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研究生:謝穎文
研究生(外文):Hsieh Ying-Wen
論文名稱:「個體的人」之生成與消逝-阿巴卡諾薇茲作品中人的處境
論文名稱(外文):The becoming and vanishing process of the single individual: Human condition in Abakanowicz's art
指導教授:林金標林金標引用關係井迎兆井迎兆引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin Chin-PiaoJing Yng-Jaw
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:藝術研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:美術學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:161
中文關鍵詞:個體的人人的處境編織雕塑
外文關鍵詞:the single individualhuman conditionweavingsculpture
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阿巴卡諾薇茲(Magdalena Abakanowicz, 1930-)是20世紀波蘭藝術家,以作品「阿巴肯」及「無頭人」等系列吸引世人的關注。作品除了展現自然語言的強烈張力之外,更因其自身生長於戰亂以及戰後波蘭的特殊背景,使得作品表現出的真實感,迫使人重新思索人生各樣處境,並追尋生之起源,重新思索生而為人的真義。她並且發現,人與自然存在著一種巧妙的關係,與自然的和諧與親近,似乎能夠促使人進入與未知的造物主的更深一層關係。這層關係的重建,能夠使得在戰爭中受迫害的人獲得情緒上的醫治,以及精神層面深刻的滿足,並且更進一步使人恢復生而為人的角色定位與確認。
這樣的概念,與19世紀的宗教哲學家祁克果(Søren Kierkegaard, 1813-1855)所提出的「個體的人」(the single individual)不謀而合。所謂「個體的人」,指的是在個人的不同層面,與自己發展出整體的和諧關係,同時也與造物主建立起個人性關係的人。因此,「個體的人」在生存的層面上,能夠真實地面對各種生存處境;在信仰面上,因著與造物主恢復和諧的關係,使自己與永恆接軌,進入靈性更深層的滿足。「個體的人」因者這兩方面的啟動,能夠真正明白自己身而為人的真意,並且奮力落實出來。
祁克果與阿巴卡諾薇茲同時假定宇宙中有一位最高的存有者,即宇宙的造物主,人若與這位存有者建立起個人性的關係,就能回歸生而為人的身份認同,並獲得心靈最深的醫治與滿足。本文從阿巴卡諾薇茲的藝術歷程切入,在作品分析中找到她對生命追尋的軌跡,以及她對人之處境的描述,最後透過祁克果對「個體的人」之定義,嘗試剖析阿巴卡諾薇茲作品所呈現的人。探究阿巴卡諾薇茲作品中的人,是逐漸往「個體的人」生成的目標邁進,或是逐漸消逝,與自我漸行漸遠。
Polish artist Magdalena Abakanowicz (1930- ) is one of the most important artists of the 20th century as shown by works such as “Abakans” and “Crowds” which have attracted worldwide attention. Because of her experience growing up during the chaos of war and afterwards, her art not only displays the acute tension of the language of nature, but a realism is also present in her works which forces people to ponder the human condition, search for the source of life, and reconsider the true meaning of being human . Abakanowicz believes that there exists an amazing connection between man and the nature. It seems that by living in harmony with and drawing close to nature, people may be able to enter into a deeper level of relationship with the unknown creator. Through this restored relationship, people who suffered persecution during wartime can obtain emotional healing as well as spiritual fulfillment. Furthermore, they can take a step further into restoring the meaning and certainty of what it means to be human.
Abakanowicz’s thinking happens to be very similar to a concept called “the single individual” which was brought up by 19th century religious philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855). The person who is referred to as the single individual is one who has concurrently established a complete and harmonious relationship with himself and a personal relationship with the creator. Consequently, from an existential aspect the single individual is able to realistically face any kind of situation encountered in life; from a religious aspect, due to the restored harmonious relationship with the creator, he is able to connect to the eternal and enter into a deeper level of spiritual fulfillment. Inspired in these two ways, not only can the single individual understand what it truly means to be human, but also live it out in actual practice.
Both Abakanowicz and Kierkegaard presuppose that there is a supreme existential being in the universe and that He is the creator of the universe. If man establishes a personal relationship with the highest being, he will be able to return to his true identity as a human being and obtain the deepest level of spiritual healing and fulfillment. This paper will start with a survey of Abakanowicz’s artistic career. Next, her works will be examined in-depth to uncover signs of her search for life as well as the ways she describes the human condition. Lastly, this paper will analyze human beings as they appear in Abakanowicz’s works according to Kierkegaard’s definition of “the single individual.” Through this analysis, one may see whether the humans in her artwork are in the process of becoming single individuals, or are gradually vanishing and increasingly distancing themselves from their identities.
第一章 序論…………………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究動機與目的
第二節 研究方法與限制
第二章 阿巴卡諾薇茲的藝術歷程…………………………………………………7
第一節 童年時期
第二節 求學時期
第三節 編織藝術創作期
第四節 多元媒材創作期
第三章 阿巴卡諾薇茲的作品與其藝術思維………………………………………23
第一節 構思與製作過程
第二節 作品呈現
第三節 藝術思維
第四章 阿巴卡諾薇茲作品中人之處境……………………………………………82
第一節 社會政治觀點
第二節 原始主義與人類學觀點
第三節 基督教觀點
第五章 阿巴卡諾薇茲作品中個體的人之處境…………………………………122
第一節 個體的人提出的時代背景
第二節 個體的人之內涵
第三節 個體的人與群體
第四節 系列作品中個體的人
第五節 個體的人之生成與消逝
第六章 結論………………………………………………………………………154
中文書目
巴刻( J. I. Packer) 。《認識人》(For Man’s Sake)。藍慈理譯。台北:基督橄欖文化,民94。
伊利亞德(Mircea Eliade)。《聖與俗—宗教的本質》(The Sacred And The Profane: The Nature of Religion )。楊素娥譯。台北:桂冠圖書,民89。
吳東辰。《心理分析與齊克果之存在概念》。台北:台灣商務,民77。
祁克果(Søren Kierkegaard)。《克爾凱戈爾日記選》。上海:上海社會科學院出版社,民91。
孫毅。《個體的人—祁克果的基督教生存論思想》。北京:中國社會科學出版社,民93。
唐崇榮。《神的形性─人性的尊嚴與危機》。台北:中福出版社,民92。
黃文叡。《現代藝術啟示錄》。台北:藝術家出版社,民91。
蔡美珠。《齊克果存在概念—一個人性論的探究》。台北:水牛圖書,民75。
蘇珊理安德森(Susan Leigh Anderson)。《克爾凱歌爾》(On Kierkegaard)。瞿旭彤譯。北京:中華書局,民93。
《文馨最新英漢辭典》,台北:文馨出版社,民76。
《聖經》,新標點和合本。香港:聖經公會,民92。

西文書目
Abakanowicz Magdalena, Magdalena Abakanowicz: Organic Structures and Human Forms. London: exhibition catalogue. Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1975.
Barbara, Rose. Magdalena Abakanowicz. New York: Harry N. Abrams, INC., 1994.
Barbara, Rose. Magdalena Abakanowic: about human condition. Texas: Gerald Peters Gallery & New Mexico: Pillsbury and Peters Fine Art, 2001.
Brenson, Michael. Abakanowicz. Providence: Museum of Art, Rhode Island school of Design& University Park: Palmer Museum of Art, the Pennsylvania State University & Greensboro: Weatherspoon Art Gallery, the University of North Carolina, 1993-1994.
Gori, Giuliano. Magdalena Abakanowicz: Working Process E Non Solo, bilingual edition. Italy: Gli Ori Publishers, 2006.
Inglot, Joanna. The Figurative Sculpture of Magdalena Abakanowicz. California: University of California, 2004.
Reichardt, Jasia. Magdalena Abakanowicz. New York: Abbeville Press, 1992.

中文期刊
李亞明。〈論人對意義的主體性決定〉。《哲學與文化》。23卷第3期。民國85年3月。
潘能伯格(Wolfhart Pannenberg)。〈人的天命〉。《基督教文化評論》。第21期。民國93年秋。頁77-92。
劉明惠。〈提出生命的大問號—波蘭雕塑藝術家馬格達莉娜‧阿巴卡諾薇芝〉。《藝術家》。第360期。民國94年5月。

西文期刊
Abakanowicz Magdalena and Bumpus Judith. ”Rope Environments” Art and Artists 103, 9, 7, (London) (October, 1974), p36-41.
Abakanowicz, Magdalena. “Magdalena Abakanowicz: Organic Structures and Human Forms,” (London: exhibition catalogue, Whitechapel Art Gallery,1975), p.2.
Bass, Ruth. “Magdalena Abakanowicz,” Art News, (February, 1990), p.151.
Beck, Ernest. “Magdalena Abakanowicz,” Artnews, (October, 1987), p.202.
Brenson, Micheal.”Magdalena Abakanowicz,” The New York Times,(Nov30, 1989), p30.
Castro, Jan Garden. “Magdalena Abakanowicz,” The new art examiner, (October, 1993), p.47.
Dornberg, John. “One way to create fine art is to take the greatest risks,” (Smithsonian, April, 1984), p.118.
Heartney, Eleanow. “Figures of the apocalypse,” Artnews, (September, 1993) p167.
Larson, Kay. “The trees of life,” New York, (June, 1993), p.59.
Plagens, Peter.“Sculpture to the point- Abakanowicz shines in two shows,” Newsweek, (May 31, 1993), p.58.
Princenthal, Nancy. “Abakanowicz: Memories and monuments,” Art in America, (March, 1990), p.181.
Reagan, Upshaw. “Magdalena Abakanowicz at Fourcade,” Art in America, (December, 1985), p.125.

網路資料
劉星雨,〈波蘭入會啟示錄(上)---走出歷史 波蘭趕搭歐盟列車〉, 《巴黎瞭望》110期,2002年10月16日。Yahoo奇摩搜尋:http://www.ieatpe.org.tw/magazine/110f.htm,2006/06/30。
Author unknown, “Headless Wanderers.” Culture.pl. Online. Internet. 24, Jul, 2006. Available. http://www.culture.pl/en/culture/artykuly/wy_wy_abakanowicz_nierozpoznani_poznan
Author unknown, “Recent acquistions,” Watherspoon art museum. Online. Internet. 24, Jul, 2006. Available. http://weatherspoon.uncg.edu/collections/recent_acquisitions.html
Author unknown, “Magdalena Abakanowicz,” Milwaukee art museum. Online. Internet. 24,Jul,2006. Available. http://www.mam.org/collections/contemporaryart_detail_abakanowicz.htm
Author unknown, “The collection,” Europe Parkas. Online Internet. 12, Jul, 2006. Available.http://www.europosparkas.lt/English/collection.html
Pittard, Hannah. ”Sculpture confronts ‘solitude in the multitudes.’” The Cronicle. 20, Feb, 2004. Online. Internet. 29, Sep, 2006. Available. http//:www.thecampuschronicle.com/arts/profiles/040220.cfm
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