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研究生:陳建翰
研究生(外文):Jian Han Chan
論文名稱:GATT/WTO體制下農產品貿易規則研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Legal Regime of Trade in Agricultural Products from GATT to WTO
指導教授:程家瑞程家瑞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Jui Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:法律學系
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:188
中文關鍵詞:初級產品農產品貿易GATT1947農業協定市場准入出口補貼境內補貼境內支持應有佔有率代表性期間特別因素國民待遇原則平衡稅減讓承諾出口補貼承諾黃箱支持藍箱支持綠箱支持
外文關鍵詞:Primary productsagricultural tradeGATT1947Agreement on Agriculturemarket accessexport subsidiesdomestic subsidiesdomestic supportequitable sharerepresentative periodspecial factornational treatmentcountervailing dutiesreduction commitmentexport subsidy commitmentamber boxblue boxgreen box.
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中文摘要
本文介紹及探討農產品貿易自GATT時期到WTO時期的轉變,關於本文各章節之重點及其架構,分述如下:
第一章 緒論

本章說明本文之研究動機、研究目的、研究方法、研究範圍及限制,以及預期目標。
第二章 國際農產品貿易的特性及問題
本章旨在說明國際農產品貿易與其他產品相較,何以在全球經濟多邊貿易體系下有嚴重的貿易扭曲現象?多數國家何以長期致力於阻礙農產品貿易?及何以多數國家願意採取長期而言損害農業生產者利益之農業貿易政策?本章亦試圖找出農產品在無常的自然因素、糧食安全、文化及環保等獨特的面向下,讓農業貿易享有特殊待遇的合理性及正當性。
第三章 GATT時期市場准入規範
本章對GATT1947下有關關稅及非關稅措施的法規作一般性的說明。其中關稅措施包含從價税、特定稅及綜合稅;非關稅措施則指政府所採任何形式具有阻礙產品、服務進口效果,包括配額、進口許可證及其他措施等GATT1947第十一條第一項所規定的數量限制措施。
GATT1947第十一條第一項有許多與之相違的例外規定。其中針對農產品貿易所設的GATT第十一條第一項例外規定為GATT第十一條第二項(c)款。本章將對GATT第十一條第二項(c)款及案例中所確認的五項重要要件進行討論。
第四章 GATT時期出口補貼規範
本章開始即對出口補貼的概念從《國際貿易組織憲章》,歷經GATT1947到1955重新審核會期的發展作一說明。1955重新審核會期所制定的GATT第十六條第三項係用於調整初級產品的出口補貼規定,其中有關「應有佔有率」、「代表性期間」及「特別因素」等爭點,在案例中的討論也會於本章呈現。
第五章 GATT時期境內支持規範
本章先對境內支持的形式及法律地位,以及境內支持從《國際貿易組織憲章》到GATT1947的發展作一說明。GATT1947第十六條規定的兩項義務,即實施境內支持的通知義務,以及當其他締約方因境內支持措施受有損害時,境內支持措施實施方應參與具有限制該項支持措施可能性的協商義務。國民待遇原則及作為救濟措施之平衡稅的課徵規定,將會在本章中一倂討論。
第六章 WTO《農業協定》市場准入規範
本章首先就《農業協定》第一條(e)款與《補貼及平衡措施協定》中「補貼」的定義及範圍加以說明。本章內容尚針對《農業協定》第八、第九、第十條,與「美國國外銷售公司案」及「加拿大乳製品案」中之減讓承諾與出口補貼承諾進行分析。出口補貼執行及監督規定,以及違反農產品出口補貼規定的救濟措施,包括《農業協定》中的平衡稅課徵規定與經授權之平衡措施規定,本章均詳加說明。
第七章 WTO《農業協定》出口補貼規範
本章首先就《農業協定》第一條(e)款與《補貼及衡平措施協定》中「補貼」此一概念的定義及範圍加以說明。本章內容尚包含《農業協定》第八、第九、第十條,與美國國外銷售公司案及加拿大乳製品案中之減讓承諾,及出口補貼承諾進行分析。出口補貼實行及監督規定、及違反農產品出口補貼規定的救濟措施,包括《農業協定》中的平衡稅課徵規定,及經授權之平衡措施規定,本章均予詳加說明。
第八章 WTO《農業協定》境內支持規範
本章旨在介紹所有境內支持措施,包括被認為具有高度貿易扭曲效果而須予以減讓的「黃箱支持措施」;以實施生產限制計畫為條件而免於削減之「藍箱支持措施」;及被認為不具任何貿易扭曲效果或扭曲效果甚微的「綠箱支持措施」。關於綜合支持量及現行綜合支持總量的計算,境內支持措施的執行與監督規定亦為本章討論的重點。
第九章 結論
本章對前面各章重點作一總結。同時亦就烏拉圭回合後,《杜哈宣言》、《哈賓遜程式》、《七月套案》及香港部長會議等有關農業貿易議題之發展,作一說明。

關鍵字:初級產品,農產品貿易,GATT1947,《農業協定》,市場准入,出口補貼,境內補貼,境內支持,應有佔有率,代表性期間,特別因素,國民待遇原則,平衡稅,減讓承諾,出口補貼承諾,黃箱支持,藍箱支持,綠箱支持。
Abstract
The thesis introduces and discusses the legal regime of trade in agricultural products from GATT to WTO. As regards to the key points and framework of this thesis, we are to divide into the following nine chapters:
Chapter 1 Introduction:
This chapter is intended to illustrate the motive, purpose, method, scope, limitation and expected purpose of research.
Chapter 2 The Special Feature of International Agricultural Trade
This chapter will explain why trade in agricultural products has provided more distortions to the multilateral trade system than any other sector of the global economy, why so many countries have worked so hard over so many years to impede trade in agriculture, and why most of nations incline to take policy which is detrimental to the long-term interests of its own agriculturalists. This chapter also tries to search the factors which are entitled to justify and defend the special treatment of agricultural trade, including the uniquely excessive dependence of agriculture on the vagaries of nature, food security, culture, and the environmental protection.
Chapter 3 Market Access under the GATT 1947
This chapter gives a general introduction on the legislations of tariffs and non-tariff measures under the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade in 1947(hereinafter abbreviated as “the GATT 1947”). Tariffs include ad valorem tariff, specific tariff, and mixed tariff. Non-tariff measures refer to all sorts of government practices that may serve the purpose of discouraging the importation of goods and services, including quotas, import licenses and other measures of quantitative restrictions, which are in particular stipulated under Article XI(1) of GATT 1947.
The rule against any quantitative restrictions prescribed under Article XI(1) of the GATT 1947 is subject to a number of exceptions, such as Article XI(2)(c), which are largely agriculture-specific exceptions to Article XI(1). This chapter will discuss five important elements identified in Article(2)(c) and its relevant cases.
Chapter 4 The Legislation of Export Subsidies under the GATT 1947
This chapter starts with an introduction to the concept of export subsidies and its evolution in the course of negotiations from the Charter of the International Trade Organization to the GATT 1947 and the 1955 Review Session. A separate paragraph in the form of Article XVI(3) was devoted to the regulation of export subsidies on primary product. Related issues as the “equitable share,” the “representative period,” and “special factors” discussed case-by-case will be presented in this Chapter.
Chapter 5 The Legislation of Domestic Support under the GATT 1947
This chapter gives an introduction on the form and legal status of domestic support and its evolution from the Charter of the International Trade Organization to the GATT 1947. Article XVI of the GATT 1947 prescribed two obligations, i.e. notification of domestic support and, if found prejudicial to the interests of any other contracting party, consultation for the possibility of limiting the domestic support measures. The principle of national treatment and countervailing tax regarded as remedy measures will be also discussed in this Chapter.
Chapter 6 Market Access under the Agreement on Agriculture
This chapter discusses the amendment of market access under the Agreement on Agriculture in the Uruguay Round Talks to which the GATT 1947 loopholes in favour of agricultural protectionism. The “tariffication” of non-tariff measures, as well as the problem of “dirty tariffication”, the special safeguard provision, current and minimum access commitments, tariff rate quotas, and special treatment provision will be of particular emphasis in this Chapter.
Chapter 7 Export Subsidies under the Agreement on Agriculture
This chapter starts with a definition and the scope of subsidies under Article I (e) of the Agreement on Agriculture and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. This chapter also analyses the export subsidy reduction commitment and export subsidy commitment stipulated in Article VIII, IX and X. of the Agreement on Agriculture, the FSC Case and the Canada Dairy Case. Implementation and surveillance of the discipline of the rules on agricultural export subsidies, including countervailing measures under the Agreement on Agriculture, and authorized countermeasures against agricultural export subsidies will be of particular emphasis in this section of the thesis.
Chapter 8 Domestic Support under the Agreement on Agriculture
This chapter introduces all domestic support measures, including “Amber Box” measures that are considered highly trade-distortive effect and hence subject to reduction commitment, “Blue Box” measures that are under precondition of production-limiting project and therefore are exempted from reduction commitments; and “Green Box” measures that are considered to have no or at most minimal trade-distorting effect. Moreover, the calculation of AMS and current total AMS, implementation and surveillance of the domestic support measures will be also emphasized in this Chapter.
Chapter 9 Conclusion
This chapter draws a conclusion on certain key points of the above-mentioned chapters.
This chapter also introduces the development of trade on agriculture from the Doha Declaration(2001), the Harbinson Modalities(填上年份), the July Package(2004) and the Hong Kong Ministerial Conference(2005) after the Uruguay Round Talks.
Key Words: Primary products, agricultural trade, GATT1947, Agreement on Agriculture, market access, export subsidies, domestic subsidies, domestic support, equitable share, representative period, special factor, national treatment, countervailing duties, reduction commitment, export subsidy commitment, amber box, blue box, green box.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 研究方法 7
第四節 研究範圍與限制 7
第五節 文獻探討 8
第六節 預期研究成果 8
第二章 國際農產品貿易的特性與問題 11
第一節 農產品貿易之範圍 11
第二節 貿易政策理論與農產品貿易的特性 12
第一項 貿易政策理論 12
第二項 農產品貿易的特性 15
第三節 已開發國家的農業保護政策 15
第一項 制定農業保護政策的原因 15
第二項 主要已開發國家的農業保護機制 17
第四節 開發中國家的重工輕農貿易政策 23
第一項 採取重工輕農農業政策的相關經濟理論 24
第二項 開發中國家重工輕農措施 25
第五節 小結 26
第三章 GATT時期市場准入規範 29
第一節 前言 29
第一項 進口貿易障礙 29
第二項 GATT1947市場准入規定的制定過程 32
第二節 GATT1947第十一條一項「普遍廢除數量限制」條款與相關案例解析 33
第一項 配額 33
第二項 進口許可 34
第三項 其他措施 36
第三節 GATT1947第十一條二項條款與案例解析 38
第一項 GATT1947第十一條二項(c)款解析 40
第二項 GATT1947第十一條二項(c)款(i)點「國內供給限制」 44
第三項 GATT1947第十一條二項(c)款(ii)目「去除生產剩餘(SURPLUS REMOVEL)」 46
第四節 GATT1947第十一條三項解析 48
第一項 具代表性期間 49
第二項 特別因素 50
第三項 日本農產品進可限制案 51
第五節 其他損害GATT普遍廢止數量限制原則之措施 56
第一項 祖父條款…………………………………………………………..56
第二項 法定義務豁免 56
第三項 灰色領域措施 57
第七節 小結 58
第四章 GATT時期出口補貼規範 61
第一節 前言 61
第一項 國際貿易組織起草時期的補貼規範 61
第二項 1955年增修GATT第十六條二節規定 62
第三項 1955年GATT增修條文對不同產品的差別 64
第二節 GATT1947出口補貼的認定標準 66
第一項 應有佔有率的認定 66
第二項 代表性期間 70
第三項 特別因素 71
第四項 因果關係的認定 72
第五項 1955年GATT增修條文第十六條二節三項的例外規定─穩定國內價格制度 73
第三節 小結 75
第五章 GATT時期境內支持規範 77
第一節 前言 77
第一項 境內支持的形式 77
第一款 市場價格支持 78
第二款 虧損支付…………………………………………………………..78
第二節 境內支持規定的制定過程 79
第三節 GATT1947境內支持措施的規範內容 80
第一項 GATT1947第十六條補貼之定義 81
第二項 通知義務 81
第三項 協商義務 83
第四節 受補貼損害的救濟措施 84
第一項 境內支持與GATT1947第二十三條 84
第二項 平衡稅的課徵 87
第三項 國民待遇原則 88
第四項 歐洲共同體油籽境內補貼案 90
第五節 小結 93
第六章 WTO《農業協定》市場准入規範 95
第一節 前言 95
第二節 關稅化與關稅削減 97
第一項 關稅化的適用範圍及關稅等值的計算公式 97
第二項 關稅削減 101
第三節 適度的市場准入機會與關稅配額 102
第一項 適度的市場准入機會 102
第二項 關稅配額 104
第四節 《農業協定》中市場准入規定 107
第一項 《農業協定》第四條之規定 108
第二項 《農業協定》第四條二項的例外規定 108
第四節 小結 119
第七章 WTO《農業協定》出口補貼規範 123
第一節 前言 123
第二節 「補貼」與「出口補貼」在《農業協定》的定義 123
第三節 烏拉圭談判回合有關出口補貼的削減 127
第一項 出口補貼削減的適用範圍 127
第二項 具體削減程度 129
第三項 削減出口補貼的彈性規定 130
第四節 《農業協定》中有關出口補貼的一般規定 133
第一項 《農業協定》條款規定 133
第二項 加拿大乳製品措施案 137
第五節 規避出口補貼承諾之防止 142
第一項 出口信貸 142
第二項 糧食援助 143
第三項 農產品出口補貼的救濟機制 145
第六節 小結 150
第八章 WTO《農業協定》境內支持規範 153
第一節 前言 153
第二節 免於削減的境內支持措施 154
第一項 綠箱支持 154
第二項 藍箱支持 161
第三項 發展性支持 162
第四項 微量支持 162
第三節 應削減之境內支持及其削減方式 164
第一項 削減方式 164
第二項 削減境內支持的計算基礎問題 170
第四節 農業委員會對執行減讓承諾的審查 172
第五節 小結 174
第九章 結論 177
一、中文文獻 A
(一)中文書籍 A
(二)期刊文章 B
二、英文文獻 D
I. OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS: D
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GATT CASES G
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顏慶章,《WTO論述文集:台灣國際之機會與挑戰》,台北市,2005。
羅昌發,《GATT1947╱WTO與我國貿易》,台北:永然文化出版,1996。
譚崇台,發展經濟學概論,武漢大學出版社,2001。
龔宇,WTO農產品貿易法律制度研究,廈門大學出版社,2005。

(二)期刊文章
王明來,1999,「WTO新回合農業談判議題及各主要國家之立場」,《農政與農情》,89:46-51。
王俊豪,2004,「歐盟鄉村發展政策之演變與展望」,《農政與農情》144:82-91。
王俊豪,2005,「WTO會員方與歐盟農業補貼綠色措施結構變遷之分析」,《農政與農情》158:77-82。
李舟生,2002a,「過去兩年WTO主要會員農業談判立場概述」,《雜糧與畜產》,340:6-14。
李舟生,2002b,「WTO農業談判第一階段簡介」,《台灣經濟金融月 刊》,38(2):40-48。
李舟生,2002c,「WTO新回合農業談判之展望與建議-兼述我入會現況」,《農政與農情》,94:57-75。
李金龍,2003,<加入WTO農業整體情況與展望>,《農政與農情》,革新版(128):頁6-8。
吳榮義、江啟臣,2003,「WTO架構下的國際貿易與台灣的因應策略」,《國家政策季刊》,2(2):1-28。
林家榮,1999,「WTO農業委員會第十九次會議摘要」,《農政與農情》,86:40-42。
林家榮,2000,<WTO新回合談判有關農業多功能性之爭議>,《農政與農情》,革新版(91):頁50-54。
林家榮,2004,「WTO七月套案農業談判架構共識及其對國內農業之影響」,《農政與農情》,147:42-45。
林文傑,2003,「南韓積極推展環保型農業」,《農政與農情》,135:85-91。
林文傑,2005,「日本未來農業施政方針簡介」,《農政與農情》,154:75-78。
林傳琦,2005,「日本農業境內支持調降策略簡介」,《農政與農情》155:63-66。
邱政宗,2003,<世界貿易組織新一回合談判議題分析(上)>,《立法院院聞》,31(2):頁58-77。
邱政宗,2003,<世界貿易組織新一回合談判議題分析(中)>,《立法院院聞》,31(3):頁84-95。
胡忠一,2003,「日本新農政-『食料、農業、農村基本法』之形成背景及其主要內容(上)」,《合作經濟》79:28-34。
張耀仁,1996,<加入WTO台灣農業部門之因應對策>,《臺灣經濟研究月刊》,19(7):頁16-20。
陳明健,2003,「WTO架構下,台灣農業之升級與轉型」,《國家政策季刊》,2(2):73-94。
陳武雄,2004,「論稻米保證價格與農民所得」,《跨越農業分水嶺》,台北:中國生產力,頁167-174
陳雅琴,2004,「美國農業政策演變及其意涵」,《農政與農情》,143:70-76。
彭作奎,1996,「加入WTO台灣農業政策之調整方向」,《台灣經濟》,229:17-41。
黃萬傳,1995,<我國加入GATT1947對稻米運銷部門之衝擊即因應對策>,《臺灣經濟》,(223):頁50-61。
黃慇賢,2002,「日本農業境內支持之調降與稻米政策之轉變」,《農政與農情》,119:72-74。
黃宗煌、張靜貞、徐世勳、黃瀕儀,2003,<加入WTO對臺灣農業之衝擊與因應之道>,《國家政策月刊》,2(2):頁95-120。
黃欽榮,2003,「加入WTO後農業發展新情勢與因應對策」,《農業與資源經濟學》,1:1,1-5。
楊明憲,1996,<關稅化與限量進口:臺灣稻米進口模式之評估比較>,《台灣土地金融季刊》,33(2):頁165-193。
楊明憲,2002,<WTO新回合農業談判與最新進展與各項重要議題分析>,《業金融論叢》,47:頁1-23。
楊明憲,2002,<WTO新回合農業談判有關糧食安全議題之分析>,《農業金融論叢》,47:頁29-47。
楊明憲,2002,「WTO新回合農業談判最新進展與各項重要議題分析」,《農業金融論叢》,48:1-49。
詹中原,2001,「全球化之國家主權與經濟-兩岸加入WTO之分析」,《國家政策論壇》,1(9):157-167。
廖安定,1994,<烏拉圭回合農業協議內容之簡介與建議>,《農政與農情》,革新版(19):頁16-25。
廖正宏、黃俊傑、蕭新煌,1986,「光復後台灣農業政策的演變」,台北:中央研究院民族研究所。
蔡宏進,2003,「台灣加入WTO與農業問題之探討」,《台灣鄉村研究》,1:1-40。
劉小蘭、薛志文,1999,「加入WTO對我國農業之影響」,《人與地》,182:17-28。
劉小蘭,2004,「加入WTO後對台灣農業政策的影響—由農業發展條例的演變觀之」,《農業金融論叢》,51:259-279。
蕭新煌,1983,<三十年來臺灣政策的演變:1953-1982>,《思與言》,20(6):頁527-556。
蕭振寰,2004,「『多哈發展議程』:WTO設立後第一次回合談判的回顧與展望」,《貿易調查專刊》。
羅昌發等著,1994,<GATT1947對農業保護原則、爭端及發展趨勢>,《參與GATT1947對農業之衝擊及政策因應》,頁19-55,台北:業強出版。
羅明哲,1998,<GATT1947烏拉圭農業協議後之日本農業政策>,《臺灣經濟》,(257):頁1-23。

二、英文文獻
I.OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS
A statement made during the Geneva session of the Preparatory Committee, (EPCT/A/PV/19.)
Agreed Description of the Customary Practice of the GATT1947 in the Field of Dispute Settlement (Article XXIII), annexed to the 1979 Dispute Settlement Understanding, BISD 26S/216.
GATT, First Report of Committee II , adopted (COM. II/5) on 29 May 1959, BISD 8S/125.
GATT, Second Report of Committee II , adopted (L/1192) on 20 May 1960, BISD 9S/115.
GATT, Agricultural Protection: Second Report of Committee II, adopted (L/1192) on 20 May 1960, BISD 9S/115.
GATT, Report of the Group on Quantitative Restrictions and other Non-Tariff Barrier, (L/5713 BISD 31S/212) adopted on 30 Nov. 1984.
GATT, GATT, Agricultural Protection: Third Report of Committee II, (L/1461 BISD 10S/137) adopted on 15 November 1961.
GATT,「Safeguards: Chairman’s Report (W.39/4),」BISD 30S/216
GATT, Report of the Group on Quantitative Restrictions and other Non-Tariff Barrier, (L/5713 BISD 31S/212) adopted on 30 Nov. 1984
GATT, Modalities for the Establishment of Specific Binding Commitments under the Reform Programme:Note by the Chair of the Market Access Group, 20 December 1993, MTN. (GNG/MA/W/24)
GATT, Thirty-Eighth Session at Ministerial Level: Ministerial Declaration (L/5424, BISD 29S/9-22) adopted on 29 November 1982
GATT Analytical Index: Guide to GATT Law and Practice (Updated 6th Edition 1995)
GATT Panel on Subsidies, Operation of the Provisions of Article XVI, (L/1442 & Add.1-2 BISD 10S/203), report adopted on 21 November 1961.
GATT, Review Pursuant to Article XVI:5,(L/1160 BISD 9S/188), adopted on 24 May 1960.
GATT Analytical Index: Guide to GATT Law and Practice (Updated 6th Edition 1995).
GATT, Review Pursuant to Article XVI:5,(L/1160 BISD 9S/188), adopted on 24 May 1960.
Protocol of Provisional Application of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Report on the Review Pursuant to Article XVI:5 (L/160 BISD 9S/188 adopted on 24 May 1960.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933
The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, Section 22 (f), amended June16, 1951, Chapter 141.
UNCTAD, Identification of New Trading Opportunities Arising from the Implementation of the Uruguay Round Agreements in Selected Sectors and Markets: Report by the UNCTAD Secretariat (Distr. General TD/B/WG.8/2) 19 June 1995.
WTO, Analytical Index: Guide to GATT Law and Practice, (Updated 6th Ed. Geneva 1995)
WTO Staff Working Paper (TPRD-98-02, May 1998), S. Laird, Multilateral Approaches to Market Access Negotiations.
WTO Committee on Agriculture, Notification Requirements and Formats(G/AG/2, 30 June 1995).
WTO, Annual Report 1998(Geneva, 1998).
WTO, Annual Report 2000(Geneva, 2000).
WTO, GATT Analytical Index: Guide to GATT Law and Practice (Updated 6th ed.,Geneva, 1995).
Food Aid Convention 1986.

II.Books
Anderson Kym., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, The WTO and agriculture, c2005.
Andrews Neil., Agriculture in the Doha Round, London: Commonwealth Secretariat, c2004.
Anderson, K. Agriculture and the WTO into the 21st Century, paper prepared for the the Cairns Group Farm Leaders’ Trade Strategy Seminar (Sydney, Australia 2-3 April 1998).
Anderson, K., B. Hoekman and A. Strutt, Agriculture and the WTO: Next Steps,paper resented at the Second Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis(Denmark, 20-22 June 1999).
Anderson. K.,Erwidodo and M. Ingco, Integrating Agriculture into the WTO: The Next Phase, paper presented to the WTO/World Bank Conference on Developing Countries in a Millennium Round(Geneva, 20-21 September 1999).
Annania, G., C. Carter, and A. McCalla (eds) Agricultural Trade Conflicts and GATT: New Dimension in U.S. – European Agricultural Trade Relations (Westview Press, Oxford 1994).
Barents, R. The Agricultural Law of the EC (1994).
Binswanger, H. and E. Lutz, Agricultural Trade Barriers, Trade Negotiation, and the Interests of Developing Countries, paper prepared for the UNCTAD X High-Level Round Table on Trade and Development (Bangkok, 12 February 2000).
Bourgeois, J. (ed.) Subsidies and International Trade: A European Lawyers’ Perspective (Kliwer 1991).
Chua, A. The Precedential Effect of WTO Panel and Appellate Body Reports, 11 Leiden Journal of International Law (1998).
Collins-Williams, T. and G. Salembier, “International Disciplines on Subsidies: the GATT, the WTO, and the Future Agenda”, 30 Journal of World Trade (1996). No.1
Croome, J. Reshaping the World Trading System: A History of the Uruguay Round (Geneva 1995).
Curzon, G. Multilateral Commercial Diplomacy: The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and Its Impact on National Policies and Techniques (1965).
Commins, P. (1990) “Restructuring Agriculture in Advanced Societies:Transformation, Crisis and Responses”. In Rural Restructuring:Global Processes and their response. Edited by Marsden T., Lowe P., and Whatmore S., London :David Fulton.
Dam, K. The GATT: Law and International Organization (1970).
Dhar Biswajit, The non-trade concerns in the agreement on agriculture, New Delhi: Research and Information System for the Non-Aligned and Other Developing Countries, 2001.
Diakosavvas, Dimitris., The Uruguay Round agreement on agriculture: an evaluation of its implementation in OECD countries, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, c2001.
Evans, P. Economic Governance Institutions in a Global Political Economy: Implications for Developing Countries, paper prepared for the UNCTAD X
FAO, FAO Principles of Surplus Disposal and Consultative Obligations of Maember Nations (3rd. ed., Rome 1992)
FAO, Ceres - FAO review on agriculture & development., Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations., United Nation.
Greenfield J., M. de Nigrid, and P. Konnandeeas, “The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture: Food Security Implications for Developing Countries”, 21 Food Plicy No. 4/5 (1998).
Hathaway, Dale E., Agriculture and the GATT: rewriting the rules, Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, c1987.
High-Level Round Table on Trade and Development (Bangkok, 12 February 2000).
Hoekman,B. and K. Anderson, Developing Country Agriculture and the New Trade Agenda, World Bank Policy Research Working paper 2125(May 1999).
Hoekman, B. and M. Kostecki, The Political Econamy of the World Trading System:From GATT to WTO (Oxford University Press, 1995).
Hudec, R. Enforcing International Trade Law: The Evolution of the Modern GATT Legal System(Butterworth, 1993)
Hudec, R. The GATT Legal System and World Trade Diplomacy (Praeger Publishers, 1975)
Ingersent, K., A. Rayner, and R. Hine (eds.) Agriculture in the Uruguay Round (St. Martin’s press, New York 1994).
Ingco,Merlinda D., Agriculture, trade, and the WTO: creating a trading environment for development, Washington, D.C.: World Bank, c2003.
Ingco, Merlinda D., Agriculture and the WTO: creating a trading system for development, Washington, DC: World Bank, c2004.
Jackson, J. World Trade and the Law of GATT(Bobbs-Merrill, 1969).
Jackson,J. Legal Problems of International Economic Relations (West Publishing Co.1977).
Jackson, J. “The Jurisprudence of International Trade: The DISC CASE in GATT”,72 American Journal of International Law(1978).
Jackson, J., W. Davey and A. Sykes, Legal Problems of International Economic Relations: Cases, Materials and Text (3rd ed., West Publishing Co.1995).
John H. Jackson, The World Trading System: Law and Policy of International Economic Relations, Second Edition, the MIT Press, 1989.
Konnandreas, P. and J. Greenfield, “Uruguay Pound Commitments on Domestic Support and Export Subsidies: Their Implications for Developing Countries”, in FAO/World Bank (eds.) Implementing the Uruguay Round Agreement in Latin America: the Case of Agriculture (Santiago, 1997).
Laird, S. Multilateral Approaches to Market Access Negotiations, WTO Staff Working Paper TPRD-98-02 (May 1998).
Lankoski, J. Environmental Effects of Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Domestic Agricultural Trade Reforms, UNCTAD Discussion Paper Series, UNCTAD/OSG/DP/126 (April 1997).
Long, O. Law and Its Limitations in the GATT Multilateral Trade System(1987).
Melaku Geboye Desta, The Law of International Trade in Agricultural Products From GATT1947 to the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (2002), KLUWER LAW INTERNATIOAL.
McMahon,J, Agriculture Trade, Protectionism and the Problems of Development: a Legal Perspective (Leicester University Press, London 1992).
Miner, W. and D. Hathaway, World Agricultural Trade: Building a Consensus (The Institute for Research on Public Plicy, Halifax, Canada, 1988).
OECD,”Agricultural Policies, Markets, and Trade in OECD Countries: Monitoring and Evaluation 1996: Summary and Conclusions”, republished in 8 World Trade and Arbitration Materials, No.5 (September 1996).
OECD, Agricultural Policies, Markets and Trade: Monitoring and Outlook (Paris,1994).
OECD,National Policies and Agricultural Trade (Paris 1987).
O'Connor Bernard, Agriculture in WTO law, London: Cameron May, 2005.
Palmeter, D. “Agriculture and Countervailing Duty Laws”, 92 American Journal of International Law No.3(1998).
Pauwelyn, J. “Evidence, Proof and Persuasion in WTO Dispute Settlement”, 1 Journal of International Economic Law(1998).
Petersmann, E-U., The CATT/WTO Dispute Settlement System: International Law, International Organizations and Dispute Settlement (Kluwer 1997).
Phegan, C.”GATT Article XVI:3: Export Subsidies and “Equitable Shares” 16 Journal of World Trade Law (1982).
Rivers, R. and J. Greenwald, “The Negotiation of a Code on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures: Bridging Fundamental Differences”, 11 Law&Policy in International Business (1979).
R. Schaffer, B. Earle, and F. Augusti, International Business Law and Its Environment, (6rd ed. West Publishing Co. 2005).
Schaffer, R., B. Earle, and F. Augusti, International Business Law and Its Environment (3rd.ed., West Publishing Co. 1996).
Schmitthoff, C. The Law and Practice of International Trade (Stevens & Sons, 8th ed.1986).
Shaw, D. and H. Singer “A Future Future Food Aid Regime: Implications of the Final Act of the Uruguay Round”, 21 Food Policy No.4/5 (1996).
Stewart, T. (ed.) The GATT Uruguay Round: A Negotiating History (1986-1992), in III Vols. (Kluwer 1993).
Stewart, T. and A. Dwyer, WTO Antidumping and Subsidy Agreement – A Practitioner’s Guide to “Sunset” Reviews in Australia, Canada, the European Union, and the United States (Kluwer 1998).
Tangermann, S. A Developed Country Perspective of the Agenda for the Next WTO Round of Agricultural Negotiations, paper presented at the Graduate Institute of International Studies (Geneva 3 March 1997).
Tangermann, S. An Assesment of the Urufuay Round Agreement on Agriculture , paper prepared for the OECD’s Agriculture Directorate (Paris 1994).
Thompson, K. “CAP and the WTO after the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture” 2 European Foreign Affairs Review (1996).
United States Department of State, Suggested Chatter for an International Trade Organization of the United Nations (Washington D.C.,1946).
Van Houtte, H. The Law of International Trade (Sweet&Maxwell 1995)
.
III.CASES
GATTCASES
Canada-Import, Distribution and Sale of Alcoholic Drinks by Canadian Provincial Marketing Agencies, report of the panel (L/6304 BISD 35S/37), adopted on 22 March 1988.
Canada-Import Restrictions on Ice Cream and Yoghurt report of the panel (L/6568 BISD 36S/135) ,adopted on 5 December 1989.
European Communities-Programme of Minimum Import Prices, Licences, and Surety Deposits for Certain Processed Fruits and Vegetable, report of the panel (L/4687 BISD 25S/68) adopted on 18 October 1978.
European Communities - Refunds on Exports of Sugar , report of the panel (L/4833 BISD 26S/290-319) , adopted on 6 November 1979.
European Economic Community─ Restrictions on Imports of Apples from Chile report of the panel (L/5047 BISD 27S/98) adopted on 10 November 1980.
Economic Community - Subsidies on Export of Wheat Flour, report of the panel (SCM/42, issued on 21 March 1983, not adopted.).
European Economic Community - Restriction on Imports of Dessert Apples: Complaint by Chile, report of the panel (L/6491 BISD 36S/93),adopted on 22 June 1989.
French Assistance to Exports of Wheat and Wheat Flour, report of the panel (L/924 BISD 7S/49), adopted on 21 November .1958.
Italian Discrimination against Imported Agricultural Machinery, report of the panel (L/833 BISD 7S/60) adopted on 23 October 1958.
Japan-Restrictions on Imports of Certain Agricultural Products, report of the panel (BISD 35S/163), adopted on 2 February 1988.
Japan-Trade in Semi-Conductors, report of the panel (L/6309 BISD 35S/116) adopted on 4 May 1988.
The Australian Subsidy on Ammonium Sulphate, report of the Working Party (GATT/Cp.4/39 BISD, Vol.II), adopted on 14 March 1950.
United States Tax Legislation (DISC), report of panel (L/4422 BSID23S/98) presented on the Council on 12 November 1976 and adopted on 8 December 1981.
United States─ Restrictions on Imports of Sugar, report of the panel (L/6514, BISD 36S/224) adopted on 22 Jane 1989.

WTOCASES
Canada - Measures Affecting the Importation of Milk and the Exportation of Dairy Products report of the Appellate Body(WT/DS103/AB/R) adopted 27 October 1999.
Chile-Price Band System and Safeguard Measures Relating to Certain Agricultural Products, report of the Panel (WT/DS207/R) adopted on 3 May 2002.
European Communities-Measures Affecting the Importation of Certain Poultry Products, report of the Appellate Body(WT/DS69/AB/R), adopted 23 July 1998.
European Economic Community-Payments and Subsidies Paid to Processors and Producers of Oilseeds and Related Animal-feed Proteins, report of the Panel (L/6627 BISD 37/86), adopted on 25 January 1990.
India-Quantitative Restrictions on Imports of Agricultural, Taxes and Industrial Products, report of the panel (WTO/DS90/R) adopted on 6 April 1999.
Korea-Definitive Safeguard Measure on Imports of Certain Dairy Products, Report of the Appellate Body (WT/DS98/AB/R), adopted on 14 December 1999.
United States-Tax Treatment for 「Foreign Sales Corporation」, report of the Appellate Body (WT/DS108/AB/R) adopted on 24 February 2000.

三、參考網站
中華經濟研究院WTO中心:https://www.wtocenter.org.tw/SmartKMS/do/www/ listStaticHome
國際貿易局經貿資訊網:http://cweb.trade.gov.tw/
國際貿易局WTO入口網:http://cwto.trade.gov.tw/default.asp
WTO農業研究中心網站:http://www.arcwto.org.tw/default_new.asp
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1. 邱政宗,2003,<世界貿易組織新一回合談判議題分析(中)>,《立法院院聞》,31(3):頁84-95。
2. 邱政宗,2003,<世界貿易組織新一回合談判議題分析(上)>,《立法院院聞》,31(2):頁58-77。
3. 林傳琦,2005,「日本農業境內支持調降策略簡介」,《農政與農情》155:63-66。
4. 林文傑,2005,「日本未來農業施政方針簡介」,《農政與農情》,154:75-78。
5. 林家榮,2004,「WTO七月套案農業談判架構共識及其對國內農業之影響」,《農政與農情》,147:42-45。
6. 林家榮,2000,<WTO新回合談判有關農業多功能性之爭議>,《農政與農情》,革新版(91):頁50-54。
7. 吳榮義、江啟臣,2003,「WTO架構下的國際貿易與台灣的因應策略」,《國家政策季刊》,2(2):1-28。
8. 李金龍,2003,<加入WTO農業整體情況與展望>,《農政與農情》,革新版(128):頁6-8。
9. 李舟生,2002c,「WTO新回合農業談判之展望與建議-兼述我入會現況」,《農政與農情》,94:57-75。
10. 李舟生,2002a,「過去兩年WTO主要會員農業談判立場概述」,《雜糧與畜產》,340:6-14。
11. 王俊豪,2005,「WTO會員方與歐盟農業補貼綠色措施結構變遷之分析」,《農政與農情》158:77-82。
12. 王俊豪,2004,「歐盟鄉村發展政策之演變與展望」,《農政與農情》144:82-91。
13. 王明來,1999,「WTO新回合農業談判議題及各主要國家之立場」,《農政與農情》,89:46-51。
14. 胡忠一,2003,「日本新農政-『食料、農業、農村基本法』之形成背景及其主要內容(上)」,《合作經濟》79:28-34。
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