跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.192.22.242) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/05 13:50
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:顏順軫
研究生(外文):Yan, Shen-Chen
論文名稱:大葉楠細胞核LEAFY基因之親緣地理與分子演化
指導教授:黃士穎
指導教授(外文):Hwang, Shih-Ying
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:生物科技研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:大葉楠台灣特有種遺傳變異中心避難所基因譜系中性假說檢測
外文關鍵詞:Machilus kusanoiLEAFY 2nd intronCHS intron
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:266
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:45
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
大葉楠 ( Machilus kusanoi ) 屬樟科 ( Lauraceae ) 楨楠屬 ( Machilus ) 植物,分布於全島平地至海拔1400 m 、低海拔闊葉林下部,為台灣闊葉林中一重要樹種之一。。其葉片為楨楠屬中較為大型,故取名為大葉楠;為台灣特有種 ( endemic ) ;大葉楠的樹皮含豐富黏質液、根可入藥;木材淡紅褐色,堅軟中庸,保存期長,加工容易,可供建築、傢具、樂器、雕刻等用途:亦具有樟科芳香。
根據文獻,溫帶物種與亞熱帶物種的遺傳變異中心並不會在同一個區域,且會因為海拔分佈而有所不同。因大葉楠為全台廣泛分佈物種,有涵蓋亞熱帶的地區、也有涵蓋溫帶地區,因此推論在冰河時期可能有不只一個的避難所存在。
本研究選用細胞核 DNA 兩段基因間序列 LEAFY 2nd intron 與 CHS intron 作為分子標記,藉由 PCR 反應擴增出大葉楠之細胞核 DNA 序列片段,定序後探討其 DNA 序列上的差異,並進行基因譜系與遺傳變異等分析。
分析結果在 LEAFY 2nd intron 片段147個樣本中,可供分析的長度為698 bp 、共有 34 個 parsimony informative sites;在 CHS intron 片段 128 個樣本裡,可供分析的長度為641 bp 、有 14 個 parsimony informative sites 。
而不論是中性假說檢測或是單套型基因譜系圖來推論,結論皆頃向大葉楠族群曾經發生過族群擴張事件。並且指出台灣西北部陽明山、苗栗一帶以及台灣東南部來義一帶之地理區域較有可能為大葉楠的起源地點,顯示大葉楠在冰河時期可能的避難所可能有兩處且分別位在台灣西北與東南部。
目 錄
頁 次
目 錄……………………………………………………………………………I
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………III
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………………V
摘 要……………………………………………………………………………VI
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………… VIII
壹、 前言…………………………………………………………………………01
貳、 前人研究……………………………………………………………………03
參、 材料和方法…………………………………………………………………16
一、 材料收集……………………………………………………………16
二、 樣本處理……………………………………………………………17
三、 樣本 DNA 萃取、定量與稀釋……………………………………17
四、 PCR ( Polymerase Chain Reaction ) 反應………………………19
五、 T-A cloning…………………………………………………………22
六、 資料分析……………………………………………………………23
1. 序列資料分析………………………………………………………23
2. 遺傳歧異度分析……………………………………………………24
3. 中性假說測試………………………………………………………26
4. 族群次結構分析……………………………………………………28
5. 族群分化值分析……………………………………………………30
6. Matel test …………………………………………………………32
7. 基因譜系分析………………………………………………………33
8. Bayesian Skyline Analysis…………………………………………35
9. Incongruence Length Difference test……………………………35
10. 族群貢獻度分析……………………………………………………35
肆、 結果…………………………………………………………………………37
伍、 討論…………………………………………………………………………44
陸、 結論…………………………………………………………………………50
柒、 參考文獻……………………………………………………………………51
捌、 表……………………………………………………………………………59
玖、 圖……………………………………………………………………………76
附 錄………………………………………………………………………………87

表 目 錄
頁 次
表一、大葉楠族群的名字、英名以及經緯度資料表 …………………………16
表二、DNA 萃取液配方…………………………………………………………59
表三、T. E. buffer 配方…………………………………………………………59
表四、PCR反應試劑 ……………………………………………………………20
表五、PCR反應流程 ……………………………………………………………21
表六、Ligation 反應試劑 ………………………………………………………60
表七、選擇性培養基配方 ………………………………………………………60
表八、Colony PCR 使用的引子序列與煉合溫度………………………………61
表九、Colony PCR 反應試劑……………………………………………………61
表十、Colony PCR 反應流程……………………………………………………61
表十一、大葉楠 LFY基因 2nd intron DNA單套型多型性位點………………62
表十二、大葉楠LFY基因 2nd intron DNA 單套型多型性位點(續)………63
表十三、 大葉楠 CHS 基因 intron DNA 單套型多型性位點 ………………64
表十四、中性假說與族群次結構分析 …………………………………………65
表十五、大葉楠各族群細胞核 CHS基因片段試驗樣本數、單套型種類以及遺傳歧異度 …………………………………………66
表十六、大葉楠各族群細胞核 LFY intron 基因片段試驗樣本數、
單套型種類以及遺傳歧異度 ………………………………………… 67
表十七、大葉楠各族群細胞核 CHS intron基因片段之NCA分析結果………68
表十八、大葉楠各族群細胞核 CHS intron基因片段之NCA分析結果分析…71
表十九、大葉楠各族群細胞核 LFY 2nd intron 基因片段之NCA分析結果 …72
表二十、大葉楠各族群細胞核 LFY 2nd intron 基因片段NCA分析結果分析 74
表二十一、大葉楠細胞核 CHS intron 基因片段之各族群 FST ………………75
表二十二、大葉楠細胞核 LFY 2ndintron 基因片段之各族群 FST ……………76

圖 目 錄
頁 次
圖一、大葉楠細胞核CHS基因單套型基因譜系關係 …………………………77
圖二、大葉楠細胞核CHS基因單套型分佈情形與其頻率 ……………………78
圖三、大葉楠細胞核CHS基因 NCA 分類圖 …………………………………79
圖四、大葉楠細胞核LFY基因單套型基因譜系關係 …………………………80
圖五、大葉楠細胞核LFY基因單套型分佈情形與其頻率 ……………………81
圖六、大葉楠細胞核LFY基因NCA分類圖……………………………………82
圖七、大葉楠族群細胞核CHS基因之 Skyline Plot …………………………83
圖八、大葉楠族群細胞核LFY 基因之 Skyline Plot …………………………83
圖九、大葉楠各族群之平均遺傳分化指數 ……………………………………84
圖十、大葉楠各族群之遺傳歧異度與對偶基因豐富度貢獻百分比 ( CHS ) 85
圖十一、大葉楠各族群之遺傳歧異度與對偶基因豐富度貢獻百分比 ( LFY ) 86
馬秋舜 (2002) 香杉微演化與親緣地理關係。中國文化大學生物科技研究所碩士論文。

吳淑華 (2004) 紅楠葉綠體 DNA 之親緣地理之研究。中國文化大學生物科技研究所碩士論文。

陳玉玲 (2005) 紅楠與大葉楠兩近源種之粒線體基因譜系。中國文化大學生物科技研究所碩士論文。

林佳佳 (2006) 牛樟之情緣地理與分子演化。中國文化大學生物科技研究所碩士論文。

Avise, J. C., Arnold, J., Bell, J.R., Bermingha, E., Lamb, T., Neigel, J. E., Reed, C.A., & Saunder, N.C. (1987) Intraspecific phylogeography: the mitochondrial DNA bridge between population genetics and systematic. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 18:489-522.

Avise, J.C. (2000) Phylogeography, the history and formation of species. Harvard university Press, Cambridge.

Alexandrino, J., Arntzen, J.W. & Ferrand, N. (2002) Nested clade analysis and the geneyic evidence for population expansion in the phylogeography of the golden-striped salamander, chioglossa lusitanica (Amphibia:Urodela). Heredity, 88:66-74.

Cros, J., Combes, M.C., Trouslot, P., Anthony, F., Hamon, S., Chrrier, A., & Lashmeres, P. (1998) Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast DNA Variation in Coffea L. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 9(1):1657-1659.

Clement, M., Posada, D. & Crandall, K.A. (2000) TCS: a comper program to estimate gene genealogies. Molecular Ecology, 9:1657-1659.

Chung, J.D., Lin, T.P., Tan, Y.C., Lin, M.Y. & Hwang, S.Y. (2004) Genetic diversity and biogeography of Cunninghamia konishii (Cupressaceae), an island species in Taiwan: A comparison with Cunninghamia lanceolate, a mainland species in China. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 33:791-801.

Cheng, Y.P., Hwang, S.Y. & Lin, T.P. (2005) Potential refugee in Taiwan revealed by the phylogeographical study of Castanopsis carlesii Hayata (Fagaceae). Molecular Ecology, 14:2075-2085.

Doly, J.J. & Doly, J. L. (1990) Isolation plant DNA from fresh tissue. Focus 12:13-15.

Drummond, A.J., Rambaut, A., Shapiro, B. & Pybus, O.G. (2005) Bayesian coalescent inference of past population dynamics from molecular sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 22(5):1185-192

Farris, J. S., Kallersjo, M., Kluge, A. G., and Bult, C. (1995) Testing significance of incongruence. Cladistics 10:315-320

FERRIS, KING, VÄINÖLÄ, HEWITT (1998) Chloroplast DNA recognizes three refugial sources of European oaks and suggests independent eastern and western immigrations to Finland. Heredity 80 (5):584–593.

Fu, Y.X. & Li, W.H. (1993) Statistical tests of neutrality of mutation. Genetics, 133:693-709.

Frohlich, M.W. & Meyerowitz, E.M. (1997) The Search for Flower Homeotic Gene Homologs in Basal Angiosperms and Gnetales: A Potential New Source of Data on the Evolutionary Origin of Flowers. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 158:S131-S142.

Forcioli D.,Saumitou-Laprade P.,Valero M.,Vernet P.& Cuguen J. (1998) Distribution of chloroplast DNA diversity within and among populations in gynodioecious Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima (Chenopodiaceae). Molecular Ecology 7(9):1193-1204

Frohlich, M.W. & Parker, D.S. (2000) The Mostly Male Theory of Flower Evolutionary Origins: from Genes to Fossils. Systematic Botany, 25:155-170

Grob, G.B.J., Gravendeel, B. & Eurlings, M.C.M. (2004) Potential phylogenetic utility of the nuclear FLORICAULA/LEAFY second intron: comparison with three chloroplast DNA regions in Amorphophallus (Araceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 30:13–23.
Hastings, W. K. (1970) Monte Carlo sampling methods using Markov chains and their applications. Biometrika 57(1):97-109

Hulbert, S. H. (1971) The non-concept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology 52:577–586

Hewitt, G.M. (1996) Some genetic consequences of ice ages, and their role in divergence and speciation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 58:247-276

Hiramatsu, M., K. Ii, H. Okubo, K. L. Huang and C. W. Huang. (2001) Biogiography and origin of Lilium longiflorum and L. formosanum(Liliaceae)endemic to the Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan as determined by allozyme diversity. American Journal of Botany, 88(7):1230-1239.

Huang, S.F., Hwang, S.Y., Wang J.C. & Lin, T.P. (2004) Phylogeography of Trochodendron aralioides (Trochodendraceae) in Taiwan and its adjacent areas. Journal of Biogeography 31: 1251-1259.

King, J.L. & Jukes, T.H. (1969) Non-Darwing evolution. Science, 164:788-789.

Kimura, M. (1968) Evolutionary rate at the molecular level. Nature 217:624-626.

Kimura, M. (1983) Rare variant alleles in the light of neutral theory. Molecular biology and evolution, 1:84-93.

Le Corre V., Dumolin-Lapègue S. & Kremer A. (1997) Genetic variation at allozyme and RAPD loci in sessile oak Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.: the role of history and geography. Molecular Ecology 6:519-529

Lin, T.P., Cheng, Y.P. & Huang, S.G. (1997) Allozyme variation of four geographical areas of Cinnamomun kanehirae. Journal of Heredity 88: 433-438.

Lin, T.P. (2001) Allozyme variation of Michelia formosana (Kanehira) Masamune (Magnoliaceae), and inference of the glacial refugium in Taiwan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 102 (2-3): 450-457.

Montieri, S. & Aceto, S. (2004) Isolation of the LFY/FLO homologue in Orchis italica and evolutionary analysis in some European orchids. Gene, 333:101–109

Nei, M. (1937) Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 70:3321-3323.

Nei M (1987) Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Columbia University Press, New-York.

Nei, M. & Li, W.S. (1979) Mathematical Model for Studying Genetic Variation in Terms of Restriction Endonucleases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 76:5269-5273.

Nei, M. & Chesser, R.K. (1983) Estimation of fixation indices and gene diversities. Annals of human Genetics, 47:253-259

Okuyama Y.,Fujii N., Wakabayashi M., Kawakita A.,Ito M., Watanabe M., Murakami N. and Kato M. (2005) Nonuniform Concerted Evolution and Chloroplast Capture: Heterogeneity of Observed Introgression Patterns in Three Molecular Data Partition Phylogenies of Asian Mitella (Saxifragaceae). Molecular Biology and Evolution 22(2):285-296

Oh, S.H. & Potter, D. (2003) Phylogenetic utility of the second intron of LEAFY in Neillia and Stephanandra (Rosaceae) and implications for the origin of Stephanandra. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 29:203-215.

Petit, El M. & Pons. 1998. Identifying populations for conservation on the basis of genetic markers. Conservation Biology 12:44-855.

Thompson J. D., Higgins D. G. and Gibson T. J. (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22:4673-4680

Tajima, F. & Nei M. (1984) Estimation of evolutionary distance between nucleotide sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 1:269-285.

Tajima, F. (1993) Measurement of DNA polymorphism. Mechanisms of Molecular Evolution.

Tsukada, M. (1966) Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate in Taiwan (Formosa) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 55:543-548.

Theiβen G. (2001) Development of floralorgan identity: Stories from the MADS house. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 4: 75~85.

Rozas J., and Rozas R. (1999) DnaSP version 3: an integrated program for molecular population genetics and molecular evolution analysis. Bioinformatics 15: 174-175.

Strand, A.E., Leebens-Mack, J., and Milligan, B. G. (1997) Nuclear DNA-based markers for plant evolutionary biology. Molecular Ecology. 6:113-118.

Veit, J., Wagner, E., & Albrechtová T.P. J. (2004) Isolation of a FLORICAULA/LEAFY putative orthologue from Chenopodium rubrum and its expression during photoperiodic flower induction. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 42:573-578

Watterson, G. A. (1975). On the number of segregating sites in genetical models without recombination. Theoretical Population Biology 7:256-276.

Wolf P. G., Murray R. A., Sipes S. D. (1997) Species-independent, geographical structuring of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in a montane herb Ipomopsis (Polemoniaceae). Molecular Ecology 6(3):283–291.

Wu, J.E., S. Huang, J.C. Wang, and W.F. Tong. 2001. Allozyme variation and the genetic structure of populations of Trochodendron aralioides, a monotypic and narrow geographic genus. Journal of Plant Research, 114: 45-57.

Yang, J., Huang, J., Yang, G., Zhong, Y., and Yang, Z. (2002) Duplication and adaptive evolution of Chalcone Synthase Genes of Dendranthema (Asteraceae). Molecular Biology and Evolution 19(10):1752-1759
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top