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研究生:林靜涓
研究生(外文):Ching-Chuan Lin
論文名稱:中英雙語兒童語言混合現象之探討
論文名稱(外文):Code-mixing in a Young Chinese-English Bilingual Child
指導教授:何東憲何東憲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tung-Hsien He
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:兒童英語教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:雙語習得語碼混合雙語覺識
外文關鍵詞:bilingual acquisitioncode-mixingbilinaul awareness
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近年來台灣外籍配偶增加,國際聯姻的家庭中,雙語兒童語言習得議題受到關注。本研究分析中英雙語兒童的語言混合使用之特徵,進而探討雙語覺識的發展過程。研究對象為一位中美混血男童,自出生即同時接觸中英兩種語言。自孩童一歲九個月至三歲六個月,家庭中的語言使用原則為「一家長一語言」,父母各自對孩童使用自己的母語。研究者每個月至少兩次,透過錄音、錄影與觀察筆記,蒐集孩童與父母之言談及互動資料。資料分析重點為:語句內混合行為、語句間混合行為、語意混合行為、修正語言選用行為、翻譯行為、標明兩種語言名稱、語言選用之省思性陳述。本研究主要發現如下:
1.個案於兩歲左右,針對不同語言的使用者,能夠分別使用不同的語言,顯示其當時具有分辨兩種語言的能力。
2.個案三歲以前的語言混合使用行為,大多出現於英語的使用情境中,並且產生於單字的層次上,例如:「我 eat」。
3.個案於三歲至三歲半之間的語言混合使用行為,大多出現於中文的情境當中,特別是與母親談話的時候。個案鮮少在英文的語句裡混合入中文。研究者推測這是由於母親擁有中英雙語使用者的身分,個案認為母親能夠了解並接受他混合英語進入中文語句的行為。
4.個案於三歲至三歲半之間的語言混合使用行為,顯示出社會性的語用功能,例如:強調他所說的話並以另一種語言再重述一次、引述別人的話、嘲弄或測試他人的語言能力、表現對某些主題或活動的情感聯結。
5.句法的混合使用行為,經常出現於中文副詞的錯置,例如:「看電視在這裡」,「剪紙先的」。
6.個案三歲之後逐漸發展出避免語言混合使用的策略,例如:「I want that」以代名詞取代他不熟悉的字。
針對個案語言混合使用的各種現象,顯示在家庭中實施雙語教育的兒童,依然需要豐富的語言學習情境與有意義的交談互動,才能均衡地發展兩種語言能力。最後根據研究結果提供建議,作為雙語教育之應用,以及未來研究之參考。
There have been more and more multi-cultural families in Taiwan in recent years, and the issue of bilingual acquisition has been a growing interest. This longitudinal case study investigates code-mixing in a Chinese-English child from age 1;9 to 3;6 from a developmental perspective. It attempts to identify the types of mixed-utterances and under what circumstances the child code-mixes. This study also traces the process of the child’s gradual development of bilingual awareness, regarding Chinese and English language differentiation. The data were audio- and video-recorded from actual conversational exchanges in daily family activities, such as book reading, toy play, eating meals, etc. Recording data related to code-mixing were transcribed and analyzed under the categories of intra-utterance mixing [IntraMIX], inter-utterance mixing [InterMIX], semantic mixing [SMIX], repair to the appropriate language [RP], translation [TR], labeling languages [LL], and reflective statements about the use of two languages [RL].
The results indicate that the participant: (1) displayed his sensitivity to the relationship between language choice and interlocutor at around the age of two; (2) shows a great deal of intra-utterance mixing at the lexical level, mostly code-mixing Chinese into English utterances at the age of 1;9 to 3;0; (3) after the age of three, code-mixed English into Chinese more but seldom vice versa, probably due to the awareness of the mother’s bilingual identity and the assumption that she could understand him; (4) showed a lot of pragmatic functions of code-mixing in his language use, such as reinforcement, quoting a parent, making fun of or testing others’ language proficiency, and showing his emotional involvement in certain activities and topics in the later period of the study; (5) revealed bilingual awareness in the order-- repair (2;4), translation (2;5), labeling languages (2;10), and reflective statements about the use of languages (3;1).
In sum, this study traces the language development of a Chinese-English bilingual child and intends to provide some suggestions of how to practice bilingual education; it is also intended to be a resource for people interested in how a child acquires two languages simultaneously.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Questions 6
1.3 Definition of Terms 6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Development of the Two Languages 10
2.1.1 One-system and two-system hypotheses 10
2.1.2 Code-mixing in young bilingual children 11
2.1.3 Uneven bilingual development 15
2.2 Pragmatic Development in Young Bilingual Children 17
2.2.1 Pragmatic separation of two languages in infant bilinguals 18
2.2.2 Language choice 20
2.2.3 Parental input 23
2.3 Bilingual Awareness 23
2.3.1 Metalinguistic awareness and bilingualism 24
2.3.2 Signs of bilingual awareness 26
2.4 Summary and Conclusion 31
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 33
3.1 Participant 33
3.2 Data collection 35
3.3 Data Analysis 39
3.3.1 Coding system for language mixing 39
3.3.2 Coding system for bilingual awareness 40
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 42
4.1 Stage One 42
4.1.1 Types of mixed utterances 42
4.1.2 Signs of bilingual awareness 51
4.2 Stage Two 54
4.2.1 Types of mixed utterances 55
4.2.2 Signs of bilingual awareness 81
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 83
5.1 Summary and Discussion of Major Findings 83
5.1.1 Code-mixing before the age of three 83
5.1.2 Code-mixing after the age of three 84
5.1.3 Development of bilingual awareness 86
5.2 Implications and suggestions 87
5.3 Limitations 89
REFERENCES 91
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