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研究生:張志偉
研究生(外文):Chih-Wei Chang
論文名稱:磁性流體在微流體晶片之混合與分離之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study on the Mixing and Separation of the Ferrofluid in Microfluidic Chips
指導教授:陳炳煇陳炳煇引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:機械工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:磁性流體混合分離微流體晶片
外文關鍵詞:ferrofluidmixingseparationmicrofluidic chip
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The mixing and the separation of the ferrofluid in microfluidic chips were investigated in this thesis. Mixing processes of the ferrofluid in the presence of a permanent magnet (5mm*4mm*2mm, 1000 Gauss) are highly different from that of pure diffusion. The magnetic field re-distributes the ferrofluid and the mixing efficiencies vary with the positions of the magnet and the volumetric flow rates of the fluids. With the suitable setup of the magnet, the mixing efficiencies can reach more than 90% within one characterisitic width of the channel. The segmented flows are also studied by injecting two immiscible fluids (water and oil were used in the present study) into the microchannel, which can be applied for fluid control. The length of the segmented slugs can be controlled by modulating the flow rates of water and oil; the geometry of the microchannels also plays an important role during the formation of the slugs. The mixing and the separation were then combined on the PDMS microfluidic chips to perform a more complete function. By the suitable design of the microfluidic chips and the proper position of the magnet, mixing and separation of the ferrofluid in microfluidic chips can be performed in order.
Table of Contents

Acknowledgement I
Abstract II
Nomenclature IV
Table of Content VI
List of Tables IX
List of Figures X

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 General Remarks 1
1.2 Literature Survey 3
1.2.1 Ferrofluids 3
1.2.2 Micromixers 6
1.2.3 Segmented Flow 8
1.3 Motivation and Objectives 9
1.4 Outline of the Thesis 10

Chapter 2 Apparatuses and Fabrication Processes 16
2.1 Fabrication of Ferrofluid 16
2.1.1 The Procedure of the Precipitation Method 17
2.1.2 Properties of the Ferrofluid 19
2.2 Fabrication of PDMS Microfluidic Chips 21
2.2.1 Fabrication of the Mold via MEMS Processes 22
2.2.2 Fabrication of the PDMS Microfluidic Chips 23
2.3 Experimental Apparatus 24
2.4 The Experimental Procedure 25

Chapter 3 Mixing of Ferrofluid in Microchannels 39
3.1 Introduction 39
3.1.1 Evaluation of the Mixing Efficiency 39
3.1.2 Testing Conditions 41
3.2 Mixing by diffusion 41
3.3 Mixing by the magnetic agitation on ferrofluid 42
3.3.1 Mixing Efficiency of Side-Mode 42
3.3.2 Mixing Efficiency of Side-Mode in the Downstream Region 44
3.3.3 Mixing Efficiency of Center-Mode 45
3.3.4 Mixing Efficiency of Center-Mode in the Downstream Region 46
3.4 Discussions 48

Chapter 4 Segmented Flow of Ferrofluid in Microchannels 85
4.1 Formation of the Segmented Flow 85
4.1.1 T-type Microchannel 86
4.1.2 Bifurcation of Segmented Flow in Microchannel 88
4.2 Separation of the Slug Flows with a Magnet 92
4.3 Discussions 93

Chapter 5 Integration of the Mixing and Separation 114
5.1 Combination of Mixing and Separation 114
5.2 Mixing and Separation in a Single Chip 116
5.3 Handling of the droplets of ferrofluid 117

Chapter 6 Conclusions and Prospects 131

References 133






















List of Tables

Table 1.1 15
The classification of the active mixing mechanisms (Hessel et al., 2005)
Table 1.2 15
The classification of the passive mixing mechanisms (Hessel et al., 2005)
Table 2.1 37
Chemical reagents used in the experiment.
Table 2.2 38
Physical properties of the ferrofluid.
Table 4.1 112
The contact angles and the surface tension of the fluids
Table 4.2 113
List of the generation of ferrofluid slugs among tested cases for the bifurcate channel of type I.










List of Figures

Figure 1.1 11
Hexagonal peaking patterns when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied to a layer of the magnetic fluid with saturation magnetization of 400 Gauss. The applied magnetic field is about 200 Gauss for the left picture and 330 Gauss for the right picture. (Zahn, 2001)
Figure 1.2 12
Schematic illustration of the formation of the plugs. Three aqueous solutions are cut by a stream of water-immiscible fluorinated fluid, PFD, to form plugs. Droplets were mixed rapidly by recirculation shown by the white arrows. (Tice et al., 2003)
Figure 1.3 13
The illustration of the ferrofluidic valves and pumps. (Hartshorne et al., 2004)
(a)Two designs of the ferrofluid valves. The dark regions of the channels represent ferrofluid; the small disks represent permanent magnets.
(b)The sketch of the ferrofluidic pump.
Figure 1.4 14
The principle of a circular ferrofluid pump. (Hatch et al., 2001)
Figure 2.1 26
The procedure of the precipitation method to fabricate the ferrofluid.
Figure 2.2 27
The procedure of transferring the solvent from water to oil
Figure 2.3 28
Magnetic effects on the ferrofluid and the pure fluid. (a)Water-based ferrofluid vs. DI water; (b)Oil-based ferrofluid vs. diesel oil.
Figure 2.4 29
The adsorption model showing the relation between the surfactant and the particle.
(a)Model for water-based ferrofluid; (b)Model for oil-based ferrofluid.
Figure 2.5 30
TEM photos showing the sizes of the ferro-particles.
(a)Water-based ferrofluid; (b)Oil-based ferrofluid.
Figure 2.6 31
Magnetization curves measured by a VSM.
(a)Water-based ferrofluid (0.078M); (b)Oil-based ferrofluid (0.078M)
Figure 2.7 32
The procedure of making a microfluidic chip via soft lithography.
Figure 2.8 33
The procedure of photolithography.
Figure 2.9 34
A sample of the SU-8 mold.
Figure 2.10 35
A sample of the microfluidic chip.
Figure 2.11 36
The measuring system.
Figure 3.1 51
Illustrations of the position of the magnet relative to the microchannel.
(a) side-mode; (b) center-mode.
Figure 3.2 52
Pictures of mixing processes of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel with 300μm in width: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.3 53
Streamwise mixing efficiencies without external magnetic field along microchannelswith 300μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.4 54
Streamwise mixing efficiencies without external magnetic field along microchannels with 500μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.5 55
Streamwise mixing efficiencies without external magnetic field along microchannels with 1000μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.6 56
Pictures of mixing processes of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 300μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a side-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.7 57
Streamwise mixing efficiencies of the side-mode along microchannels with 300μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.8 58
Pictures of mixing processes of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 500μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a side-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.9 59
Streamwise mixing efficiencies of the side-mode along microchannels with 500μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.10 60
Pictures of mixing processes of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 1000μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a side-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.11 61
Streamwise mixing efficiencies of the side-mode along microchannels with 1000μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.12 62
Pictures of mixing processes in the downstream region of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 300μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a side-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min..
Figure 3.13 63
Streamwise mixing efficiencies in the downstream region of the side-mode along microchannels with 300μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.14 64
Pictures of mixing processes in the downstream region of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 500μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a side-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.15 65
Streamwise mixing efficiencies in the downstream region of the side-mode along microchannels with 500μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.16 66
Pictures of mixing processes in the downstream region of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 1000μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a side-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.17 67
Streamwise mixing efficiencies in the downstream region of the side-mode along microchannels with 1000μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.18 68
The development of the ferrofluid layer in Y-junction microchannel of 500μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a side-mode magnet:
(a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.19 69
Pictures of mixing processes of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 300μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a center-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min
Figure 3.20 70
Streamwise mixing efficiencies of the center-mode along microchannels with 300μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.21 71
Pictures of mixing processes of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 500μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a center-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.22 72
Streamwise mixing efficiencies of the center-mode along microchannels with 500μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.23 73
Pictures of mixing processes of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 1000μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a center-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min
Figure 3.24 74
Streamwise mixing efficiencies of the center-mode along microchannels with 1000μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.25 75
Pictures of mixing processes in the downstream region of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 300μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a center-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.26 76
Streamwise mixing efficiencies in the downstream region of the center-mode along microchannels with 300μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.27 77
Pictures of mixing processes in the downstream region of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 500μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a center-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.28 78
Streamwise mixing efficiencies in the downstream region of the center-mode along microchannels with 500μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.29 79
Pictures of mixing processes in the downstream region of T-junction (left) and Y-junction (right) in microchannel of 1000μm in width at different volumetric flow rates with a center-mode magnet: (a) Q=2 μl / min; (b) Q=6 μl / min; (c) Q=20 μl / min.
Figure 3.30 80
Streamwise mixing efficiencies in the downstream region of the center-mode along microchannels with 1000μm in width at different volumetric flow rates.
Figure 3.31 81
Mixing efficiencies without external magnetic field near the position of 1000μm after two fluids contact for different channels. (a)η vs. Re; (b)η vs. Pe
Figure 3.32 82
Mixing efficiencies of the center-mode near the position of 1000μm after two fluids contact for different channels. (a)η vs. Re; (b)η vs. Pe
Figure 3.33 83
Mixing efficiencies in the downstream region of the center-mode near the position of 1000μm after two fluids contact for different channels. (a)η vs. Re; (b)η vs. Pe
Figure 3.34 84
Schematic drawing of the cross-section of the ferrofluid layer within the microchannel. (a) one magnet; (b)two magnet.
Figure 4.1 95
The slug flow in T-junction microchannel. (300μm)
Qf: 5 μl / min; Qo: 5 μl / min
Figure 4.2 96
The length of slugs for T-junction microchannel (300μm).
(a)The lengths of slugs versus the flow rate of oil
(b)The lengths of slugs versus the flow rate of water-based ferrofluid
Figure 4.3 97
The length of slugs for T-junction microchannel (500μm).
(a)The lengths of slugs versus the flow rate of oil
(b)The lengths of slugs versus the flow rate of water-based ferrofluid
Figure 4.4 98
The length of slugs for T-junction microchannel (1000μm).
(a) The lengths of slugs versus the flow rate of oil
(b) The lengths of slugs versus the flow rate of water-based ferrofluid.
Figure 4.5 99
Comparison of measured results in T-junction channel among three different channel widths: (a)The length of the slugs; (b)The volume of the slugs.
Figure 4.6 100
The dimensionless lengths of slugs vs. the Weber number (We) between the T-type channels of the different widths.
(a) constant flow rates of water-based ferrofluid;
(b) constant flow rates of diesel oil
Figure 4.7 101
The dimensionless lengths of slugs vs. the Capillary number (Ca) between the T-type channels of the different widths.
(a) constant flow rates of water-based ferrofluid;
(b) constant flow rates of diesel oil
Figure 4.8 102
Geometries of the microchannels tested in the present study.
(a)cross-junction; (b)Bifurcate channel of Type-I; (c)Bifurcate channel of Type-II
Figure 4.9 103
The common patterns of the cross-junction channel at a volumetric flow rate of Qf = Qo = 5 μl / min and channel width of 500
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