跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.124.56) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/31 07:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:鄭雅筠
研究生(外文):Ya-Yun Cheng
論文名稱:情境因素影響環境態度與破壞行為關係之研究-以陽明山國家公園遊客亂丟垃圾行為為例
論文名稱(外文):Situations, Environmental Attitudes and Vandalism: A Case Study of Littering in Yang-Ming-Shan National Park
指導教授:楊增華楊增華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzeng-Hua Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:觀光事業研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:觀光休閒學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:情境環境態度環境暗示法規限制破壞行為
外文關鍵詞:vandalismlitteringenvironmental attitudescenarioregulation
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:22
  • 點閱點閱:1723
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:327
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:7
遊客之破壞行為,不僅造成遊憩環境劣化,更增加管理及維護成本,各遊憩管理單位雖積極防治破壞行為,但問題卻仍舊存在。而破壞行為中尤以遊客亂丟垃圾最為常見,且較難有效規範。因此,若能了解遊客亂丟垃圾行為之影響因素,應有助於遊憩管理單位制定有效之防治策略。
關於影響環境行為或破壞行為因子的探討,大多分為兩類,個人內部因素(動機、態度等)對行為的影響與外部因素(法規、情境等)對行為的影響。因此本研究將以陽明山遊客亂丟垃圾行為為例,探討ㄧ、環境態度(內部)對亂丟垃圾行為意向之影響;二、情境(外部)是否會干擾環境態度(內部)與亂丟垃圾行為意向間的關係。
本研究探討的情境因素為環境暗示與法規限制兩項因子,以實驗設計的概念將環境暗示區分為環境整潔與環境髒亂兩個水準;法規限制則區分為有無禁止亂丟垃圾的告示牌兩種水準,交叉組合後,共設計出四個不同情境之問卷。並以心理學中投射法的說故事法設計情境內容,請400位受訪者假設置身於情境中作答(每個情境100位),有效問卷回收率約96.5%。
研究結果顯示遊客在環境髒亂的情境下,環境態度越高的遊客亂丟垃圾行為意向越低,破壞行為越不容易發生。而在環境整潔與有無告示牌的情境中,環境態度是無法去預測其亂丟垃圾行為意向。結果亦發現情境與環境態度之交互作用對亂丟垃圾行為意向不具影響力,表示情境對環境態度與亂丟垃圾行為意向不具干擾的效果。亦即情境此因素並不會影響到環境態度與亂丟垃圾行為意向間的關係。
The vandalism of people not only cause deterioration but also increases manage-ment and maintenance costs of recreation areas. Many management institutions have done a lot to prevent vandalism, however, the effects is limited. If the influence factors of vandalism can be fully realized, authorities may able to make good strategies to solve the problem.
Littering probably is the most common vandalism and is pretty difficult to be pre-vented. Visitors’ littering behavior of Yang-Ming-Shan National Park had been used as case in this study. Three hundreds and eighty six mail questionnaire were collected and used as data been analyzed.
Human’s behaviors basically are influenced by two factors: individual internal factors (i.e. motives and attitudes) and external factors (regulations and scenarios). The purposes of this research are to realize: 1. If people’s littering are influenced by their environmental attitudes (internal factor). 2. If people’s littering are interfered by the scenarios (external factor) of a recreation area. Both releaser cues (tidy or dirty envi-ronment) and regulations (have littering-prohibition warning bulletins or not) are de-signed as scenarios. After using cross combination, the author had designed a mail ques-tionnaire with four different scenarios and each scenario uses psychological projection to make situations.
The results indicate that under a dirty environment, whether there is a warning bul-letin or not, the higher environmental attitudes people have, the lower intention they do littering. However, in a tidy environment and using warning bulletin scenario, humans’ environmental attitudes cannot predict their littering intention. The interaction between scenarios and environmental attitudes do not affect littering intention. It means scenar-ios cannot cause moderating effect in environmental attitudes and littering intentions. Thus, scenarios do not affect the relationship between environmental attitudes and lit-tering intentions.
內容目錄
中文摘要 ..................... iii
英文摘要 ..................... v
誌謝辭  ..................... vii
內容目錄 ..................... viii
表目錄  ..................... x
圖目錄  ..................... xi
第一章  緒論................... 1
  第一節  研究背景與動機............ 1
  第二節  研究問題與目的............ 2
  第三節  研究範圍與對象............ 5
  第四節  研究流程............... 6
第二章  文獻回顧................. 7
  第一節  破壞行為............... 7
  第二節  環境態度之探討............ 16
  第三節  情境因素............... 21
  第四節  文獻結論............... 24
第三章  研究設計................. 25
  第一節  研究架構............... 25
  第二節  研究假設............... 25
  第三節  操作性定義.............. 27
  第四節  問卷設計............... 28
  第五節  資料分析方法............. 33
  第六節  預試................. 34
第四章  研究結果與分析.............. 38
  第一節  樣本特性分析............. 38
  第二節  遊客環境態度分析........... 41
  第三節  亂丟垃圾行為意向之分析........ 44
  第四節  情境、環境態度與亂丟垃圾行為意向
       關係之分析.............. 48
第五章  結論與建議................ 53
  第一節  研究結論............... 53
  第二節  研究建議............... 55
註釋........................ 58
參考文獻...................... 59
附錄  研究問卷.................. 73
參考文獻
一、中文部份
1.Oppenheim, A. N. (2002),問卷設計、訪談及態度測量(呂以榮譯),台北:六合出版社,193-210,(原文於1992年出版)。
2.丁興祥,李美枝,陳皎眉(1988),社會心理學,台北:國立空中大學。
3.營建署(2006),94年營建統計年報[線上資料],來源:http://w3.cpami.gov.tw/statisty/94/94_htm/htm_year9403.htm [2007, May 8]。
4.李永展(1991),環境態度與保育行為之研究:美國文獻回顧與概念模式之發展,國立台灣大學建築與研究學報,6,73-98。
5.李永展(1995),環境態度與環保行為-理論與實證(1版),台北:胡氏圖書出版社。
6.李明宗(1992),休閒、觀光、遊憩論文集(pp. 214-215),台北:地景出版社。
7.李思屏(2001),遊客對生態旅遊之環境態度與行為關係之研究-以關渡自然公園為例,國立台灣大學園藝學研究所未出版之碩士論文,85-89。
8.李素馨,彭美鈴(2004),環境態度與行為互動關係-以社區環境教育活動為例,戶外遊憩研究,17(4),23-41。
9.林淑晴(1990),從環境知覺探討垃圾對遊憩體驗之影響-以日月潭為例,戶外遊憩研究,3(1),17-30。
10.林鈺穎,林晏州(2000),情境因素對選擇遊樂區影響之研究,戶外遊憩研究,13(2),67-82。
11.周文賢(2004),多變量統計分析-SAS/STAT使用方法(初版),台北:致勝文化事業有限公司,17。
12.吳凡星,葉源鎰(2006),以體驗行銷觀點探討消費情境因素與消費者體驗之關係-水里蛇窯為例,第八屆休閒、遊憩、觀光學術研討會論文集-觀光旅遊行銷篇(pp. 121-135),臺北:中華民國戶外遊憩學會。
13.吳明隆(2006),SPSS統計應用學習實務-問卷分析與應用統計(3版),台北:知城數位科技股份有限公司。
14.侯錦雄(1990),遊憩區遊憩動機與遊憩認知間關係之研究,國立台灣大學園藝學研究所未出版之博士論文。
15.侯錦雄,郭彰仁(1998a),公園遊客之環境態度與不當行為管理策略認同之關係,戶外遊憩研究,11(4),17-42。
16.侯錦雄,郭彰仁(1998b),遊客對公園中不當行為的知覺與其管理策略認同之研究-以台中市鄰里公園為例,造園學報,5(2),21-38。
17.張俊彥,蔡協欣,翁仕堯(1995),從環境認知觀點探討遊客破壞行為之成因分析-以台中市中山公園為例,戶外遊憩研究,8(3),67-89。
18.張春興(1994),教育心理學-三化取向的理論與實踐,台北:東華書局。
19.張樑治,宋秉明(2003),為什麼遊客會破壞遊憩環境?統整五套不同理論後的觀點,犯罪學期刊,6(1),283-300。
20.陳王琨(2003),環境管理概論-環境教育與科技管理(初版),台北:高立圖書有限公司,2。
21.陳秋伶,侯錦雄(1997),台灣山岳不當遊憩行為模式之研究,1997休閒、遊憩、觀光研究成果研討會-休閒遊憩行為(pp. 53-67),台北:田園城市文化事業有限公司。
22.陽明山國家管理處編制(2006),歲出計畫提要及分支計畫概況表[線上資料],來源:http://www.ymsnp.gov.tw/web/data_file/accounting_data/95a2.pdf [2007, February 26]。
23.郭育任(1991),淺談公園的破壞行為,靜宜管理學報,2,185-189。
24.黃正鵠(1991),行為治療的基本理論與技術,台北:天馬文化事業有限公司。
25.黃政傑(1988),臺灣地區國小,高中,大學學生環境意識之調查研究,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告(國科會,NO.NSC-77-0301-H-003-18),台北:行政院國家科學委員會。
26.楊文燦,陳仁光(1998),遊客對垃圾丟棄原因認知與管理態度之研究-以台中市中正露營區為例,1997休閒、遊憩、觀光研究成果研討會-景觀遊憩資源(pp. 245-263),台北:田園城市文化事業有限公司。
27.歐雙磬,侯錦雄(2006),登山者情境偏好與場所依戀關係之研究,第八屆休閒、遊憩、觀光學術研討會論文集-景觀與環境評估篇(pp. 119-133),台北:中華民國戶外遊憩學會。
28.蕭芸殷(1998),生態旅遊遊客特質之研究-以福山植物園為例,國立中興大學園藝學研究所未出版之碩士論文。
29.嚴春華(1989),遊客暨經營管理者對遊客不當行為之探討-以陽明山國家公園為例,台灣大學園藝研究所未出版之碩士論文。

二、英文部份
1.Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations: A theo-retical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84(5), 888-918.
2.Allen, V. L., & Greenberger, D. B. (1978). An aesthetic theory of vandalism. Crime and Delinquency, 24(3), 309-321.
3.Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A., (1986). The moderator-mediator vari-able distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(6), 1173-1182.
4.Bamberg, S. (2003). How does environmental concern influence spe-cific environmentally related behaviors? A new answer to an old question. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2(1), 21-323.
5.Bar-Tal, D. (1976). Ptosocial behavior: Theory and research. Wash-ington: Hemisphere Publishing.
6.Belk, R. W. (1975). Situation variable and consumer behavior. The Journal of Consumer Research, 2(3), 157-164.
7.Brand, K. (1997) Environmental consciousness and behavior: the greening of lifestyles. In M. Redclift & G. Woodgate (Eds.), The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology (pp. 204-217), United Kingdom: Edward Elgar.
8.Black, J. S., Stern, P. C., & Elworth, J. T. (1985). Personal and con-textual influences on household energy adaptations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(1), 3-21.
9.Buttel, F. (1987). New directions in environmental sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 13, 465-488.
10.Caron, A. J.(1989). Environmental Perspectives of Blacks: Acceptance of the new environmental paradigm. The Journal of Environ-mental Education, 20(2), 21-26.
11.Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Reycyling the concept of norm to reduce litterint in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(6), 1015-1026.
12.Christiansen, M. L. (1983). Vandalism control management for park and area. Pennsylvania: Ventrre Publishing, 64-74.
13.Choptain, N. (2000). Environmental attitudes and select characteristics of ecotourists in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Regina, Canada.
14.Clark, R. N., Hendee, J. C., & Campbell, F. L. (1971). Values, behavior and conflict in modern camping culture. Journal of Leisure Research, 3(3), 143-159.
15.Cohen, S. (1973). Property destruction: Motives and meanings. In C. Ward (Ed.), Vandalism (pp. 25-53). London: Architectural Press.
16.Corraliza, J. A., & Berenguer, J. (2000). Environmental values, beliefs, and actions: A situational approach. Environment and behavior, 32(6), 832-848.
17.De Young, R. (1986). Some psychological aspects of recycling. Envi-ronment and Behavior, 18(4), 435-449.
18.Diekmann, A., & Preisendörfer, P. (1998). Environmental behavior: discrepancies between aspirations and reality. Rationality and Society, 10(1), 79-102.
19.Dunlap, R. E., & Van Liere, K. D. (1978). The“New Environmental Paradigm”: A proposed measuring instrument and preliminary results. Journal of Environmental Education, 9(4), 10-19.
20.Dunlap, R.E, Van Liere, K. D, Mertig, A. G., & Jones, R. E. (2000). New trends in measuring environmental attitudes: Measuring endorsement of the new ecological paradigm: A revised NEP scale. Journal of Social Issues, 56 (3), 425-442.
21.Ewing, B. E., & Willis, A. (1981). Crime and Vandalism-In Urban Space, 104-105.
22.Friedland, N., Thibaut, J., & Walker, L. (1973). Some determinants of the violation of rules. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3(2), 103-118.
23.Furnham, A., & Lovett, J. (2001). Predicting the use of complemen-tary medicine: A test of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(12), 2588-2620.
24.Gramann, J. H., Bonifield, R. L., & Kim, Y. G. (1995). Effect of personality and situational factors on intentions to obey rules in outdoor recreation areas. Journal of Leisure Research, 27(4), 326-343.
25.Gramann, J. H., Christensen, H. H., & Vander Stoep, G. A. (1992). Indirect management to protect cultural and natural resources: Research, ethics, and social policy. In H. Christensen, D. John-son, & M. BrooLes (Eds.), Vandalism: Research, prevention and social policy (pp. 251-264). General Technical Report PNGTR-29S. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station.
26.Gramann, J. H., & Vander Stoep, G. A. (1987). Prosocial behavior theory and natural resource protection: A conceptual synthesis. Journal of Environmental Management, 24(3), 247-257.
27.Guagnano, G. A., Stern, P. C., & Dietz, T. (1995). Influences on attitude-behavior relationships: A natural experiment with curbside recycling. Environment and Behavior, 27(5), 699-718.
28.Heberlein, T. A. (1971). Moral norms, threatened sanctions, and littering behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International, 32, 5906A.
29.Heywood, J. L., Mullins, G. W., & Blower, S. (1984). A user orientation to managing vandalism. Trends, 21, 25-27.
30.Hopper, J. R., & McCarlinielsen, J. M. (1991). Recycling as altruistic behavior: normative and behavioral strategic to expand participation in a community recycling program. Environmental and Behavior, 23(2), 195-220.
31.Hwang, Y. H., Kim, S. I., & Jeng, J. M. (2000). Examining the causal relationships among selected antecedents of responsible envi-ronmental behavior. The Journal of Environmental Education, 31(4), 19-25.
32.Ibitayo, O. O., & Virden, R. J. (1996). Vistitor and manager perception of depreciative behavior in urban park setting. Journal of park and Recreation Administration, 14(4), 36-51.
33.Johnson, D. R., & Swearingen, T. C. (1992). The effectiveness of selected trailside sign texts in deterring off-trail hiking at Paradise Meadows, Mt. Rainier National Park. In H. Christensen, D. Johnson, & M. Brookes (Eds.), Vandalism: Research, preven-tion and social policy (pp. 105-119). General Technical Report PNW-GTR-29b Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station.
34.Johnson, D. R., & Vande Kamp, M. E. (1996). Extent and control of resource demage due to noncompliant visitor behavior: A case study from the U.S. national parks. Natural Areas Journal, 16(2), 134-141.
35.Knopf, R. C., & Dustin, D. L. (1992). A multidisciplinary model for managing vandalism and depreciative behavior in recreation settings. In M. J. Manfredo (Ed.), Influencing human behavior: Theory and application in recreation, tourism, and national re-sources management (pp. 209-262). Champaign, Illinois: Sa-gamore Publishing.
36.Liska, A. (1975). The Consistency Controversy: Readings on the Im-pact of Attitude on Behavior. New Youk: Academic Press.
37.Liu, J. H., & Sibley, C. G.. (2004). Attitudes and behavior in social space: Public good interventions based on shared representa-tions and environmental influences. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(3), 373-384.
38.Lutz, R. J., & Kakkar, P. (1975). The psychological situation as a determinant of consumer behavior. Advance in Consumer Research, 2, 439-454.
39.McAvoy, L. H., & Dustin, D. L. (1983). Indirectversus direct regulation of recreation behavior. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 1(4), 12-17.
40.Manning, R. E. (1985). Crowding norms in backcountry setting: A review and synthesis. Journal of Leisure Research, 17(2), 75-89.
41.Marcinkowski, T. J. (1988). An analysis of correlates and predictors of responsible environmental behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(12), 3677-A.
42.Meyer, J. (1994). A Comprehensive Introduction to Park Management. Champaign, Illinois: Sagamore, 327-359.
43.McFarlane, B. L., & Boxall, P. C. (2003). The role of social psychological and social structural variables in environmental activism: an example of the forest sector. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(1), 79-87.
44.Namba, R., & Dustin, D. (1992). Towards new definitions of depre-ciative behavior and vandalism. In D. J. Christensen & M. Brookes (Eds.), Vandalism: Research, ptevention and social policy (pp. 61-69). General Technical Teport PNW-GTR-293. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station.
45.UNESCO(1977). Trends in Environmental Education. UNESCO: Paris.
46.Uysal, M., Jurowski, C., Noe, F. P., & McDonald, C. D. (1994). Envi-ronmental attitudes by trip and visitor characteristics. Tourism Management, 15(4), 284-294.
47.Samdahl, D. M., & Christensen, H. H. (1985). Environmental cues and vandalism: An exploratory study of picnic table carving. Environment and Behavior, 17(4), 445-458.
48.Schultz, P. W., & Oskamp, S. (1996). Effort as a moderator of the atti-tude-behavior relationship: General environmental concern and recycling. Social Psychology Quarterly, 59(4), 375-383.
49.Scott, D., & Willits, F. K. (1994). Environmental attitudes and behav-ior: A Pennsylvania survey. Environment and Behavior, 26(2), 239-260.
50.Sherman, S., & Fazio, F. (1983). Parallels between attitudes and traits as predictors of behavior. Journal of Personality, 51(3), 308-345.
51.Shoda, Y., Michel, W., & Wright, J. C. (1993). The role of situational demands and cognitive competencies in behavior organization and personality coherence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(5), 1023-1035.
52.Sibley, C. G., & Liu, J. H. (2003). Differentiating active and passive littering: A two-stage process model of littertin behavior in public spaces. Environment and Behavior, 35(3), 415-433.
53.Simmons, D. A., & Widmar, R. (1990). Motivations and barriers to recycling: Toward a strategy for public education, The Journal of Environmental Educa, 22(1), 13-18.
54.Simmons, D. A. (1991). Are we meeting the goal of responsible envi-ronmental behavior? An examination of nature and environ-mental education center goals. The journal of Environmental Education, 22(3), 16-21.
55.Steel, B. S. (1996). Thinking Globally and Acting Locally? Environ-mental attitudes, behaviour, and activism. Journal of Environ-mental Management, 47(1), 27-36.
56.Stern, P. C., & Oskamp, S. (1987). Managing scarce environmental resources. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of envi-ronmental psychology (pp. 1044-1088), New York: Wiley.
57.Swearingen, T. C., & Johnson, D. R. (1995). Visitors’ responses to uniformed park employees. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 13(1), 73-85.
58.Robinson, S. N. (1976). Littering behavior in public places. Environ-ment and Behavior, 8(3), 363-384.
Roggenbuck, J. W. (1992). Use of persuasion to reduce reasource im-pacts and visitor conflicts. Influencing human behavior: Theory and application in recreation, tourism and national resources management (pp. 149-208), Champaign, Illinois: Sagamore Publishing.
59.Phillips, L. E. (1995). Vandalism prevention. In Park: Design and Management (pp. 65-79). New York: McGraw-Hill.
60.Wellman, J. D., Roggenbuck, J., & Smith, A. C. (1982). Recreation Specification and Norms of Depreciative Behavior. In Wildland Recreation Research. Washington: Pacific Northwest Forest Range.
61.Weber, A. L. (1991). Introduction to psychology. New York: Harper Collins College.
62.Weigel, R. H. (1983). Environmental attitude and the prediction of behavior. In N. R. Feimer & E. S. Geller (Eds.), Environmental psychology: Divections and Perspectives. New York: McGraw Hill.
63.Vincent, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (1992). Attitude accessibility and its consequences for judgement and behavior. In M. J. Manfredo (Ed.), Influencing human behavior theory and applications in recreation, tourism, and natural resources management (pp. 51-75), Champaign: Sahamore Publishing.
64.Zimbardo, P. G. (1973). A field experiment in auto shaping. London: Architectural Press, 85-90.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top