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研究生:黃湘瑀
研究生(外文):Huang Hsiang-yu
論文名稱:《夜未央》中的現代化與毀滅:佛洛依德式閱讀法
論文名稱(外文):Modernity and Degeneration in Fitzgerald's Tender Is The Night: A Freudian Reading
指導教授:祁夫潤祁夫潤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jerome F. Keating
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:英國語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
外文關鍵詞:modernityjazzflappersdegenerationpsychologyFreud
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夜未央是描述一位心理醫師狄克將自己毀掉的故事,作者費茲傑羅在這本小說裡探討現代社會裡會碰到的許多議題,並將故事背景著重在上流社會。在這樣危險且複雜的社會裡,作者本身也無法抗拒這種致命吸引力;他不僅描述小說裏奢侈揮霍的生活方式也呈現出這個物質社會的黑暗面。首先,這篇論文將採用相關文化背景來述說第一次世界大戰後工業及科技的進步與興盛,就在此同時人們卻面臨信心的喪失進而鼓吹從社會限制裡解放。
接著,由於戰爭所伴隨來的創傷及不斷快速進步的現代社會,傳統價值觀消失殆盡;狄克和其他小說人物面臨許多各式各樣的社會和心理衝突。在論文第二章裡,先介紹心理分析接著採用佛洛伊德的本我、自我及超我,及其他延伸的概念來討論這本小說裡的道德議題及現象。在這變動且道德觀形同喪失的富裕社會裡,生存課題將是這些小說人物不可避免碰到的。生存自古以來是人類很重要的主題,而其成功與否主要取決於個人的種種條件和想法,很明顯地,這本小說裡具體呈現自私的本我角色人物反而有利於生存在這樣的社會裡。
最後,由於心理學是用來分析人的內心,所以在論文第三章中將更深入探討狄克及其相關角色的內心想法和所表現出來的行為。生活在奢華墮落的世界而不迷失自我是一項很艱鉅的挑戰,那些能夠生存下來的角色是由於他們具備了認清自我價值及可辯護的自私能力,換句話說也就是所謂的適者生存。顯而易見的是,在費茲傑羅小說中,女性角色似乎較男性角色來的適應生存在這墮落且混亂的時代。
Depicting a psychiatrist’s downfall in a material world, Tender Is the Night discusses many issues that a modern society will encounter, and Fitzgerald especially puts emphasis on the rich people’s world. With so many dangers and contradictions within it, Fitzgerald himself cannot resist describing the fatal attraction which the upper class experiences. He not only depicts the extravagant lifestyles that his characters live, Fitzgerald also reveals the dark side of the material world. Adopting relevant cultural backgrounds, the thesis first examines the quick advance and bloom of technology and industries after the war; because of losing faith, people advocate the freedom from constraints.
Moreover, with trauma brought along with the war and the overly fast speed modernity, the traditional values are gone. Dick Diver and other characters face many social and psychological conflicts and problems. Chapter two starts from Freud’s theory of id, ego, and superego and then goes to other expanded ideas to discuss the immoral issues and phenomena in the novel. Living in a changing and affluent society with the disappearance of morality, Dick and others have to face the inevitable task of survival, a survival that favors those culturally designated to roles of the childlike id. Survival which greatly depends on the individual has been always an important subject for human beings.
Finally, since psychology is used to analyze human inner world, there is a more thorough observation of characters’ inner thoughts and their performing acts. Living in a luxurious and dissolute world without losing oneself is a difficult challenge, and many people cannot make it. It is only self-worth and justifiable selfishness that can help one survive since only the fittest survive. Apparently, in Fitzgerald’s work the women prove more adept at surviving than the men.
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Chapter Two: America after World War I
I. The Prosperity of Social constructions 6
II. The Moral-Crisis World in Favor of Id Types 14
Chapter Three: Psychoanalytic Criticism
I. The Introduction of Psychoanalysis 23
II. Symptoms Applied to Freud’s Theories 32
Chapter Four: Analysis of Characters’ Psychology
I. Men as Either Rescuers or Exemplary in Their Talents 44
II. Women as New Unstable Forces Striving for Survival 59
Chapter Five: Conclusion 73
Works Cited 76
Bibliography 81
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