論文名稱:中學運動員之社會支持、能力知覺與競賽壓力因應歷程中認知評估及因應策略的關係研究
論文名稱(外文):The Relationships of Social Support and Perceived Competence to Cognitive Appraisals and Coping Strategies in High School Athletes
指導教授:黃英哲黃英哲引用關係
指導教授(外文):YING-CHE HUANG
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:體育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:壓力因應執行模式控制感
外文關鍵詞:standard model of stress processappraisal of control
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:18
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  • 下載下載:215
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
本研究以 Lazarus and Folkman (1984) 的壓力因應執行模式為基礎探討社會支持、能力知覺與認知評估對競賽壓力因應策略的關係。研究參與者為九十六年全國中等學校運動會高中組之男、女足球和手球員,總人數359人,其中男選手243名、女選手116名,平均年齡16.82±.92歲。研究工具包括「社會支持量表」、「能力知覺量表」、「認知評估量表」及「競賽壓力因應策略量表」。資料蒐集完成後,以簡單相關分析、多元迴歸分析以及結構方程模式(SEM)進行統計分析,得到以下幾點發現:

一、能力知覺能負向預測傷害評估;情緒支持和能力知覺能負向預測威脅評估;訊息支持能正向預測威脅評估與挑戰評估。
二、情緒支持、能力知覺和挑戰評估能正向預測次級評估;傷害評估和威脅評估能負向預測次級評估。
三、正向初級評估(挑戰評估)對社會支持與次級評估具有完全中介之效果;負向初級評估(傷害評估與威脅評估)對能力知覺與次級評估具有完全中介之效果。
四、情緒支持能正向預測主動積極策略、專注策略和強調光明面策略;能力知覺能正向預測主動積極策略、尋求社會支持策略和強調光明面策略;傷害評估能正向預測尋求社會支持策略;威脅評估能負向預測專注策略、強調光明面策略;訊息支持、挑戰評估和次級評估能正向預測主動積極策略、專注策略、尋求社會支持策略和強調光明面策略;挑戰評估能負向預測逃避策略。
五、正向初級評估(挑戰評估)透過次級評估的部分中介,影響問題焦點因應(主動積極策略和專注策略)與情緒焦點因應(尋求社會支持策略和強調光明面策略)。
六、本研究所建構的競賽壓力因應歷程模式二可用來解釋中學運動員的觀察資料。
七、社會支持對次級評估與正、負向因應策略的全體效果大於能力知覺對次級評估與正、負向因應策略的全體效果。
八、正向初級評估(挑戰評估)對正向因應策略(主動積極策略、專注策略、尋求社會支持策略與強調光明面策略)的全體效果最高。
本研究根據理論架構與上述的結果進行討論,並針對實際應用和未來研究方向提出一些具體的建議。

關鍵詞:壓力因應執行模式、控制感
This study used the framework of Lzazrus and Folkman’s (1984) standard model of stress process to examine the relationships of social support and perceived Competence to Cognitive Appraisal and Coping Strategies in High School Athletes.
Participants were 359 soccer and handball players (males=243, females=116) aged 16.82±.92 years from high school varsity athletes. Instruments used to collect data were “Social support Scales”, “Perception of Competence Scales”, “Cognitive Appraisal Scales” and “competitions stress of coping strategies”. Data obtained in this study were analyzed by correlate analysis, multiple regression analysis and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and the major findings were as follows:
1.Perception of competence negatively predicted harm appraisal. Emotional support and perception of competence negatively predicted threat appraisal. Information support positively predicted threat appraisal and challenge appraisal.
2.Emotional support, perception of competence and challenge appraisal positively predicted secondary appraisal. Harm appraisal and threat appraisal negatively predicted secondary appraisal.
3.Positive primary appraisal (challenge appraisal) was mediator of social support and secondary appraisal. Negative primary appraisals (harm appraisal and threat appraisal) were mediators of perceived competence and secondary appraisal.
4.Emotional support positively predicted active strategies, absorption strategies and bright strategies. Perception of competence positively predicted active strategies, social support strategies and bright strategies. Harm appraisal positively predicted social support strategies. Threat appraisal negatively predicted absorption strategies and bright strategies. Information support, challenge appraisal and secondary appraisal positively predicted active strategies, absorption strategies, social support strategies and bright strategies. Challenge appraisal negatively predicted avoidance strategies.
5.Positive primary appraisal (challenge appraisal) impacted on problem- focused coping strategies (active strategies and absorption strategies) and emotion- focused coping strategies ( social support strategies and bright strategies) through the partial mediating effect of secondary appraisal.
6.The stress and coping theory model of this study could explain observation of high school athletes.
7.The total effect of social support on secondary appraisal, positive coping strategies and negative coping strategies were more than perception of competence on secondary appraisal, positive coping strategies and negative coping strategies.
8.The total effect of positive primary appraisal (challenge appraisal) on positive coping strategies (active strategies, absorption strategies, social support strategies and bright strategies) was the biggest.
Discussions are provided in term of the findings and theoretical framework. Practical implication and future research directions are also recommended.

Key words: standard model of stress process, appraisal of control
目 次
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………….Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………….Ⅲ
目次…………………………………………………………………………….Ⅴ
表次…………………………………………………………………………….Ⅶ
圖次…………………………………………………………………………….Ⅸ

第一章 緒論……………………………………………………......1
第一節 問題背景……………………………………………………….1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………………………….6
第三節 研究問題……………………………………………………….6
第四節 名詞操作性定義……………………………………………….7

第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………........11
第一節 壓力因應的模式……………………………………………….11
第二節 認知評估的理論基礎及相關研究…………………………….15
第三節 社會支持的理論基礎及其與壓力因應之相關研究………….29
第四節 能力知覺與壓力因應之相關研究…………………………….36
第五節 研究假設……………………………………………………….37

第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構……………………………………………………….40
第二節 研究對象……………………………………………………….41
第三節 研究工具……………………………………………………….41
第四節 問卷施測程序………………………………………………….45
第五節 資料處理……………………………………………………….46

第四章 研究結果
第一節 基本描述統計和簡單相關…………………………………….47
第二節 初級評估對社會支持、能力知覺與次級評估之中介效果….49
第三節 次級評估對社會支持、能力知覺、初級評估與因應策略
之中介效果…………………………………………………….61
第四節 競賽壓力因應歷程的因果模式……………………………….77

第五章 討論
第一節 初級評估對社會支持、能力知覺與次級評估之中介效果….83
第二節 次級評估對社會支持、能力知覺、初級評估與因應策略
之中介效果…………………………………………………….87
第三節 競賽壓力因應歷程的因果模式……………………………….94

第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論…………………………………………………………….97
第二節 建議…………………………………………………………...100

參考文獻………………………………………………………….......112

附錄一 基本資料…………………………………………….......113
附錄二 經驗壓力確認表…………………………………….......114
附錄三 能力知覺量表……………………………………….......115
附錄四 社會支持量表……………………………………….....116
附錄五 認知評估量表……………………………………….....119
附錄六 競賽壓力因應策略量表…………………………….....121

表 次
表3-1 社會支持量表內部一致性信度情形………………………………...43
表3-2 社會支持量表隔兩週重測信度及效標關連效度…………………...43
表4-1 全體參與者在各變項上的描述統計………………………………...47
表4-2 各分量表或變項間的簡單相關矩陣………………………………...48
表4-3 社會支持與能力知覺預測傷害評估之多元迴歸分析摘要表……...50
表4-4 社會支持與能力知覺預測威脅評估之多元迴歸分析摘要表……...51
表4-5 社會支持與能力知覺預測挑戰評估之多元迴歸分析摘要表……...52
表4-6 初級評估預測次級評估之多元迴歸分析摘要表…………........53
表4-7 社會支持與能力知覺預測次級評估之多元迴歸分析摘要表……...54
表4-8 初級評估中介模式的適配度考驗…………………………………...58
表4-9 次級評估預測主動積極策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表……………...61
表4-10 次級評估預測專注策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表…………………...62
表4-11 次級評估預測尋求社會支持策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表………...63
表4-12 次級評估預測強調光明面策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表…………...63
表4-13 次級評估預測逃避策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表…………………...64
表4-14 初級評估預測主動積極策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表……………...65
表4-15 初級評估預測專注策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表…………………...66
表4-16 初級評估預測尋求社會支持策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表………...67
表4-17 初級評估預測強調光明面策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表…………...68
表4-18 初級評估預測逃避策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表…………………...69
表4-19 社會支持與能力知覺預測主動積極策略之多元迴歸分析摘要
表.......................................................70
表4-20 社會支持與能力知覺預測專注策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表……...71
表4-21 社會支持與能力知覺預測尋求社會支持策略之多元迴歸分
析摘要表……………………………………………………………...72
表4-22 社會支持與能力知覺預測強調光明面策略之多元迴歸分析
摘要表………………………………………………………………...73
表4-23 社會支持與能力知覺預測逃避策略之多元迴歸分析摘要表……...74
表4-24 次級評估中介模式的適配度考驗…………………………………...75
表4-25 假設模式之適配度指標……………………………………………...78

圖 次
圖2-1 壓力與因應之個人與環境交互作用之執行模式圖………………...15
圖2-2 運動壓力因應模式…………………………………………………...28
圖2-3 社會支持效果的混合模式…………………………………………...33
圖2-4 因應過程中的社會支持模式………………………………………...34
圖3-1 研究架構圖…………………………………………………………...40
圖4-1 中介變項的要件圖…………………………………………………...55
圖4-2 SEM中介變項的要件圖……………………………………………...57
圖4-3 初級評估中介模式一………………………………………………...59
圖4-4 初級評估中介模式二………………………………………………...60
圖4-5 初級評估中介模式三………………………………………………...60
圖4-6 次級評估中介模式二………………………………………………...76
圖4-7 次級評估中介模式三………………………………………………...77
圖4-8 競賽壓力因應歷程因果模式二……………………………………...79
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