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研究生:吳俊男
研究生(外文):Wu,Jun Nan
論文名稱:分散式發電機之孤島保護
論文名稱(外文):An Islanding Protection for Distributed Generators
指導教授:張文宇
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:聖約翰科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:分散式發電機主動式孤島現象檢測被動式孤島現象檢測相關因數電壓振幅擾動
外文關鍵詞:Distributed GeneratorActive Islanding Detection MethodPassive Islanding Detection MethodCorrelation FactorVoltage Fluctu
相關次數:
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本論文針對併網運轉之分散式發電機,研製一系列孤島現象檢測
系統,本論文所提出之孤島檢測系統可分為被動式和主動式兩種。
本論文所提出之被動式孤島檢測系統以電壓變化率與頻率變化率
為基礎,檢測系統量測發電機之負載端電壓與頻率,用以計算輸出端
的電壓變化率與頻率變化率。當併網運轉時,由於相較於分散式發電
機而言,市電系統的容量極大,因此負載端電壓與頻率將可維持定
值,亦即電壓變化率與頻率變化率幾近於零。而當孤島運轉時,由於
發電機的容量有限,因此發電機的輸出功率將與受電端的本地負載功
率產生失配,而發生明顯的電壓變化與頻率變化。因此,電壓變化率
與頻率變化率可作為辦別發生孤島現象與否的指標。
本論文所提出之兩種主動式檢測系統都是以相關因數法為基
礎,第一種主動式檢測系統是利用週期性開關電路,將一個高阻抗週
期性的並聯於發電機的負載端,以產生電壓振幅擾動。第二種主動式
檢測系統則是週期性改變同步發電機的激磁電壓,以產生電壓振幅擾
動。當併網運轉時,由於市電系統的電源阻抗極小,因此負載端電壓
將不致產生明顯週期性的電壓振幅擾動。而當孤島運轉時,由於發電
機的內阻抗較大,因此負載端電壓將產生明顯週期性的電壓振幅擾
動。經由計算相關因數是否超過所設的臨界值,可作為辦別發生孤島現象與否的依據。
為驗證本論文所提孤島現象檢測法之實用性,本論文以併網型三
相同步和感應發電機作為實際測試對象,配合各種負載狀態,進行孤
島現象檢測之實際測試,實測結果證明本方法兼具可靠、經濟與使用
便利性。
A series of islanding detection methods for use with grid-connected
distributed generator (DG) are proposed in this thesis. The proposed
passive islanding detection method is based on two indices: the rate of
change of frequency (ROCOF) and rate of change of voltage (ROCOV).
The detection system monitors the terminal voltage at the
grid-interconnected point, and operates when the value of ROCOF or
ROCOV exceeds a setting and duration exceeds a time delay setting.
When DG is grid-interconnected, the ROCOF and ROCOV are lower
than the threshold values. In contrast, as an islanding occurs, the ROCOF
or ROCOV would become much higher than the threshold values.
Two proposed active islanding detection methods are based on
voltage fluctuation injections. One method obtains voltage fluctuation
through the high impedance load switching on the grid periodically.
Another method obtains voltage fluctuation through the field voltage
regulating of the DG periodically. The correlation factor between the
periodic perturbed signal and the fluctuant voltage is then used as an
islanding detection index. When DG is connected to the grid, the
correlation factor is lower than a threshold value. In contrast, as an
islanding occurs, the correlation factor would become much higher than
the threshold value.
Experiments are discussed which demonstrate the principles of the
technique. Test results are presented which show that the new proposed
methods are reliable, economical and easy for implementation.
封面............................................................................................................I
論文摘要...................................................................................................II
Abstract....................................................................................................IV
誌謝...........................................................................................................V
目錄..........................................................................................................VI
圖目錄......................................................................................................IX
表目錄.....................................................................................................XII
第一章 緒論...........................................................................................1
1.1 前言..............................................................................................1
1.2 孤島現象的損害..........................................................................2
1.3 文獻回顧......................................................................................3
1.3.1 被動式孤島現象檢測法..................................................3
1.3.2 主動式孤島現象檢測法...................................................4
1.4 研究動機......................................................................................5
1.5 本論文貢獻..................................................................................6
1.6 章節介紹......................................................................................7
第二章 原理與方法.............................................................................9
2.1 前言..............................................................................................9
2.2 被動式孤島檢測法....................................................................10
2.2-1 頻率變化率檢測法........................................................10
2.2-2 電壓變化率檢測法........................................................12
2.3 相關因數法.................................................................................16
2.4 主動式孤島檢測法....................................................................21
2.4.1 負載側高阻抗擾動法......................................................21
2.4.2 激磁源擾動法..................................................................24
第三章 檢測系統與硬體架構........................................................28
3.1 前言............................................................................................28
3.2 被動式孤島檢測法之硬體規劃…............................................29
3.2.1 被動式孤島檢測法之全系統架構..................................29
3.2.2 被動式孤島檢測系統各子系統介紹..............................30
3.3 負載側高阻抗擾動法之硬體規劃............................................33
3.3.1 負載側高阻抗擾動法全系統架構..................................33
3.3.2 負載側高阻抗擾動檢測系統各子系統介紹………......33
3.4 主動式激磁源擾動法之硬體規劃............................................37
第四章 檢測系統軟體規劃….........................................................41
4.1 前言............................................................................................41
4.2 數位信號處理器簡介................................................................43
4.3 被動式孤島檢測法軟體規劃....................................................45
4.3.1 被動式孤島檢測法主程式流程......................................45
4.3.2 被動式孤島檢測法之副程式..........................................47
4.4 負載側高阻抗擾動法軟體規劃................................................50
4.4.1 負載側高阻抗擾動法主程式流程…………………......50
4.4.2 負載側高阻抗擾動法之副程式......................................52
4.5 主動式激磁源擾動法軟體規劃................................................55
4.5.1 主動式激磁源擾動法之主程式流程…………..………55
4.5.2 主動式激磁源擾動法之副程式……………………..…57
第五章 實驗結果...............................................................................60
5.1 前言............................................................................................60
5.2 相關規範....................................................................................61
5.2.1 電壓正常運作範圍..........................................................61
5.2.2 頻率正常運作範圍..........................................................61
5.2.3 電壓閃爍..........................................................................62
5.2.4 三相不平衡......................................................................63
5.2.5 波形失真..........................................................................63
5.2.6 測試負載之共振頻率與品質因數..................................63
5.3 被動式孤島檢測法之實測........................................................65
5.4 主動式負載側高阻抗擾動法之實測........................................69
5.4.1 同步發電機做負載側高阻抗擾動檢測法之實測……..69
5.4.2 感應發電機做負載側高阻抗擾動檢測法之實測..........73
5.5 主動式激磁源擾動法之實測....................................................77
5.6 主動式孤島檢測法之電力品質分析........................................81
5.7 本章結論....................................................................................83
第六章 結論........................................................................................84
6.1 結論............................................................................................84
6.2 未來研究方向............................................................................85
參考文獻...............................................................................................86
作者簡介...............................................................................................87
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