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研究生:石佩瑾
研究生(外文):Pei-Chin Shih
論文名稱:漢語十二生肖中動物詞語連鎖隱喻之研究
論文名稱(外文):CHINESE ZODIAC: A CASE OF CHAIN METAPHORS
指導教授:李靜桂李靜桂引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chingkwei Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:十二生肖動物隱喻
外文關鍵詞:animal metaphorschinese zodiac
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本研究的目的是為了分析在漢語中,十二生肖(Chinese Zodiac)動物詞語(animal-based expressions)隱喻(metaphor)之使用,說明其背後連鎖隱喻(chain metaphors)如何運作於這些和十二生肖相關的動物詞語。本研究也描述在日常生活中,各個生肖最常使用的詞語及其是否使用在特定的對象:男生、女生或男女均可;此外,本研究最後也描述這些動物詞語是否帶有正面或負面的意思。
這個研究的語料主要來源是採問卷的蒐集方式。從這些收集而來的106份問卷中經整理後,共95份為有效問卷。這些問卷的調查對象是靜宜大學的學生。
本研究發現當這些和動物相關的詞語使用在人的身上時,其背後隱喻之運作是雙向的two-level re-directional metaphorical mapping (Animals are People → People are Animals),亦即人類的屬性先賦予動物後,再藉由動物反射回到人類身上,因此兩者息息相關而形成連鎖反應。另外,各個最常使用的動物詞語用來形容人時,男女生的比例是差不多的。換句話說,這些和動物相關的詞語用在人身上並沒有限定使用在男生或女生。本研究也發現,當這些所謂的動物隱喻(animal metaphors)出現在漢語的使用上,絕大部分都帶有語意上的貶義,而唯一的例外只有十二生肖中的龍及其相關的詞語都為正面,這或許也反映出龍(帝王和好運的象徵)在人們心中既定的正面象徵。
另一方面,本研究中也採用Fontecha &; Catalan (2003)兩位作者的分類方式。他們將隱喻分為兩種:擁有最典型特性(quintessentiality)的主要隱喻(main metaphors) ,和無關最典型特性的次要隱喻(secondary metaphors)。當此兩種用在分析漢語中動物詞語隱喻的使用時,絕大多數也都帶著負面的意思。
總括而論,本研究發現中文動物隱喻語言的使用及運作是雙向的,亦即人是動物→動物是人的雙向操作而形成連鎖反應。而當這些動物詞語隱喻之使用用來形容在人身上時,的確存在著語意上的貶義,這也似乎反映出人類的認知:人是萬物之靈。所以當用動物詞語來形容人時,都為負面居多。因此,本研究也似乎佐證了認知語意學的基本論點—語言的結構和使用建立在人們的認知上。
The purpose of this study is to analyze animal-based metaphorical expressions of the Chinese Zodiac applied to men and women in Mandarin Chinese. The study accounts for how the chain metaphor operates behind these animal-based metaphorical expressions. The study also describes the most commonly used metaphorical expression of each animal sign when specifically used to men, women or both men and women. In addition, the study also shows whether these metaphorical expressions convey positive or negative connotations.
The data were mainly collected from a questionnaire. 106 copies of the questionnaire were distributed, and only 95 were valid for the analysis. The questionnaires were answered by the undergraduate students at Providence University.
The study found that when the animal-based expressions were applied to men and women, the mechanism operated behind them is the two-level re-directional metaphorical mapping (Animals are People → People are Animals), i.e. the attribute of human beings is mapped onto the animals, the target domain, and the attribute mapped into the animals is mapped back to human beings. Thus, the human being and the animal related to each other and the chain metaphor is formed. Besides, when the most commonly used animal-based metaphorical expression of each animal sign is applied to men and women, they are equally the same. That is to say, these animal-based expressions are not constrained to the use of men’s and women’s. The study also found that in general the use of these animal metaphors conveys negative connotations when used to describe people. The only anomaly is the metaphorical use of long ‘dragon’ metaphor. This may suggest that the positive use of long ‘dragon’ metaphor (symbol of emperor and good luck) is grounded in the Chinese history and culture.
On the other hand, the study also utilized Fontecha & Catalan’s (2003) idea of classifying metaphors into two kinds: main metaphors with the quintessentiality, and secondary metaphors irrelevant to the quintessentiality. When the two classifications are used to analyze animal metaphors in the present study, most of them convey negative connotations as well.
To sum up, the study found that the operation behind the animal-based metaphorical expressions is two-level (Animals are People → People are Animals) re-directional metaphorical mapping, and therefore the chain metaphor is formed. When the animal metaphors are used to describe people, they indeed have the derogative meanings. This seems to reflect the general people’s cognition: “human beings are the lords of creation”. Therefore, when the animal-based metaphorical expressions are used to describe people, they convey negative meanings in general. Thus, the present study seems to support the basic claim of cognitive semantics— language is basically cognition-based.
TABLE OF CONTENTS


ENGLISH ABSTRACT i
CHINESE ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Animal Metaphors 2
1.2 Chinese Zodiac 2
1.3 Motivation 15
1.4 Objectives 17
1.5 Outline of the Study 17


CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 19
2.1 Studies on Metaphors 19
2.2 Studies on Animal Metaphors 20
2.3 Metaphors in Cognitive Linguistics 21
2.3.1 Metaphorical Language and Culture 23
2.3.2 Metaphor Variation across Cultures 24
2.3.3 The GREAT CHAIN Metaphor 25
2.4 Classification of Metaphors 27
2.4.1 Literary vs. Conversational Metaphors 27
2.4.2 Conventional vs. Creative Metaphors 28
2.4.3 Dead vs. Live Metaphors 28
2.4.4 Familiar, Forgotten and Forfeited Metaphors 29
2.5 Interpretation of Metaphors 30
2.5.1 Similarity 30
2.5.2 Quintessentiality 30
2.5.3 Metaphor and Metonymy 31
2.5.4 Metaphorical Schemas 33
2.6 Summary 33



CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 Theoretical Framework 35
3.1.1 The Great Chain 35
3.1.2 Basic-level Categories 35
3.2 Methods and Procedure of the Study 36
3.2.1 The Construction of the Questionnaire 37
3.2.1.1 Pilot study 37
3.2.1.2 Language-related Materials 38
3.2.1.3 The Questionnaire 38
(1) Subjects 39
(2) Procedure 39
3.3 Summary 40


CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 41
4.1 Data Analysis 41
4.2 Description of Metaphorical Meanings 41
4.3 The Twelve Animal Signs: One by One 47
4.4 Top Expressions of Each Animal Sign 62
4.5 Summary 64


CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 65
5.1 Cognitive Interpretation 65
5.2 The Operation of Animal Metaphors 85
5.3 Classification of the Animal-based Expressions
of the Chinese Zodiac 86
5.4 Summary 86


CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION 88
6.1 The Operation of the Chain Metaphor in the Chinese Zodiac 88
6.2 Metaphorical Uses of the 12 Animal Signs of the Chinese Zodiac 88
6.3 Positive and Negative Evaluation of Animal Metaphors 90
6.4 Summary of the Study 91
6.5 The Limitations of This Study and Further Suggestions 93

REFERENCES 94
APPENDIX 1 The Questionnaire 97
APPENDIX 2 English Translation of the Questionnaire 101
APPENDIX 3 The Analyzed Data 107
APPENDIX 4 Chinese Translation of the Data 109
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