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研究生:胡峻諺
研究生(外文):Hu Chun-Yen
論文名稱:具有最佳熱穩定度的完全矽化鎳做為CMOS閘極矽化金屬材料之研究
論文名稱(外文):Formation of a thermal stable NiSi for CMOS gate electrode application
指導教授:譚湘瑜
指導教授(外文):S.Y.Tan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:材料科學與奈米科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:56
中文關鍵詞:矽化鎳薄膜結塊NiSi
外文關鍵詞:agglomerationCMOS
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NiSi 是目前被公認為金屬化製程最有淺力的材料,它吸引的地方包含了在線寬 65nm 甚至是 45nm 以下和原極(source)/及極(drain)有很好的接觸電阻。 NiSi 其中一項特點是它消耗較少的矽,並且效能(Capability)在線寬低於 0.1μm 時還能保持很低的電阻。但是在熱穩定性方面溫度在750℃ 時高電阻相 NiSi2 則產生,甚至低於 600℃ 時薄膜結塊(agglomeration)發生。為了要解決此問題以及增加鎳矽化物的熱穩定性,我將在我實驗中做兩段式退火(2-step Annealing)加上對於鎳沉積不同的厚度來使 NiSi2 的形成延後到 900℃。本論文將以材料分析的觀點出發,使用四點探針、XRD 和 AFM 來做探討。
許多關於閘極金屬化製程的探討一一呈現,特別注重在小線寬 NiSi 相的控制。最佳狀態的 NiSi 是我們要形成在閘極上的矽化物,在較長的線寬下很容易形成,小線寬則會變成所謂的金屬豐富的情形(Ni-rich),原因要歸類到鎳和矽的沉積厚度比(一般我們稱為ratio),在小線寬閘極上鎳擴散跟矽反應成 NiSi。鎳矽化物在小線寬中會讓 Vt(臨界電壓) 造成浮動,使得不同 work function 在 Ni silicide 出現,因此讓人對於 HfSiON dielectrics 產生進一步的研究。二段式退火目的就是要解決NiSi 在所有線寬上的形成能夠穩定。
The interest in the low resistivity NiSi increased significantly because of promising in use as contact to the source, drain, and gate of sub-65 nm and 45 nm CMOS devices. NiSi is potentially an attractive material due to its less consumption of Si, and its capability to maintain low resistivity even for line-width down to 0.1μm. However, the thermal stability of NiSi is worse as the high resistivity phase of NiSi2 nucleates at about 750℃ and film agglomeration occurs even at a temperature as low as 600℃. In order to obtaining a thermally stable Ni-FUSI gate electrode, we introduced a two-step annealing process associating with properly tuned thickness of the initial Ni film to push the transformation of NiSi2 to higher temperatures at about 900℃. Several measurement techniques such as XRD, AFM, and resitivity are carried out to demonstrate its physical and electrical properties.
A study of the implementation of Ni fully silicided (FUSI) gates to scaled devices is presented, addressing the issue of phase control at short gate lengths. A linewidth effect for Ni FUSI gates is found for non-optimized processes targeting NiSi, with formation of NiSi at long gate lengths and Ni-rich silicides at short gate lengths. This is attributed to Ni diffusion from areas surrounding the gates, resulting in a larger reacted Ni–Si ratio at short gate lengths. The linewidth dependence of the Ni FUSI phase results in an undesirable kink in the Vt roll-off characteristics, due to the difference in effective work function between the Ni silicide phases, which is particularly large for HfSiON dielectrics. An optimized 2-step RTP silicidation process is shown to eliminate this problem allowing the formation of NiSi gates uniformly at all gate lengths.
Silicide formation induced by thermal annealing in Ni-Si thin film system has been investigated using glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) Silicide formation takes place at 600℃ with Ni2Si, NiSi and NiSi2 phases co-existing with Ni. Complete conversion of intermediate silicide phases to the final NiSi2 phase takes place at 900℃. Atomic force microscopy measurements have revealed the coalescence of pillar-like structures to ridge-like structures upon silicidation. A comparison of the experimental results in terms of the evolution of various silicide phases is presented.. However, the thermal stability of NiSi is still a significant problem. Degradation in sheet resistance of Ni silicide is originated from phase transition from NiSi to NiSi2 or agglomeration of the silicide layers. We noticed the phenomenon that the sheet resistance increased irregularly at the temperature region for the phase transition, that is, the peak characteristics appeared in the transformation curve of sheet resistance.
目 錄
中文摘要 ………………………………………………………… 1
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………… 2
誌謝 ………………………………………………………… 4
第一章、緒論 …………………………………………………… 6
第二章、研究動機
2.1 文獻回顧……………………………………………… 9
2.2 鎳矽化物用於小線寬閘極相的變化………………… 12
2.3 鎳矽化物的熱穩定性在X-ray中的分析與探討…… 15
2.4 利用AFM對鎳矽化物薄膜的觀察………………………… 18
第三章 實驗
3.1實驗流程……………………………………………… 20
3.2形成FUSI鎳矽化物時不規則的電阻值變化………… 24
3.3 AFM 分析……………………………………………… 35
3.4 XRD 分析……………………………………………… 45
第四張 總結……………………………………………………… 50
參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 53
作者簡介…………………………………………………………… 55
參考文獻
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