( 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/03 06:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::


研究生(外文):Shan-Shan Lu
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship between Psychological Contract Breach, Emotional Labor and Emotional Exhaustion.
指導教授(外文):Shao-Lung Lin
外文關鍵詞:psychological contract breachemotional exhaustion
  • 被引用被引用:12
  • 點閱點閱:614
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:194
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
Today the relationship between organizations and employees are no more stable than the past, the labor contracts standardize the rights and obligations. The psychological contract is a specific contract, it is an employee's belief abut the mutual obligations. Many enterprises carries out the restructuring and downsizing to promote their competition in these latter years, but these strategies ignore the value of the employees. Therefore, the employees and organizations have to use psychological contract to maintain the relationships. When the employee has psychological contract breach, it may influence his behaviors and reduced the employee's belief and loyalty and so on. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship among psychological contract breach (PCB), emotional labor (EL) and Emotional Exhaustion (EE) about first line employees. The study adopted anonymous questionnaires, the data samples were 273 first line employees, and the response rate was 87.91%. The results are as follows:
1. PCB did not affect surface acting, but influenced deep acting negatively.
2. Surface acting did not affect EE, but deep acting influenced EE negatively.
3. PCB influenced EE directly.
4. Above results was run by path analysis revealed the intervening variable (deep acting) had obvious impact on PCB and EE.
The authors discussed the implications for theory and practices, and suggestions for the further study.
中文摘要 .................... iii
英文摘要 .................... iv
誌謝辭  .................... v
內容目錄 .................... vi
表目錄  .................... viii
圖目錄  .................... ix
第一章 緒論................... 1
第一節 研究背景............... 1
第二節 研究問題與目的............ 2
第三節 研究架構............... 5
第二章 文獻探討................. 6
第一節 情緒勞動............... 6
第二節 心理契約缺口............. 22
第三節 情緒耗竭............... 31
第四節 研究假設............... 37
第三章 研究方法................. 41
第一節 研究樣本與資料收集.......... 41
第二節 變數的操作性定義與衡量........ 45
第三節 資料分析............... 49
第四節 信度與效度分析............ 52
第四章 實證結果................. 57
第一節 相關分析............... 57
第二節 研究假設之驗證結果.......... 59
第五章 結論與建議................ 65
第一節 研究結論............... 65
第二節 管理意涵............... 68
第三節 研究限制與未來建議.......... 70
參考文獻..................... 71
附錄A 員工問卷................ 85


Adelmann, P. K., & Zajonc, R.B. (1989). Facial effects and the experience of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 249-280.

Argyris, C. P. (1960). Understanding organizational behavior. Homewood Dorsey Press, 12(1), 22-26.

Arvey, R. D., Renz, G. L., & Watson, T. W. (1998). Emotionality and job performance: Implications for personnel selection. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 16, 103-147.

Ashforh, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.

Ashforh, B. E., & Tomiuk, M. A. (2000). Emotional labor and authenticity: Views from service agents. Emotion in organizations, (pp. 184-203). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986).The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Bettencourt, L. A., Gwinner K. P., & Meuter, M. L. (2001). A Comparison of Attitude, Personality, and Knowledge Predictors of Service-Oriented Organizational CitizenshipBehaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (1), 29-41.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.

Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of “people work”. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 17-39.

Brotheridge, C., & Lee, R. (1998). On the dimensionality of emotional labor: Development and validation of an emotional labor scale. Paper presented at the First Conference on Emotions in Organizational Life, San Diego, CA.
Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2002). Testing a conservation of resources model of the dynamics of emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(1), 57-67.

Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2003). Development and validation of the emotional labor scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 365-379.

Brooks, L., (1999), Organizational Behavior, London: Pitman.

Burke, R.J., & Richardsen, A.M. (1993). Psychological burnout in organizations. Unpublished manuscript, York University, Toronto, Canada.

Cherniss, C.(1980). Staff Burnout: Job Stress in the Human Services. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Cheuk, W. H., Wong, K.S., & Rosen. S. (1994). The effects of spurning and social support on teacher burnout. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 9, 657-664.

Chrobot-Mason, D. L. (2002). Keeping the promise. Journal of Management Psychology, 18(3), 22-45.

Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and integration of research on job burnout. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 621-656.
Cote, S. (2005). A social international model of the effects of emotion regulation on work strain. Academy of Management Review, 30(5), 509-530.

Coyle-Shapiro, J. (2000). Consequences of the psychological contract for the employment relationship. The Journal of Management Studies, 37(7), 903-930.

Cropanzano, R., Howes, J., Gandey, A., & Toth, P. (1997). The relationship of organizational politics and support to work behaviors, attitudes, and stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 159-180.

Davis, K. & Newstrom, J. W. (1989). Human behavior at work. Organizational Behavior, 8(1), 25-34.

Diefendorff, J. M., Croyle M. H., & Gosserand, R. H. (2005). The dimensionality and antecedents of emotional labor strategies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 339-357.

Eiseberger, R., Cummngs, J., Armeli, & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived organizational support, discretionary treatment, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 812-820.

Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975). Unmasking the face. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Etzion, D., & Westman, M. (1994). Social support and sense of control as moderators of the stress-burnout relationship in military careers. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 9, 639-656.

Frank, M. G., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1993). Behavioral markers and recognizability of the smile of enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(1), 83-89.

Freudenberger, H. J.(1974). Staff burnout. Journal of Social Issues, 30(1), 159-165.

Gakovic, A., & Tetrick, L. E. (2003). Psychological contract breach as a source of strain for employees. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(2), 235-247.

Goffman, E. (1959). Presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Overlook Press.

Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotion regulation in the workplace: a new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95-110.

Grandey, A. A. (2003). When “the show must go on”: surface acting and deep acting as determinants of emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery. Academy of Management Journal, 46(1), 86-96.
Gross, J. J. (1998a). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 271-299.

Gross, J. J. (1998b). Antecedent-focused and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequence for experience, experience, and physiology. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 74(1), 224-237.

Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348-362.

Grove, S. J., & Fisk, R. P. (1989). Impression management in services marketing: a dramaturgical perspective. In R. A. Giacalone & P. Rosenfeld (Eds.), Impression management in the organization (pp. 427-438). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hobfoll, G. H. (1989). Conservation of resources: a new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513-524.

Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: the commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Howes, J., Cropanzano, R., Gandey, A., & Mohler, C. (1999). Who is supporting whom? Quality team effectiveness and perceived organizational support. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Academy of Management, Chicago, IL.

James, N. (1989). Emotional labor: skill and work in the social regulation of feelings. Sociogical Review, 37, 15-42.

Jackson, S. E., Scheab, R. L., & Schuler, R. S. (1986). Toward an understanding of the burnout phenomenon. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 630-640.

Kickul, J., & Lester, S. W. (2001). Broken promises: Equity sensitivity as a moderator between psychological contract breach and employee attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(2), 191-217.

King, L. A., & Emmons, R. A. (1990). Conflict over emotional expression: Psychological and physical correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 864-877.

Kozlowski, S. W. J., Chao, G. T.,Smith, E. M., & Hedlund, J. (1993).Organizational downsizing: Strategies, interventions, and research implications. In Cooper, C. L. and Roberson I. T (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 8, 263-332.

Krumal, S., & Geddes, D. (1998). Exploring the dimensions of emotional labor: the heart of Hochschild’s work. Paper presented at the First Conference of Emotions in Organizational Life, San Diego, CA.

Krumal, S., & Geddes, D. (2000). Exploring the dimensions of emotional labor: The heart of Hochschild’s work. Management Communication Quarterly, 14, 8-49.

Laub. A. (1998). Isolation in the secondary school as a predictor of teacher burnout. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. State University of New York at Albany.

Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of correlates of the three dimension of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(2), 123-133.

Levinson, H. (1962). Men management and metal health. MA: Harvard University Press.

Lo, S., & Aryee, S. (2003). Psychological contract breach in a Chinese context: An integrative approach. Journal of management studies, 40(3), 1005-1020.

Low, G. S., Cravens, D. W., Grant, K., & Moncrief, W. C. (2001). Antecedents and consequences of salesperson burnout. European Journal of Marketing, 35, 587-614.

Lucero, M. A., & Allen, R. E. (1994). Employee benefits: A growing source of psychological contract violations. Human Resource Management, 33(3), 425-446.

Maslach, C. (1976). Burnout. Human Behavior, 5, 16-22.

Maslach, C. (1982). Burnout: The Cost of Caring. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1984). Burnout in Organizational Settings. In Oskamp, S. (Eds.), Applied Social Psychology Annual 5. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE Publication.

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS). In C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter, Maslach burnout inventory manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologist Press.

Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P (1997). The truth about burnout: How organization causes personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.

Maslach, C., Leiter, M., Schaufeli, W. (2001), "Job burnout", Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422.

Mazur, P. J., & Lynch, M. D. (1989). Differential impact of administrative, organizational, and personality factors on teacher burnout. Teaching and Teacher Education, 5, 337-353.
Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1996). The dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor. Academy of Management Review, 21(4), 986-1010.

Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1997). Managing emotions in the workplace. Journal of Managerial Issues, 9(3), 257-274.

Morrison, E. W., & Robinson, S. L. (1997).When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops, Academy of Management Review, 22, 226-256.

Northcraft, G. B., & Neale, M. A. (1994). Organizational behavior: A management challenge. The Dryden Press.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41-50.

Parkinson, B. (1991). Emotional stylists: Strategies of expressive management among trainee hairdressers. Cognition and Emotion, 5, 419-434.

Perlman, B. and Hartman, A. E. (1982). Burnout: Summary and Future Research. Human Relations, 35, 283-305.
Pines, A. M., & Aronson, E. (1988). Career burnout: Causes and cures. New York: Free Press.

Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. I. (1987). Expression of emotion as part of the workrole. Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 23-37.

Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. I. (1989). The expression of emotion in organizational life. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, 11, 1-42. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Richards, J. M., & Gross, J. J. (2000). Emotion regulation and memory: The cognitive costs of keeping one's cool. Journal of Personality and Social Psyology, 79, 410-424.

Robbins, S. P. (1993). Organizational behavior: Concept, controversies, and applications (6th ed. ). Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice-Hill.

Robinson, S. L. (1996). Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(4), 574-599.

Robinson, S. L., Kraatz, M. S., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994). Changing obligation and the psychological contract : A longitudinal study. Academy Of Management Journal, 37, 137-152.

Rousseau, D. M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 8(2), 121-139.

Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Contract making, psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.

Rousseau, D. M. and Parks, J.M. (1993). The contracts of individuals and organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 15, 1-43.

Schein, V. E. (1980). Examining an illusion: The role of deceptive behaviors in organizations. Human Relations, 32(4), 287-291.

Schneider, B. (1990). The climate for service: An application of the climate construct. In B. Schneider (Ed.), Organizational climate and culture (pp. 383-412).

Shore, L.M., & Barksdale, K. (1998). Examining degree of balance and level of obligation in the employment relationship: A social exchange approach. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 731-744.

Shore, L. M., & Tetrick, L. E. (1994). The psychological contract as an explanatory framework in the employment relationship. Journal of organizational behavior, 91-109.
Tetrick, L. E., & LaRocco, J. M. (1987). Understanding, prediction, and control as moderators of the relationships between perceived stress, satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 538-543.

Turnley, W. H. & Feldman, D. C. (1998). Psychological contract violations during corporate restructuring. Human Resources Management, 37, 71-83.

Turnley, W. H. & Feldman, D. C. (1999). The impact of psychological contract violations on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Human Relations, 52, 895-922.

Turnley, W. H. & Feldman, D. C. (2000). Re-examining the effects of psychological contract violations: Unmet expectations and job dissatisfaction as mediators. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(1), 25-42.

Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 82-111.

Wharton, A. S. (1993). The affective consequences of service work: Managing emotions on the job. Work and Occupation, 20, 205-232.

Wright, T. S., & Bonett, D. G. (1997). The contribution of burnout to work performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(5), 491-499.

Wright, T. A. & Cropanzano, R. (1998). Emotional exhaustion as a predictor of job performance and voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 486-493.

Zerbe, W. J. (2000). Emotional dissonance and well-being.In N. M. Ashkanasy, C. E. J. Hartel, & W. J. Zerbe(Eds.), Emotional in the workplace: Research and practice (pp. 189-214). Westport, CT: Quorum Books/Greenwood.
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top