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研究生:林文琦
研究生(外文):Wen-Chi Lin
論文名稱:文心雕龍文學評價問題之比較研究
論文名稱(外文):A Comparative Study of Crucial Problems in Literary Evaluation in Liu Xie’s Wenxin diaolong
指導教授:紀秋郎紀秋郎引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi, Ch’iu-lang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:英文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:劉勰阿諾德識照高達瑪文學評價圓照通變奇正視野融合
外文關鍵詞:Liu XieArnoldshizhaoGadamerliterary evaluationyuanzhaotongbianqizhengfusion of horizons
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本文以《文心雕龍》的知音篇為中心,以比較劉勰與西方阿諾德 (Arnold) 及其他中西相關文論為主軸,探討劉勰和中西文學鑑賞與文學評價的重要課題。文學評價在全球化比較文學中尤為重要。本文首先藉由巴特 (Barthes) 和王夫之、維姆賽特和畢斯里等來探討文學評價常見謬誤及主觀與客觀詮釋的關聯。其之後,討論批評家的修養在文學評價中的重要性,及其與柯立芝 (Coleridge) 的相似。然後藉由什克洛夫斯基 (Shklovsky) 的「陌生化」討論形式和內容的平衡,並比較「通變」和「奇正」與高達瑪 (Gadamer) 的「視野融合」來討論傳統和創新的和諧。最後,我們可以看出圓照不僅是文學評價的標準也是審美判斷的最高境界。為了做出有效的評價,劉勰顯然認為批評家須以整合、微觀、與宏觀的方式。作審美判斷時,為了避免片面性,劉勰強調全面性的觀看。他用「圓照」(holistic view) 作為最高目標。批評家為了要超越自己,必須藉由「博觀」、「識照」、「虛靜」、「六觀」、「見異」等等才能達到圓照境界。在審美經驗中,審美主體與客體雖是二元也是相互依存和影響,審美經驗和審美判斷是相互刺激。形式和內容的和諧是強調本質和外在藝術表現的恰當結合。「通變」和「奇正」強調傳統和創新的交互影響融合再創新的自然的文學歷史演變,及文本中的分析和整合性詮釋。劉勰認為有效的文學評價是經由主客觀交互影響,主客觀及古今的視野融合。當中持續地反照的循環及衍生製造出通往圓照的路徑。圓照不僅是追本溯源而且是具備世界觀和未來性。
Focusing on Zhiyin (Understanding or Ideal Critic) chapter in Liu Xie’s Wenxin diaolong, Arnold, and related concepts of Eastern and Western critics, we will find several problems in literary evaluation to be crucial. After presenting the status of literary evaluation in the era of globalizing comparative literature, we will investigate the prevalence of biases, the interaction and possible integration in subjective and objective interpretation with recourse to the theories of Barthes, Wang Fuzhi. Later, to explore the importance of the necessary preparation of an ideal critic, we will compare Liu’s ideas with similar concepts of Wimsatt and Beardsley and Arnold. Subsequently, we will investigate the balance between content and form and its linkage with Shklovsky’s “defamiliarization.” By comparing Tongbian (Flexible adaptability to varying situation) and qizheng (conformity or nonconformity to orthodox principles) with Gadamer’s “fusion of horizons,” we may further thrash out the harmonious coalition between tradition and novelty. Finally, we will infer how holistic views serve to enable not only the standard of literary evaluation but also the attainment to the realm of supreme aesthetic judgment. To make a valid literary evaluation, Liu Xie considers it necessary to adopt a microscopic, macroscopic, and synthetic approach.
To avoid bias, Liu Xie emphasizes comprehensive consideration; he regards yuanzhao (holistic contemplation) as the highest goal in literary evaluation. Thus, critics should pursue the realm of a holistic view by virtue of boguan (broad view), shen yu wu you (spiritual thinking in association with the external world), xujing (vacancy and tranquility), shizhao (expert view), liuguan (six aspects), jianyi (see what is inwardly excellent), and so forth in order to transcend their bias and one-sidedness. While the aesthetic subject and object are two separate entities, they coexist with and influence one another. Further, aesthetic experience and judgment stimulate and reinforce each other. The balance between form and content stresses the adequate combination of substance and extrinsic artistic representation. Tongbian and qicheng underline not only the inter-influence, interfusion, and reformation in natural literary development but also analytical and integral interpretation of a work of literature. Thus, Liu Xie believes that a valid literary evaluation lies in the inter-influence of subjectivity and objectivity, the fusion of their horizons of past and modern. The successive intrinsic inter-projection and derivation within such horizon paves the way to holistic contemplation. Holistic contemplation is not only a way to trace back to the origin of literature but also a global vision with future outlook..

Key words: Liu Xie, Arnold, shizhao, Gadamer, literary evaluation, yuanzhao, tongbian, qizheng, fusion of horizons
Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………….................. ii
Abstracts in English and Chinese ………………………………………...…………..... iii-vii
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………… 1-5
Chapters One: Literary Evaluation in Globalizing Comparative Literature ………......... 7-26
Chapter Two: Crucial Problems in Liu Xie’s Theory of Literary Evaluation ………... 27-64
Chapter Three: Necessary Preparation for an Understanding Critic ………………… 65-101
Chapter Four: Liu Xie’s Six Aspects of Viewing …………………………………… 103-133
Chapter Five: Liu Xie and Holistic View in Literary Evaluation ……………..….. 135-145
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………... 147-150
Works Cited …………………………………………………………………………. 151-155
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