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研究生:王一哲
研究生(外文):Yi-Zhe Wang
論文名稱:測試CMSPreshower系統母板
論文名稱(外文):Test of the CMS Preshower SystemMotherboards
指導教授:王名儒
指導教授(外文):Min-Zu Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:物理研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:物理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:測試系統母板
外文關鍵詞:testCMSPreshowerSMB
相關次數:
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臺大高能物理實驗室參與了「大型強子對撞機」( LHC LHC)中的一個稱為
)「緊湊渺子線圈」( CMS CMS)的實驗,在這個實驗當中,臺大高能物理實驗
)室參與了preshower 探測器的製造。LHC 是一個質子子-質子對撞機,其質心
能量為14TeV 14TeV,LHC 預計在2007 年底或2008 年初會開始運作。
  在此篇論文中,我會說明下列幾個項目:
• LHC 、CMS 及preshower 探測器
• preshower 系統母板( SMB SMB)的目的與設計
)• SMB 測試板( SMB_TB TB)的目的與設計
)• SMB 的測試及自動化測試程式
• SMB 的測試結果
  最後,我還使用CMSSW 去模擬在質子子-質子對撞時,最容易發生的幾
種事件中, preshower 探測器所能測到的訊號。
NTUHEP group take part in the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment
at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The LHC is a proton-proton collider and
its center of mass energy is 14 TeV. It will begin running in the end of 2007 or
in the early 2008.
In the master thesis, I will introduce
• the LHC, the CMS and the preshower detector;
• the purpose and design of the preshower system motherboard (SMB);
• the purpose and design of the SMB tester boards (SMB TB);
• the connection tests of SMBs and the test program;
• the test result of SMBs.
Finally, I will do some simulations of the decay modes which have the largest
cross-section of p-p collision and find what are measured in the preshower
detector.
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Fundamental Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Elementary particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 The Higgs Boson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Thesis Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 CERN, LHC and the CMS Expertment 5
2.1 The Large Hadron Collider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 The Compact Muon Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2.1 Magnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.2 Electromagnetic Calorimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.3 Hadron Calorimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2.4 Muon System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2.5 Inner Tracking System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.6 Trigger System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3 The CMS Preshower Detector 15
3.1 Physics Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.2 Design and Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2.1 Absorber Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2.2 Silicon Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2.3 Front-End Readout Hybrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2.4 Micromodule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.3 The Preshower Readout and Control Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4 The Preshower System Motherboard 23
4.1 Design of SMBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.2 Mass Production of SMBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3 Tests of SMBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3.1 Visual Inspection of all PCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3.2 Connection Test with SMB TB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.3.3 Connection Test with Flying Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.3.4 SMB Function Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.3.5 Thermal-Cycling Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5 SMB Test Program with SMB Tester Board 29
5.1 The Basic Ideas of Test Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.2 The Basic Units of Test Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.3 Basic SubVIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.3.1 string.vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.3.2 string to binary.vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3.3 binary to string format yuri.vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3.4 command.vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3.5 640-X-line format 13 test type.vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3.6 640-X-line format with other pin.vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.3.7 rms and mean for voltage.vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.4 How to Design This Program? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.5 The Main Parts of Test Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.6 Set up Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.7 The Main Part: 15-type test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.7.1 How to Use It? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.7.2 Three Configurations of Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.7.3 VCC pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.7.4 GND Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.7.5 LVDS-in Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.7.6 LVDS-in Pins with Pull-up and Pull-down Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.7.7 CMOS-in Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.7.8 CMOS-out Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.7.9 Analog-in Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.7.10 Analog-out Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.7.11 I2C Clock Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.7.12 I2C Data Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.7.13 Pins with Resistors to VCC or GND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.7.14 Test of Internal Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.7.15 Test Possible Short Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.7.16 Test of HV Lines Having Large Filter Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.7.17 LVDS-out Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.7.18 Total Number of Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.8 Test 2 Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.9 Find the Short Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.10 Test Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.11 The Test of Control Token Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6 SMB Test Results 55
6.1 SMB Test Results with SMB TB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.1.1 VCC pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.1.2 GND Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.1.3 LVDS-in Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.1.4 LVDS-in Pins with Pull-up and Pull-down Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.1.5 CMOS-in Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.1.6 CMOS-out Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.1.7 Analog-in Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.1.8 Analog-out Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.1.9 I2C Clock Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.1.10 I2C Data Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.1.11 Pins with Resistors to VCC or GND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.1.12 Test of Internal Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.1.13 Test Possible Short Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.1.14 Test of HV Lines Having Large Filter Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.1.15 LVDS-out Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.1.16 Summary of Test Results with SMB TB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.2 SMB Connection Test Results with Flying Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.3 Visual Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6.4 SMB Function Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
6.5 Thermal-Cycling Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7 Simulation of Preshower with CMSSW 69
7.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.2 The Steps of Simulation and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.3.1 Particle Gun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.3.2 QCD multi-jet events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
8 Conclusion 79
A Table of pins of SMB 81
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