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研究生:曹怡仁
研究生(外文):Tsao I-Jen
論文名稱:翻譯語篇與現代漢語回指的比較研究
論文名稱(外文):A Comparative Study on Translated Text and Chinese Anaphora
指導教授:陳光明陳光明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen Kuang-Ming
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺東大學
系所名稱:語文教育學系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:中國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:漢語翻譯回指篇章
外文關鍵詞:ChineseTranslationAnaphoraText
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本研究試圖比較現代漢語與由英語翻譯成漢語的語篇中回指的表現,語料文體限制在敘述文。運用徐赳赳《現代漢語篇章的回指研究》,對三種不同形式的回指,零形回指、代詞回指和名詞回指所採用的研究方式。研究方式分別為從多動詞句子看零形回指的所指表現,線性結構和層次結構,與名詞回指在篇章中的分佈情形。
從多動詞句子看零形回指的所指表現會有兩種情況:句首施事者與句內零形回指同指和異指兩種情形。現代漢語和翻譯語篇在同指和異指的表現上並沒有太大的差異。
透過線性結構和層次結構分析代詞回指在篇章中的表現,線性結構運用的是Givon的回數法,計算出話題/參與者延續性的強弱。現代漢語中代詞回指所得到的平均值為2.52,而翻譯語篇所得為1.54。在層次結構中,代詞單位在現代漢語中最多可以包含十個個實例,而翻譯語篇最多只能接受八個實例。
名詞回指可分為五種形式:同形、部分同形、同義、上下義和比喻等。透過根節點、狀態和位置探討名詞回指在篇章中的分佈情況。
研究者認為現代漢語和翻譯語篇在回指的表現上差異如此小,主要有兩個原因:(1)現代漢語歐化的情形;(2)譯者專業化的程度高。根據以上的研究,研究者提出建議希望能對日後的研究有所幫助。
This study aims at comparing anaphora in Chinese texts and English-to-Chinese translation texts. By Xu’s Anaphora in Chinese Texts, researcher tried to observe zero-anaphora, pronoun-anaphora and noun-anaphora through three different methods. The three methods are the reference of zero-anaphora in multi-verb sentence, pronoun-anaphora emerging in liner structure and hierarchical structure, and noun-anaphora distributed over the texts.
The reference of zero anaphora in multi-verb clause demonstrates two situations: the semantic role of agent and zero-anaphora are co-referential and not co-referential. There is little dissimilarity between these two situations.
Pronoun-anaphora was analyzed by liner structure and hierarchal structure. Liner structure was computed by Givon’s look-back, to compute the value of topic/ participant continuity. The average value of pronoun-anaphora in Chinese is 2.52; the average value in English-to-Chinese is 1.54. In hierarchal structure, pronoun-unit can contain ten tokens in Chinese text; however, it can only contain eight tokens in English-to-Chinese text.
Noun-anaphora can be divided into five types: identical repetition, apposition, partial repetition, superordinate/ hyponymy, and figurative/ metaphorical usage. These five types noun-anaphora have been elaborated in terms of root node, position, state and role.
The researcher thinks there are two reasons to explain Chinese and English-to-Chinese are alike: Europeanization of Chinese and professional translators. The researcher discussed and made suggestions based on the research findings, which might serve as reference for future studies.
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………………1

1.1 前言…………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 研究動機與目的……………………………………………………………1
1.3 研究方法……………………………………………………………………3

第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………………………4

2.1 前言…………………………………………………………………………4
2.2 英語回指研究………………………………………………………………4
2.3 現代漢語回指研究…………………………………………………………5

第三章 現代漢語回指情形…………………………………………………………13

3.1 前言………………………………………………………………………13
3.2 現代漢語零形回指研究…………………………………………………14
3.3 現代漢語代詞回指研究…………………………………………………21
3.4 現代漢語名詞回指研究…………………………………………………32
3.5 小結………………………………………………………………………39

第四章 翻譯語篇的回指情形………………………………………………………40

4.1 前言………………………………………………………………………41
4.2 翻譯語篇的零形回指研究………………………………………………42
4.3 翻譯語篇的代詞回指研究………………………………………………48
4.4 翻譯語篇的名詞回指研究………………………………………………53
4.5 小結………………………………………………………………………59

第五章 結論…………………………………………………………………………61

參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………64
一、中文部份…………………………………………………………………64
二、西文部份…………………………………………………………………65

附錄
附錄一 定義…………………………………………………………………………70
附錄二 句首施事者與句內零形回指同指—單一人物情況………………………72
附錄三 句首施事者與句內零形回指同指—複雜人物之定語形式………………81
附錄四 句首施事者與句內零形回指同指—複雜人物之介詞賓語形式…………82
附錄五 句首施事者與句內零形回指異指—施事者轉換…………………………83
附錄六 句首施事者與句內零形回指異指—施事者增加…………………………84
附錄七 代詞回指—第三人稱單、複數(他、她、他們)………………………85
附錄八 語料中的名詞回指鏈………………………………………………………91

表目次
表4-1“他、她和他(她)們”充當的三種成分………………………………49
表4-2 五種名詞回指對象在篇章中的分布………………………………………54
表4-3節點出現位置………………………………………………………………55
表4-4a五種節點在主位位置和述位位置的分布…………………………………55
表4-4b五種節點在主位位置和述位位置的分布…………………………………56
表4-5子節點的狀態分布…………………………………………………………56
表4-6a充當修飾詞和中心與的節點在主語和賓語位置上的分布………………57
表4-6b充當修飾詞和中心與的節點在主語和賓語位置上的分布………………57
表4-7作為中心詞的名詞節點分布………………………………………………58
表4-8作為修飾詞的名詞節點分布………………………………………………58

圖目次
圖3-1名詞代詞所處的次…………………………………………………………24
圖3-2名詞代詞層次分佈…………………………………………………………27
圖3-3根節點在段落和小句中出現的傾向………………………………………27
圖3-4 現代漢語代詞單位中的實例分布情形……………………………………35
圖3-5概念系統……………………………………………………………………37
圖3-6同一系統和衍推系統………………………………………………………37
圖4-1翻譯語篇代詞單位中的實例分布情形……………………………………52
一、中文部份
專書:
陳平(1991)。現代語言學研究:理論方法與事實。重慶:重慶出版社。
胡明亮(2007)。語篇銜接與翻譯。成都:巴蜀書社。
克里斯特爾編(2000)。現代語言學詞典(沈家煊譯)。北京:商務印書館。
呂叔湘編(1991)。現代漢語八百詞。北京:商務印書館。
湯廷池(1992)漢語詞法句法三集。台北:學生書局。
王力(2002)。中國現代語法。香港:中華書局。
徐赳赳(2003)。現代漢語篇章回指研究。北京:中國社會科學出版社。
許余龍(2004)。篇章回指的功能語用探索—一項基於漢語民間故事和報刊語
料的研究。上海:上海外語教育出版社。
朱永生、嚴世清(2001)。系統功能語言學多維思考。上海:上海外語教育出
版社。
期刊:
陳平(1987)。 漢語零形回指的話語分析,《中國語文》第五期,363-378。
廖秋忠(1986)。現代漢語篇章中指同的表達,《中國語文》第二期,88-96。
湯廷池(2000)。漢語的「限定子句與非限定子句”,《語言暨語言學》第一期,
191-214。
徐赳赳(1990)。敘述文中‘他’的話語分析,《中國語文》第五期,325-331。
徐赳赳(1993)。多動詞小句中的零形式,《中國語文》第五期,332-342。
徐赳赳(1996)。篇章中的段落分析,《中國語文》第五期,81-91。
語料來源:
2005年度風雲人物,《時代雜誌》中文解讀版,第117期,18-35。

二、西文部份
Book:
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Chen, P. (1986a). Referent Introducing and Tracking in Chinese Narratives. UCLA Dissertation.
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Chu, C. (1998). A Discourse Analysis of Mandarin Chinese. New York: Peter Lang.
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Cornish, F. (1999). Anaphora, Discourse, and Understanding: Evidence From English and French. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Journal:
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