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研究生:陳建志
研究生(外文):Chien-Chih Chen
論文名稱:知識管理系統之任務/科技/個人之適配模式探討
論文名稱(外文):The Fit Profile of Task/Technology/Individual of Knowledge Management Systems
指導教授:曹承礎曹承礎引用關係
指導教授(外文):T.S-C Chou
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:知識管理系統知識工作者任務任務科技適配理論電腦自我效能系統績效影響
外文關鍵詞:Knowledge ManagementKnowledge Management SystemTask/Technology/Individual FitEmpirical Study
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TTIF理論(Task/Technology/Individual Fit Theory)強調科技對個人工作任務績效的影響,是來自於任務、科技、個人的適配結果,理想的適配關係可有效提升績效。過去TTIF理論運用在其他系統環境中,但尚未運用在知識管理系統的環境下,目前仍欠缺相關的KMS適配模式,探討在KMS環境下的適配模式有其理論與實務上的必要性。本文根據任務/科技/個人適配理論探討知識管理環境下之是知識型任務、KMS、知識工作者之適配模式,根據相關文獻的基礎與適配理論,首先探討任務與科技的適配關係探,並進而考量個人特性因子,以建構更完整的KMS TTIF模式。
本文以調查研究的方式考驗本文所提出的假說。研究可歸納為以下幾項結果:(一)當任務倚賴外顯知識時,P2D(People to Database)型系統支援任務的績效優於P2P(Person to Person)型系統支援任務的績效;當任務倚賴中性知識時,P2D型系統支援任務的績效與P2P型無差;當任務倚賴內隱知識時,P2P型系統支援任務的績效優於P2D型系統支援任務的績效。(二)P2D型系統支援外顯任務的績效顯著高於內隱知識;P2P型系統支援內隱知識任務的績效顯著高於外顯型知識任務。(三)低電腦自我效能下,任務與科技的適配結果不明顯;高電腦自我效能下,任務與科技的適配可明確成立。(四)任務、科技、個人三方面因素形成的各種組合關係,形成不同的適配影響,例如、P2D型+外顯+高電腦自我效能以及P2P型+內隱+高電腦自我效能的組合較具績效影響。
對學術而言,本研究擴展TTIF理論的適用性於KMS環境中,研究結果不僅驗證內隱/外顯與P2D/P2P的基本配合關係,亦拓展電腦自我效能在任務科技適配關係中的影響,並進而發展更完成的TTIF模式,此KMS TTIF模式具有充實的理論基礎,並可作為未來研究者進一步探討KMS TTF相關研究的基礎。對實務而言,本文的研究貼近企業界的實務需求,對經營管理者、系統開發者、使用者各具不同的意義與價值,可作為企業推行KMS時的參考依據。
Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) are the emerging applications of the information technologies to support knowledge management activities. An effective adoption of KMS to improve knowledge workers’ tasks performance has become an important weapon for the business competitiveness enhancement.

According to Task/Technology/Individual Fit Theory (TTIF), the fit of task characteristics, technology characteristics and individual characteristics will influence task performance. The greater the degree of adherence to an ideal fit profile, the better the performance.

This paper develops a model of task/technology/individual fit in KMS environments based on attributes of task’s knowledge demand (tacit/explicit knowledge), technology function supply (P2D: People to Database / P2P: People to People), and individual capabilities (CSE: Computer Self-Efficacy).

An empirical study was then conducted to validate the proposed fit model. The results indicated that: 1. For tasks which rely on explicit knowledge, P2D KMS shows better supports than P2P KMS. 2. For tasks which rely on tacit knowledge, P2P KMS shows better supports than P2D KMS. 3. For tasks which rely on both tacit and explicit knowledge, there is no difference between P2P KMS and P2D KMS. 4. When CSE is high, the fit relationship between tacit/explicit and p2d/p2p is supported. However, when CSE is low, the task/technology fit is not supported. 5. The combinations of knowledge tasks, KMS, and individual’s CSE result in different performance impacts.

These results show a promising development direction for KMS TTIF theory. Practical implications of KMS implementation are also discussed.
目錄
口試委員會審定書 I
謝辭 II
中文摘要 III
英文摘要 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VII
第一章 序論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究問題與目的 4
第三節 研究方法與論文架構 6
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 任務/科技/個人適配理論(TASK/TECHNOLOGY/INDIVIDUAL FIT THEORY) 9
(一) 資訊科技與績效 9
(二) 任務/科技/個人適配模式 13
第二節 任務 - 知識工作者任務之知識需求類型 15
(一) 知識工作者與知識管理 16
(二) 知識資源的各種形式 17
(三) 知識的可呈現性 – 知識資源不同形式的本質 21
第三節 科技 - 知識管理系統(KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS) 24
(一) 知識管理與資訊科技 24
(二) 知識管理系統的主要類型 26
第四節 個人- 電腦自我效能(COMPUTER SELF-EFFICACY) 30
(一) 自我效能(self-efficacy) 30
(二) 電腦自我效能(Computer self-efficacy) 33
第三章 研究方法 38
第一節 研究模式與假說 – 知識管理系統環境下之任務/科技/個人適配模式 38
(一) 適配(FIT)的評估準則 38
(二) 任務與科技的適配 - 內隱/外顯知識與P2D/P2P型系統之適配 38
(三) 任務/科技/個人適配 - 電腦自我效能與任務/科技適配 45
第二節 變數衡量 50
第三節 樣本 53
第四章 資料分析與討論 54
第一節 樣本基本資料分析 55
第二節 變數衡量的信度與校度 57
第三節 任務型態之分群、電腦自我效能之分群 59
第四節 任務(內、中、外)與科技(P2D、P2P)之適配 - H1,H2,H3 62
第五節 P2D、P2P系統在不同任務群間之績效影響差異 – H4、H5 66
第六節 電腦自我效能與任務科技適配 – H6、H7 任務/科技/個人適配 70
第七節 任務、科技、個人適配 – H8、H9 76
第五章 綜合討論與結論 81
第一節 綜合討論 81
第二節 研究意涵與貢獻 84
第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議 86
參考文獻 88
附錄 問卷 98

圖目錄
圖一:知識與組織 2
圖二:知識與績效 3
圖三:本文研究問題 5
圖四:資訊系統成功模式 9
圖五:科技影響績效的兩種模式 11
圖六:科技績效模式TPC(Technology to Performance Chain) 12
圖七:任務/科技/個人適配之一般化模式 14
圖八:知識管理系統兩大基本功能類型 29
圖九:電腦自我效能來源與影響 37
圖十:知識管理系統之任務/科技/個人適配 49
圖十一:內隱/中性/外顯與P2D/P2P型系統之交互作用圖 65
圖十二:高CSE下,內隱/中性/外顯與P2D/P2P型系統之交互作用圖 73
圖十三:低CSE下,內隱/中性/外顯與P2D/P2P型系統之交互作用圖 75

表目錄
表格 1:群組任務與GSS科技之適配組合(Fit Profiles) 15
表格 2:知識資源的各種形式與知識的內隱/外顯性 23
表格 3:P2D型與P2P型系統之對照表 30
表格 4:知識管理編碼化策略與個人化策略中與資訊科技相關之內容 39
表格 5:知識管理之整合運用與互動運用之IT特性 40
表格 6:支援內隱/外顯知識的資訊科技取向 43
表格 7:內隱/外顯/中性知識型任務與P2D/P2P型KMS之適配組合 45
表格 8:KMS之任務、科技、個人適配之假設 47
表格 9:任務/科技/個人適配組合比較 49
表格 10:任務依賴知識內隱外顯性之衡量 50
表格 11: KMS功能型態之操作化定義與相關文獻 51
表格 12:樣本公司間變數衡量的描述性統計 55
表格 13: 樣本公司間變數衡量的單因子變異數分析 56
表格 14:信度與效度分析 58
表格 15:任務知識內隱外顯之集群結果 59
表格 16:任務群之間的知識內隱/外顯性之單因子變異數分析 60
表格 17:任務群間的多重比較Scheffe法 60
表格 18:任務群之同質子集Scheffe法 60
表格 19:電腦自我效能之集群結果 61
表格 20: 電腦自我效能群之單因子變異數分析 61
表格 21:平均數相等的t檢定 61
表格 22:P2D/P2P績效影響在內隱、中性、外顯知識任務三群中的描述性統計量 62
表格 23:系統支援績效之雙因子變異數分析表(任務型態 X 系統型態) 63
表格 24: T檢定 – 內隱/中性/外顯因子之條件檢定 65
表格 25: P2D績效影響單因子變異數分析 67
表格 26:P2D績效影響多重比較 Scheffe法 67
表格 27:P2D績效影響同質子集Scheffe法 67
表格 28: P2P績效影響單因子變異數分析 68
表格 29:P2P績效影響多重比較 Scheffe法 68
表格 30:P2P績效影響同質子集Scheffe法 69
表格 31:任務 X 系統 X 電腦自我效能三因子ANOVA 70
表格 32:高電腦自我效能下績效影響之變異數分析表(任務型態 X 系統型態) 71
表格 33:高電腦自我效能下績效影響之t檢定 – 內隱/中性/外顯因子之條件檢定 72
表格 34:低CSE下,系統支援績效之變異數分析表(任務型態 X 系統型態) 74
表格 35:低CSE下,績效影響之t檢定結果 – 內隱/外顯因子之條件檢定 74
表格 36:P2D績效影響描述性統計 77
表格 37:P2D績效影響變異數分析 77
表格 38: P2D績效影響Post Hoc 檢定多重比較Scheffe法 77
表格 39:P2P績效影響描述性統計 79
表格 40: P2P績效影響單因子變異數分析 79
表格 41:P2P績效影響Post Hoc 檢定多重比較Scheffe法 79
表格 42:假設考驗結果彙整表 81
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