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研究生:吳世凱
研究生(外文):Shih-Kai Wu
論文名稱:應用整合式二維及三維機器視覺系統於表面黏著元件之瑕疵檢測
論文名稱(外文):Integrated 2D/3D machine vision system fordefect inspection of SMT soldering components
指導教授:顏旭男顏旭男引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsu-Nan Yen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:聖約翰科技大學
系所名稱:自動化及機電整合研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:54
中文關鍵詞:三維量測二維檢測機器視覺瑕疵檢測
外文關鍵詞:3D measurementMachine visionDefect inspection
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
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摘要
應用整合式二維及三維機器視覺系統於
表面黏著元件之瑕疵檢測

在表面黏著製程中,二維及三維量測對其品質檢測相當重要。有關位置與面積的瑕疵資訊,雖可藉由二維檢測獲得;但相關高度方面的瑕疵資訊卻必須經由三維系統獲得。現今三維量測方面,主要為X射線(X-ray)或雷射掃瞄(Laser scanning)方法的精密量測系統,不僅建置成本高,且檢測速度慢。
本研究針對表面黏著元件之印刷電路板(PCB)錫膏及球格陣列(BGA)錫球的品質檢測,提出一個建置成本低、量測效益高之整合式光學量測系統。二維檢測子系統利用灰階比較技術,可快速檢測出表面黏濁元件之二維瑕疵。三維量測子系統則是以相位移技術為基,可進行全場三維量測,在兩秒內完成一張640×480像素影像的三維量測,從鍚膏(Solder paste) 及球格陣列錫球(Ball grid array, BGA)的初步實驗,證明本整合系統在表面黏著電子封裝元件的品質檢測上有其功效。

關鍵字:三維量測;二維檢測;機器視覺;瑕疵檢測。
Abstract
Integrated 2D/3D machine vision system for
defect inspection of SMT soldering components

Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) measurement is important for the quality inspection of SMT manufacturing process. The defect informations about position and area can be acquired by 2D inspection techniques; however, the defects about height data must be obtained with the 3D measurement system. Currently, 3D measurements of SMT soldering components are mainly performed by X-ray or laser-based systems, but they suffer from high equipment cost and low inspection speed.
In this study, a cost-effective and fast machine vision system, which integrates the 2D and 3D measurment system, is prposed for the quality inspection of print-circuit-board (PCB) solder pastes and ball-grid-array (BGA) solder balls. The 2D subsystem is based on gray level comparision technique. It can quickly detect the 2D defects of SMT soldering components. The 3D subsystem is based on phase shifting technique, and can perform full-field 3D measurement. The processing time of the 3D subsystem for an image of 640×480 pixels is less than 2 seconds on a typical personal computer. Experimental results from solder pastes and BGA solder balls have shown the efficacy of the integrated system in the quality inspection of SMT soldering components.

Keywords: 3D measurement; 2D inspection; Machine vision; Defect inspection.
目錄
中文摘要.................................................... Ⅰ
英文摘要.................................................... Ⅱ
目錄........................................................ Ⅳ
表目錄...................................................... Ⅵ
圖目錄...................................................... Ⅶ
第一章 緒論................................................ 1
1.1 研究背景與動機.................................. 1
1.2 研究範圍與目的.................................. 1
1.3 研究方法簡介.................................... 2
1.4 論文架構........................................ 3
第二章 文獻回顧............................................ 4
2.1 錫膏製程及其瑕疵簡介............................ 4
2.2 錫球演進及其瑕疵簡介............................ 6
2.3 二維相關檢測技術................................ 8
2.4 三維相關檢測技術................................ 9
2.5 相位移量測技術.................................. 9
第三章 二維檢測及三維量測技術............................. 11
3.1 二維量測技術.................................... 11
3.1.1 影像分割-二值化(Threshold)................ 12
3.1.2 形態學影像處理........................... 13
3.2 本系統二維量測瑕疵判斷與流程圖.................. 14
3.2.1 錫膏與錫球之瑕疵判斷..................... 14
3.2.2 二維檢測流程............................. 16

3.3 相位量測技術.................................... 18
3.4 LCD投射系統.................................... 21
3.5 三維投射系統量測流程............................ 24
3.6 三維系統之參數k值校正.......................... 26
3.7 正弦影像雜訊之濾除.............................. 27
3.7.1 中值濾波.................................. 27
3.7.2 條紋對比度................................ 28
第四章 二維瑕疵檢測及三維量測實驗結果..................... 29
4.1 系統架構........................................ 29
4.2 二維形態檢測之實驗結果.......................... 31
4.2.1 二維錫球分析.............................. 32
4.2.2 二維錫膏分析.............................. 34
4.3 三維高度量測之實驗結果.......................... 36
4.3.1 錫球之高度計算............................ 38
4.3.2 錫膏之高度計算............................ 44
4.4 程式之執行時間.................................. 49
第五章 結論與未來研究方向................................. 51
5.1 結論............................................ 51
5.2 未來研究方向.................................... 51
參考文獻................................................... 52
參考文獻

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