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研究生:簡安
研究生(外文):Ann Chien
論文名稱:晶片設備供應商之商業模式之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Research of Business Model of Wafer Fabrication Equipment Suppliers
指導教授:翁崇雄翁崇雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chorng-Shyong Ong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:晶片設備供應商商業模式整合元件晶圓廠晶圓代工廠資本支出成長期成熟期產能利用率外包非核心事業知識管理核心競爭力
外文關鍵詞:Semiconductor equipment supplierBusiness modelIDMsFoundryCap-exGrowth stageMature stageUtilization rateOutsourcingNon-core businessKnowledge managementcore competency
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本研究主要研究半導體產業上游的晶片設備供應商的商業模式。半導體晶圓設備供應商可分為前段(Front end)與後段(Back End):前段設備主要的採購者為整合元件晶圓廠,晶圓代工廠和記憶體晶圓廠;後段設備的主要採購者為晶圓封裝與測試廠。本文的研究對象為前段的設備供應商的商業模式為主。
由於前段晶片設備的投資佔整體晶圓廠投資額的75%,因此晶圓廠的資本支出(Cap-ex)直接影響晶片設備供應商的營業額,由此可見晶圓廠與晶片設備供應商的緊密關係。晶圓廠的投資主要由晶片的需求而來,而晶片的需求又由整體電子產業的需求決定。電子產業的需求包含個人電腦、消費性電子產品等。由於整體的電子產業的需求具有周期性,而直接往上游影響晶圓廠的投資與營運。晶圓廠對需求狀況的指標可由產能利用率(utilization rate)來觀察。然而晶圓廠的產能的增加,從決定到產能的增加約須一年的時間。因此當產能到位時,常常需求已經消失,產生所謂的產能過剩的現象。這種現象直接影響到晶片設備供應商的營運,尤其在網路泡沫後嚴重的供需失調,晶片設備業者歷經多次的裁員以維持基本的財務營運。另外,由於產業進入成熟期,晶圓廠也進行一波整併,產生大者恆大且集中的產業趨勢:合併和策略聯盟。晶圓廠發展的趨勢影響晶片設備產業的發展。
晶片設備產業的基本商業模式取決於晶圓廠的需求,當晶圓廠產能過剩時, 晶片設備供應商的製造設備與生產人員將造成閒置。為因應半導體產業的周期, 加上產業由成長期進入成熟期,晶片設備供應商開始轉變其商業模式。晶片設備供應商開始外包(outsourcing)非核心事業,而專注於延伸核心競爭力的核心事業。另外,晶片設備供應商也加強服務事業部門的投資。
整體半導體產業為資本與知識密集的產業,因此當產業進入成熟期,整體的服務事業變的更重要。客戶的需求更有賴於設備供應商的無形資源,包含提供最佳實務(best practice)與及時的最佳解決方法(best known method, BKM)。因此,知識管理也將是晶片設備供應商重要的核心競爭力。
This research mainly studies on business model evolution of semiconductor equipment suppliers. Semiconductor equipments can be divided with two categories: front end and back end. The main buyers of front end equipment are IDMs, foundries and DRAM houses; and the buyers of back end equipment are assembly and testing companies. This research focuses on business model of front end equipments.
Around 75% capital investment of semiconductor manufacturers spend on the front end equipments, so the cap-ex of semiconductor manufacturers are close relate to revenue of semiconductor capital equipment suppliers. The investment of semiconductor manufacturers is dependent on the demand, whereas the demand depends on the overall demand of electronics industry. The demand of electronics industry includes personal computers and consumer products etc. Due to the electronics industry business is cyclical, the demand will percolate up the industry value chain to semiconductor manufacturers. The fab utilization rate is the supply index of semiconductor. However, the increase production capacity need about one year. Frequently, semiconductor manufacturers sense the demand to increase capacity, the demand has been diminished once the capacity is established. Overcapacity has been a serious problem to semiconductor manufacturers and capital equipment suppliers, especially after the internet bubble burst. The formation of global alliance and merge and acquisition change the business environment of semiconductor industry.
The traditional business model of capital equipment suppliers is to react to the demand of semiconductor manufacturers. As overcapacity happened, the production capacity and manufacturing personnel were the financial burdening of capital equipment suppliers. Therefore, capital equipment suppliers started thinking of new business model. They started outsourcing their non-core business and focus their resource on core business. At the same time, capital equipment suppliers enhanced service business because of maturation of industry.
Semiconductor industry is a capital and knowledge focus industry. The more mature the industry, the more importance the overall service business. The value of capital equipment suppliers rely on supporting of the best practice and best know method. Therefore, knowledge management will become another important core competency.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.1.1 Semiconductor Industry Evolution 1
1.1.2 Semiconductor Equipment Industry 9
1.1.3 Semiconductor Manufacturers and Equipment Suppliers 12
1.2 Research Motivation 15
1.3 Research Objective 15
Chapter 2 Industry Analysis 17
2.1 Semiconductor Industry 17
2.1.1 Basic Conditions of Semiconductor Industry 17
2.1.2 Market Structure of Semiconductor Manufacturers 26
2.2 Semiconductor Equipment Industry 29
2.2.1 Basic Conditions of Semiconductor Equipment Industry 30
2.2.2 Market Structure of Semiconductor Equipment Industry 32
Chapter 3 Research Methodology 37
3.1 Research Scope 37
3.2 Research Methodology 38
3.3 Research Flow 39
3.4 Limitation of this Research 41
Chapter 4 Business Model Evolution of Semiconductor Equipment Industry 43
4.1 Business Model Evolution of Semiconductor Industry 43
4.2 Global Alliance 45
4.2.1 Logic IDMs and Foundry Segment 45
4.2.2 Memory Segment 47
4.3 Business Challenge of Semiconductor Equipment Industry 48
4.3.1 Business Cycles 48
4.3.2 The Influence of Consolidation and Global Alliance 59
4.3.3 Porter’s Five Force Analysis 60
4.4 Value Chain Analysis of Semiconductor Equipment Company 65
4.4.1 Major Activities of Semiconductor Equipment Companies 65
4.4.2 Support Activities of Semiconductor Equipment Companies 66
4.4.3 Core v.s. Non-core processes 67
4.5 New Business Model of Semiconductor Equipment Industry 68
4.5.1 Outsourcing Strategy 68
4.5.2 Service Business 70
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research 73
5.1 Conclusions 73
5.2 Recommendation for Future Research 74
Reference 76
1.Semiconductor Industry Association, SIA History, www.sia-online.org
2.Robert M Grant, contemporary strategy analysis 5th edition, chap. 10 P. 301, 2005
3.Jay P. Deahna, semiconductor capital equipment industry overview for new investor. J. P. Morgan, May 2006
4.semiconductor: technology and market primer 3.0, December 9th, 2005
5.semiconductor equipment industry looks set for consolidation as cycle comes to an end, www.azom.com, December 10th, 2004
6.semiconductor Dataquest Monday Report, Issue 13 April 9th, 2007
7.invited speech by Morris Chang, International Solid State Circuit conference, January, 2007
8.Robert M Grant, contemporary strategy analysis 5th edition, chap. 10 P. 310, 2005
9.Semiconductor Capital Equipment-Issues and Outlook, Goldman Sachs Group Inc. September 2006
10.Robert M Grant, contemporary strategy analysis 5th edition, chap. 10 P. 314, 2005
11.Bob Johnson, Dean Freeman, Semiconductor and Equipment Industry, Future Fab Intl. Volume 18, January 1st, 2005
12.Gordon E. Moore, Electronics, Volume 38, November 8th, April 19, 1965
13.International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, www.itrs.net
14.Dylan McGrah, IC Insights ‘ top 25 IC firms’: Haves versus have-nots, March 14th, 2007
15.Jordan I. Siegel and James Jinho Chang, Samsung Electronics, HBS case, Rev. August 2, 2005.
16.Freescale joins IBM technology alliance, www.fabtech.org, January 23, 2007
17.ASM Lithography N.V. completes acquisition of Silicon Valley Group INC, www.asml.com, May 22th, 2001
18.Novellus Systems closes acquisition of Gasonics International Corporation, www.novellus.com, Jan. 10th, 2001
19.CapOneSource web site, www.caponesource.com
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