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研究生:林宜慧
研究生(外文):Yi-Hui Lin
論文名稱:雅美語語言活力與語言保存之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Sociolinguistic Study on Yami Language Vitality and Maintenance
指導教授:何德華何德華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dr. Der-Hwa Victoria Rau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007/07/
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:153
中文關鍵詞:語言活力語言保存雅美語
外文關鍵詞:Language maintenanceLanguage vitalityYami
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本研究主要目的是以調查台東縣蘭嶼鄉雅美族語言活力與語言保存的情形。本文衡量語言活力主要有四個指標:語言使用、語言能力、語言態度及語言認同。此外,以調查雅美語語言流失的情形為案例,希望了解雅美語語言流失的原因,青少年語言流失的情形,以及本土教育的影響,並給予雅美族母語保存之建議。另外,兩個語言保存的網站, http://yamiproject.cs.pu.edu.tw/yami/(蘭嶼達悟語口語資料典藏網)與http://yamiproject.cs.pu.edu.tw/elearn/ (蘭嶼達悟語線上學習網)也會介紹給蘭嶼青少年,並提供青少年族語學習的機會,同時,也會調查青少年對語言保存網站的態度。
本研究主要調查對象是蘭嶼中學一到四年級的青少年,有六個主要的研究方向:(一)青少年在不同情境下的語言使用情形。(二)青少年的雅美語能力。(三)青少年對雅美語的態度與認同感。(四)語言流失的主要原因及語言保存最有效率的方法。(五)青少年對語言保存網站的態度。(六)語言活力的指標。
本研究的調查結果發現大部分青少年很少使用雅美語,而且雅美語語言能力大不如前。雖然朗島村落的青少年雅美語的使用情形最為良好,但是研究發現朗島村落青少年語言能力似乎隨著年齡下降而降低。語言使用的情形及語言能力皆能成為評估語言活力的指標。然而,雖然青少年對雅美語皆有正面的態度與高認同感,但是,語言態度和認同卻無法成為評估語言活力的指標。
為了保存母語,本研究建議:(一)鼓勵族人多使用雅美語。(二)落實母語教育。(三)建立雅美語口語資料典藏。(四)舉辦雅美語語言競賽。而且父母及祖父母是將雅美語傳遞給下一代最適合的人選。 
The study aims to investigate Yami language vitality and maintenance. The vitality of a language depends on the language it is used, language proficiency, and attitude toward it. Besides, to examine whether Yami suffer the crisis of language loss, the possible reasons of Yami language loss are also investigated. It is hoped that the observations of Yami language situation among younger generation can ascertain Yami language maintenance and the effect of nativist education. Furthermore, two websites for preserving Yami language, including Digital Archiving Yami Language Documentation http://yamiproject.cs.pu.edu.tw/yami/ and Yami language e-learning center http://yamiproject.cs.pu.edu.tw/elearn/, are introduced to the participants and their attitudes toward the websites will be investigated. The study comprises 164 Yami teenagers, all studying in Lanyu junior high school from the first grade to the fourth grade.. The following six questions are explored: (1) How often do the teenagers speak Yami language in different domains? (2) How well do the teenagers handle Yami language? (3) What attitudes and identity do the teenagers have toward Yami language? (4) What are the possible reasons to affect the vitality of Yami language and what are the efficient ways to revitalize Yami language? (5) What are the attitudes of teenagers toward the Yami language learning websites? (6) Are language use, language proficiency, attitude and identity the indexes of the vitality of Yami language?
The present results establish that the teenagers seldom speak Yami in most of the situations and most of them cannot speak Yami very well. Although teenagers from the most conservative village use more Yami and speak better Yami, their Yami ability seems to decline as the age goes down. The decreasing Yami language use and proficiency indicates that the vitality of Yami declines. Yami teenagers have a positive attitude toward Yami language and identity and they are also aware that their Yami proficiency was not as good as that of the older generation. However, the high Yami identity and positive attitude toward Yami maintenance cannot be the indicators to assure Yami preservation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………..........i
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………v
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………… ix
ENGLISH ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………..x
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………………………….….xii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT…………………………………………………………xiii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………………………….1
1.1 Motivation and Purpose of the Study…………………………………………..1
1.2 Research Questions…………...………………………………………………..4
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW……………….…………………...5
2.1 Historical Background of Languages in Taiwan….……………………………5
2.2 Sociolinguistic Settings of Taiwan…………..…………………………………6
2.3 Diglossia………………………………………………………………………..6
2.4 Domain Analysis…...…………………………………………………………..8
2.5 Language Choice……………………………………………………………….9
2.6 Language Shift………………………………………………………………..10
2.7 Communication Accommodation Theory…………………………………….12
2.8 Language Attitudes and Identity…………………………………………...…13
2.8.1 Is it possible to be Xmen without Xish? ………………………………….15
2.9 Language Proficiency…………………………………………………………16
2.10 Language Endangerment………………………………………………….…17
2.11 Language Maintenance and Language Policy……………………………….17
2.12 Conclusion………………………………………………………………...…18
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY………………………………………19
3.1 Data Collection………………………………………………………………..19
3.2 Language Use and Proficiency by Self-evaluation ………………………..…21
3.2.1 Design of Questionnaire…………………………………………………...21
3.2.2 Procedures…………………………………………………………………22
3.2.3 Participants………………………………………………………………...24
3.3 Language Identity and Attitude toward Language Maintenance……………..25
3.3.1 Design of Questionnaire………………………………..…………………26
3.3.2 Procedures…………………………………………………………………27
3.3.3 Participants…………………………………………………………..……28
3.4 Language Proficiency ……………………………………………………...…29
3.4.1 Procedures…………………………………………………………………30
3.4.2 Participants……………………………………………………………...…31
3.4.3 Design of Proficiency Test ……………………………………………..…32
3.4.3.1 Beginning Level………………………………………………………..32
3.4.3.2 Intermediate Level………………………………………………..……34
3.4.3.3 Advanced Level……………………………………………………..…36
3.5 Measurement of Variables……………………………………………………38
3.6 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………38
3.6.1 Language Use……………………………………………………………..38
3.6.2 Language Proficiency……………………………………………………..39
3.6.3 Language Attitude…………………………………………………………39
3.6.4 Language Identity…………………………………………………………40
3.6.5 Attitude toward Yami Maintenance………………………………………. 40
3.6.6 Correlations………………………………………………………………..40
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS…………………………………………………. 41
4.1 Language Use…………………………………………………………………41
4.1.1 Yami Language Use and Domain Analysis………………………..……….41
4.1.1.1 Analysis of Gender in Each Domain…………………………………...43
4.1.1.2 Analysis of Grade in Each Domain.........................................................44
4.1.1.3 Analysis of Place of Residence in Each Domain………………………44
4.1.2 Yami Language Use with Three Variables…………………………………46
4.1.2.1 Interaction Effect: Gender and Place of Residence…………………….48
4.1.3 Yami Language Use with Individual Variables…………………………….49
4.2 Language Proficiency…………………………………………………………51
4.2.1 Proficiency of Six Languages by Self-evaluation…………………………52
4.2.1.1 Self-evaluated Yami Proficiency and Three Variables………………….54
4.2.1.1.1 Interaction Effect……………………………………………………55
4.2.1.1.2 Male: Grade vs. Place of Residence……………………………...…56
4.2.1.1.3 The 3rd and 4th Grade: Gender vs. Place of Residence……………...58
4.2.1.1.4 Self-evaluated Yami Proficiency and Individual Variables…………59
4.2.1.2 Self-reported Mandarin Proficiency and Three Variables…………...…61
4.2.1.3 Comparison of Self-reported Yami and Mandarin Proficiency………...64
4.2.2 Peer-evaluated Yami Proficiency…………………………………………..65
4.2.2.1 Peer-evaluated Yami Proficiency and Three Variables…………………65
4.2.2.1.1 Interaction Effect: Grade and Place of Residence…………………..66
4.2.2.2 Peer-evaluated Yami Proficiency with Individual Variables………..…68
4.2.3 Language Proficiency by Yami Teachers…………………………………70
4.2.4 A Real Exam of Yami Proficiency……………………………..…………72
4.2.4.1 Beginning Level Test………………………………………………….72
4.2.4.2 Intermediate Level Test…………………………………………….…73
4.2.4.3 Advanced Level Test……………………………………………….…73
4.2.4.4 The Performance of Participants from Each Level…………...………74
4.2.4.5 Comparison of Three Levels of Students in Intermediate Level Test...75
4.3 Language Attitude………………………………………………………...…77
4.4 Language Identity……………………………………………………….…..86
4.4.1 Analysis of Each Identity Statement…………………………………..…86
4.4.2 Total Identity with Three Variables………………………………………88
4.4.2.1 Interaction Effect: Gender and Place of Residence………………..….89
4.4.3 Total Identity with Individual Variables………………………………….91
4.4.4 Each Identity Statement with Individual Variables………………………92
4.5 Language Loss and Maintenance……………………………………………94
4.5.1 Possible Reasons of Yami Language Loss………………………………..94
4.5.2 Person Who Is Responsible for Yami Transmission…………………...…95
4.5.3 Ways for Helping Yami Maintenance………………………………….…96
4.5.4 Multimedia Websites for Yami Maintenance……………………………. 98
4.5.4.1 Attitudes toward the Two Websites……………………………...……98
4.5.4.2 Comparison of Attitudes toward Yami Websites with Three Variables.99
4.6 Indexes of Yami Language Vitality…………………………………………100
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION……………………………………………...104
5.1 Language Use………………………………………………………………104
5.2 Language Proficiency………………………………………………………105
5.2.1 Self-reported Language Proficiency ……………………………………105
5.2.2 Peer-evaluated Yami Proficiency…………………………………..……107
5.2.3 Yami Language Proficiency by Teachers…………………………..……109
5.2.4 A Real Yami Proficiency Test………………………………………...…109
5.3 Language Attitude……………………………………………………….…111
5.4 Language Identity……………………………………………………….….111
5.5 Language Maintenance and Loss…………………………………….…….112
5.6 Indexes of Yami Language Vitality…………………………………………113
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION………………………………………………115
6.1 Summaries…………………………………………………………….……115
6.1.1 Language Use………………………………………………………..…115
6.1.2 Language Proficiency………………………………………………...…115
6.1.3 Language Attitude and Identity…………………………………………116
6.1.4 Language Loss………………………………………………………..…116
6.1.5 Attitude toward Yami Language Maintenance………………………..…117
6.1.6 Indexes of Yami Language Vitality…………………………………...…117
6.2 Conclusion………………………………………………………………….117
6.3 Limitation and Suggestions for Further Research………………………….118
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………..120
APPENDIX A (Chinese Version)…………………………………………..........125
APPENDIX A (English Version)…………………………………………...……128
APPENDIX B (Chinese Version)…………………………………………..........131
APPENDIX B (English Version)………………………………………..………133
APPENDIX C (Chinese Version)…………………………………………..........135
APPENDIX C (English Version)………………………………………………..136
APPENDIX D: Beginning Level Test (Chinese Version)…….............................137
APPENDIX D: Beginning Level Test (English Version)…………….……….…139
APPENDIX E: Intermediate Level Test (Chinese Version)..................................141
APPENDIX E: Intermediate Level Test (English Version)……………………...143
APPENDIX F: Advanced Level (Chinese Version)..............................................146
APPENDIX F: Advanced Level (English Version)…………………...…………150
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