跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.124.56) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/30 06:34
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:安雅思
研究生(外文):Gladdys A. Atendido
論文名稱:組織文化研究台灣MNC及菲律賓子公司的評估
論文名稱(外文):A Study of An Organizational Culture: Assessment between MNC in Taiwan and it’s Subsidiary in the Philippines
指導教授:威傑瑞
指導教授(外文):Gerald Venezia
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:企業管理系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
外文關鍵詞:Organizational cultureClan cultureHierarchy cultureMarket cultureOrganizational leadership
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:108
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本篇論文以探討現行的商業文化及更好的商業文化,來驗證統一企業在台灣總公司和菲律賓子公司間的組織文化。
在評估組織文化方面,1999年由Cameron & Quinn提出的組織文化測評工具OCAI,以六種文化類型的特點條件來對員工評分。這六種特點為:主導特徵、領導風格、員工管理、組織凝聚、策略重點、成功準則。本研究在於驗證公司的管理原則和任務是否與組織文化同步。
結果揭示現行文化和較受員工歡迎的文化的異同點,就現行文化的整體來看,台灣總公司實行的階層級文化和菲律賓子公司實行的集團文化是不同的,較受歡迎的集團文化在台灣總公司和菲律賓子公司中卻頗為相似。這個結果說明,在近五年內,現行的商業文化類型和組織內員工優先喜好的文化,必須仰賴支援型組織文化來提升工作的高滿意度和組織承諾。
This thesis examines organization culture between the Taiwan headquarters of Uni-President Enterprises Corp. and its subsidiary in the Philippines by examining the current culture and the preferred culture.
In measuring the organizational culture, the (OCAI) Organizational Culture Assessment Instruments by Cameron & Quinn (1999) was used to score employees in relation to culture types of the six dimensions, which are: the dominant characteristics of the organization, organizational leadership, management of employees, organizational glue, the strategic emphases, and criteria of success. This study examines whether company’s management principles and mission are synchronous to their organizational culture.
The findings revealed the similarities and differences of a culture currently rated and preferred by the employees. An overall score of the current culture, Hierarchy culture in the Taiwan headquarters and Clan culture in the Philippines subsidiary were different. The preferred Clan culture found the same for the Taiwan headquarters and the Philippines subsidiary. The results explain the culture types currently existing in the organization and the employees’ preference of a culture in an organization in five years from now to increase a high level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment resulted from a supportive culture type of an organization.
CHINESE ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………....I
ENGLISH ABSTRACT..…………………………………………………….....................II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………….......III
TABLE OF CONTENTS..……………………………………..………………………….V
LIST OF TABLES.……………………………………….…………...…….……............VII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..……………………………………………........…….....1
1.1 Focus of the study. ………………..………………………………………….…….1
1.1.1 Organizational Culture..…………………………………………………….…….2
1.1.2 Uni-President Enterprises Corporation in Taiwan Headquarters ………….……..3
1.1.2.1 Management Principles and Business Cultures..…………………….…...3
1.1.2.2 Human Resources Management and Development. …………….……….4
1.1.2.3 Uni-President Around the World.…………………………….………......6
1.1.3 Uni-President in the Philippines Subsidiary..……………………………...……...7
1.1.3.1 Corporate Mission..……………………………………………….........…8
1.1.3.2 Corporate Vision..…………………………………………….............…..8
1.1.3.3 Corporate Values..………………………………………………..…….....8
1.1.4 The Taiwanese Cultural Perspective. ………………………………………..…....9
1.1.5 The Philippines Cultural Perspective..…………………………………………...10
1.1.6 Statement of the Problem..……………………………………………………….12
1.1.7 Purpose of the Study. ………………………………………………………...….13
1.1.8 Significance of the Study. ……………………………………………...………..14
1.1.9 Hypotheses. ……………………………………………………….…...………...15
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………...………….....….. 24
2.1 What is Culture?..…………………………………………………………..……..24
2.2 Organizational Culture. …………………………………………………..………26
2.3 Review of the Related Studies. ………………………………………….….……32
2.3.1 Measuring Organizational Cultures. …………………………….………....32
2.3.2 Importance of Culture Study in Merger, Reunification and Foreign
Affiliates. ………………………………………………………………..…..39
2.3.3 Study of Culture in Manufacturing..………………………………………..47
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY. ……………………………………………….………..50
3.1 Population and Sampling ……………………………………………….…………50
3.2 Instrumentation ……..……………………………………………………..……….51
3.3 Research Design. ………………………………………………………….…….…52
3.3.1 Distribution of Questionnaires. ……………………………………..…….52
3.3.2 Data Collection. ……………………………………………………..…….53
3.4 Analyses. ……………………………………………………………………..….....54
3.5 Validity. ……………………………………………………………….…………....54
3.5.1 Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI). ………..……....54
3.6 Reliability. ………………………………………………………………….............56
3.6.1 Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI). ………………..56
3.7 Scope and Limitation. ……………………………………………………...……...58
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS………………………….………..……........................................59
4.1 Descriptive Statistics ………..……………………………………..………………59
4.2 Data Analyses……………..………………………..…………….…….…………..66
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS………..………………...86
5.1 Discussion. ………………..…………………………………………….…………86
5.2 Recommendations. ………………………………………………..……………….94
REFERENCES.……………………………..………………..………………..…………...97
APPENDIXES.…………………………..…………………………………….…………106
Appendix A: Letter to Respondents…………………….…………………..……..……...106
Appendix B : Questionnaire for Taiwanese Respondents...................................................107
Appendix C : Questionnaire for Philippines Respondents. …………………..………......112
Alpert, S. & Whetten, D. A. (1985) “Organizational identity,” Research in
Organizational Behavior, 7: 263-502.

Alvesson, M. (1983), “Concepts of organizational culture and presumed links to
efficiency”, Omega International Journal of Management Science, Vol. 17 No. 4, pp. 323-33.

Argyris, C., & Schon, D.A. (1978). Organizational learning. Reading, MA: Addison-
Wesley.

Arnold, D.R. & Capella, L. M. (1985) Corporate culture and the marketing concept: a
diagnostic instrument for utilities. Public Utilities Fortnightly, 116: 32-38.

Ashkanasy, N. M., Wilderom, C.P.M., & Peterson, M. F. (Eds.) (2000). Hand-book of
Organizational culture and climate. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Baker, G.R., King, H., MacDonald, J.L., & Horbar, J.D. (2003). Using Organizational
Assessment Surveys for Improvement in Neonatal Intensive Care. American Academy of Pediatrics [Web document], 111 (4), 7 pages. Available: http://www.pediatrics. org/cgi/content/full/111/4/SE1/e419 [2006, 20 December].

Bassi, L. (1997) From "Harnessing the Power of Intellectual Capital," in Training
Development, [Web document]. Available: http://www.astd.org/astd/Resources/
performance_improvement_community/Glossary.htm [2007, 15 January].

Bates, R.J. (1984), “Toward a critical practice of educational administration”, in
Sergiovanni, T. and Corbally, J.E. (Eds), Leadership and Organizational Culture, University of Illionis Press, Urbana, IL.

Berrio, A.A. & Venezuela, M. An organizational culture assessment using the
competing values framework: a profile of ohio state university extension. Journal of Extension [Web document], 41(2), 12pages. Available: http://www.joe.org/joe/
2003april/a3.shtml [2006, 22 June].

Berry, J.W., Pootinga, Y. H., Segall, M. h., & Dasen, P. R. (1992). Cross-cultural
psychology: Research and applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Beyer, J. & Cameron, K. (1997) Organizational culture. Enhancing
Organizational Performance. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.
Bridges, W. (2000). The character of organizations: using personality type in
organization development. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.

Cameron, K.S. & Quinn, R.E. (1999) Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture,
Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc.

Cameron, Kim S. & Ettington, Deborah R. (1988) The conceptual foundations of
organizational culture. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, pages 356-396. New York: Agathon.

Campbell, Donald T. & Fisk, D.W. (1959) Convergent and discriminant validation by
the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56:81-105.

Chow, C.W., Harrison, G.I., Mckinnon, J.L., & Wu, Anne. (2001). The Organizational
Culture of Public Accounting Firms: Evidence from Taiwanese Local and U.S. Affiliated Firms. Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER). San Diego State University.

Clemente, M., & Greenspan, D. (1999, February). M & A’s: preventing culture clash. HR
Focus, 76(2), 9.

Colin, S. (2004). The impact of organizational culture and person-organization fit on
organizational commitment and job satisfaction in Taiwan. The Leadership & Organization Development Journal [Web document], 25 (7), 8 pages. Available: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0143-7739.htm [2006, 5 December].

Cook, S. D. N., & Yanow, D. (1993). Culture and organizational learning. Journal of
Management Inquiry, 2 (4), 373-390.

Davis, S. (1984). Managing corporate culture. Cambridge, MA: Balinger.

Deal T. E., & Kennedy, A. A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of
Corporate Life, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books.

Deal, T.E., & Kennedy, A. A. (1982). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-
Wesley.

Deal, T. E. & Kennedy, A.A. (1982) Culture: a new look through old lenses,
Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, 19: 498-506.

Deal, T. E., & Kennedy, A. A. (1999). The new corporate cultures. New York: Perseus.

Denison, D. and Mishra, A.K. (1995), “Toward a theory of organizational culture and
effectiveness”, Organization Science, Vol. 6, pp. 204-23.
Deresky, H. (1999). International Management Managing Across Boarders and Cultures,
Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc

Douglas, M. (1986). How institution think. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Eamonn, P. S., & Glenn, H. (1994). The importance of organizational and national
culture. European Business Review [Web document], 94 (5), 3-14. Available: www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0540940501.pdf [2006, 15 December].

Earley, P.C. (1994), “Self-group? Cultural Effects of training on self-efficacy and
performance”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 39, pp. 89-117.

Ernest, R.C. (1985) Corporate cultures and effective planning: An introduction to the
organization culture grid. Personal Administrator, 30: 49-60. European Business Review, 14 (4), pp.268-275. Available: http:
//www.emeraldinsight.com/0955-534X.htm

Feldman, M. (1991). The meanings of ambiguity: Learning from stories and metaphors.
In P. Frost, L. Moore, M. Louis, C. Lundberg, & J. Martin (Eds), Reframing
organizational culture (pp.145-156). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Ferda, E., & Cigdem, S. (2003). Features of organizational culture in manufacturing
organizations: a metaphorical analysis. Work Study [Web document], 52 (3), pp 129-135. Available: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0043-8022.htm [2006, 9 December].

Gagliardi, P. (Ed.) (1990). Symbols and artifacts. Views of the corporate landscape. New
York; Walter de Gruyter.

Galpin, T. (1996). Connecting culture to organizational change. HR Magazine
[On-line serial] 41 (3). Available:http://web3infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/in..10!
xm_15_0_A18251530?sw_aep=naal_uahgbf [2006, 10 December].

Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.

Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self n everyday life. New York: Doubleday.

Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine

Gordon, G.G. (1985) “The relationship between corporate culture and industry sector and
corporate performance.” In Kilmann, Ralph, Saxton, M.J., Serpa, R., and Associates (eds.) Gaining Control of the Corporate Culture, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Grossman. R (1999, April). Irreconcilable differences. HR Magazine, 44(4), 42-49.

Hatch, M. J., (1990). The symbolics of office design. In P. Gagliardi (Ed.), Symbols and
artifacts. New York; Walter the Gruyter.

Henderson, R.M., & Clark, K.B. (1990). Architectural innovation: The reconfiguration of
existing product technologies and the failure of established firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 9-30.

Hofstede, G.H. (1980), Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-
related Values, Sage Publications, London.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (1st
ed.1980).

Homans, G. (1950). The human group. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Hon, C.M. (2002). A Quantitative Analysis of organizational culture perception in a same
Industry Merger. Doctoral Dissertation, Capella University, USA.

Huliselan, J.J., & Ali, J.H. (2002). Synergy of National and Corporate Culture:
Comparative Study Amongst International Hotels Operating in Indonesia [Web document], pp. 859-874. Available: http://blake.montclair.edu/~cibconf/conference/
DATA/Theme4/Malaysia2.pdf [2006, 20 December].

Jelinek, M. et al. (1983), “Introduction: a code of many colors”, Administrative Science
Quarterly, Vol. 28, pp. 331-8.

Jones, M. O., Moore, M.D., & Snyder, R.C. (Eds.). (1988). Inside organizations.
Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kathryn, B. (2002) Organizational culture. [Web document]. Available: http://www.wren-
network.net/resources/benchmark/11OrganizationalCulture.pdf [2007, 8 January].


Kessapidou, S., & Varsakelis, N.C. (2002). The impact of national culture on
international business performance: the case of foreign firms in Greece. European
Business Review [Web documents], 14(4), 8pages.
Available: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0955-534X.htm. [2006, 5 December]

Kilmann, R. H. & Saxton, M. J. (1983). The Kilmann-Saxton culture gap survey.
Pittsburgh, PA: Organizational Design Consultants.

Kotter, J. P., & Heskett, J. L. (1992) Corporate Culture and Performance. New
York: Free Press.

Kruskal, J.B., & Wish, M. (1978) Multidimensional Scaling. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Lissack, M. (1994), Complexity Metaphors and the Management of a Knowledge Based
Enterprise, available at: wwwlissack.com/writings/proposal.htm.

Louis, M. (1985). An investigator’s guide to workplace culture. In P. Frost, L. Moore. M.
Louis, C. Lundberg, & J. Martin (Eds.), Organizational culture (pp.73-94). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Mardas, D., Pournarakis, M., & Versakelis, N.C. (1996), “National culture and
international takeovers in peripheral economies: the case of Greece, 1989-1994”, paper presented at the 22nd Annual Conference of the European International Business Academy, Stockholm.

Martin, J. (1992) Cultures in Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.

Martin, J. (2002). Organization Culture: Mapping the Terrain: Sage Publication.

Matsumoto, D., & Juang, L. (2004). Culture and Psychology: Thompson Wadsworth

McDonald, P., & Gandz, J. (1992, Winter). Getting value from shared values.
Organizational Dynamics, 21(3), 64-78.

Meyerson, D. (1991a). “Normal” ambiguity? A glimpse of an occupational culture. In P.
Frost, L. Moore, M. Louis, C. Lundberg, & J. Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 131-144). Newbury Park, CA; Sage.

Mills, A. (1988). Organization, gender, and culture. Organization Studies, 9, 351-370


Morgan, M.Y. (1998). Yonetim ve Orgut Teorilerinde Metafor, Mess Yayinlari, Istanbul
(Turkish version of Images of Organization, Sage Publications, 1997).

Morosini, P., & Singh, H. (1994). “Post-cross-border acquisitions: implementing
‘national culture-compatible’ strategies to improve performance”, European Management Journal, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 390-8.

Morosini, P., Shane, S., & Singh, H. (1998). “National cultural distance and cross-
border acquisition performance”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 137-58.

Mowday, R.T., Porter, L.W., & Steers, R.M. (1982). Employee-Organizational
Linkages: The psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover, Academic Press, New York, NY.

Newman, K.L., & Nollen, S.D. (1996). “Culture and congruence: the fit between
management practices and national culture”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 753-79.

O’Reilly, Charles, Chatman, Jennifer, and Caldwell, David (1991). People and
organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34: 487-516.

Ouchi, W. G. (1981). Theory Z. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley

Packard, D. (1995). The HP way. New York: HapperCollins.

Palmer, I., & Lundberg, C. (1995). “Metaphors of hospitality of organizations: an
exploratory study”, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administrative Quarterly, Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 80-6.

Pascale, R. T., & Athos, A. G. (1981). The Art of Japanese management. New York:
Simon & Schuster.

Peters, T.J., & Waterman, R.H., Jr. (1982). In search of excellence. New York:
HarperCollins.

Pondy, L. R., Frost, P. J., Morgan, G., & Dandrige, T. (Eds.). (1983). Organizational
symbolism. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press.


Quinn, R. E., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1991). “The psychometrics of the competing values
culture instrument and an analysis of the impact of organizational culture on the quality of life.” Research in Organizational Change and Development, Volume 5, pages 115-142. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. R. and Associates (eds.) Gaining Control of the Corporate Culture, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Rao, A., & Hashimoto, K. (1996). “Intercultural Influence: a study of Japanese expatriate
managing directors in Canada”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 27 No. 3, pp.443-66.

Reilly, A. J. (1974). “Individual needs and organizational goals”, in Pfeiffer, J. W. and
Jones, J. E. (Eds), Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators, University Associates, San Diego, CA.

Ritti, R. R., & Funkhouser, G. R. (1987). The ropes to skip and the ropes to know.
Columbus, OH: Grid (3rd ed.; 1st ed. 1982).

Robbins, S. R. (1987). Organizational Theory: Structure, design and applications.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Salant, P., & Dillman, D.A. (1994). How to conduct your own survey. New York: John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sathe, V. (1985). Culture and related corporate realities: Text, cases and readings an
organizational entry, establishment, and change. Homewood, IL: Irwin.

Sathe, Vijay (1983). Implications of corporate culture: A manager’s guide to action.
Organizational Dynamics, 12: 4-23.

Schall, M. (1983). A communication rules approach to organizational culture.
Administrative Science Quarterly, 28 557-581.

Schein, E. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Schein, E. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Schein, E. H. (1968). Organizational socialization and the profession of management.
Industrial Management Review, 9, 1-15.

Schein, E. H. (1978). Career dynamics: Matching individual and organizational needs.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Schein, Edgar H. (1984). Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture. Sloan
Management Review, 25: 3-16.

Schneider, B. (Ed.) (1990). Organizational climate and culture. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-
Bass.

Schultz, M. (1995). On studying organizational cultures. New York; Walter de Gruyter.
sector and corporate performance.” In Kilmann, Ralph Saxton, M.J, Serpa

Senge, P.M., Roberts, C., Ross, R.B, Smith, B.J., & Kleiner, A. (1994). The fifth
discipline field book. New York: Doubleday Currency.

Sergiovanni, T., & Corbally, J. (Eds.). (1984). Leadership and organizational culture.
Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Smart, J. C., & Hamm, R. E. (1993). Organizational effectiveness and mission
orientations of two-year colleges. Research in Higher Education, 34 (4), 489-502.

Smart, J. C., & St. John, E. P. (1996). Organizational culture and effectiveness in higher
education: A test of the “Culture Type” and “Strong Culture” hypotheses. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 16(3), 219-241.

Smircich, L. (1983). Concepts of culture and organizational analysis. Administrative
Science Quarterly, 28, 339-358.

Smircich, L. (1983a). Concepts of culture and organizational analysis. Administrative
Science Quarterly, 28, 339-358.

Smircich, L. (1985), “Is the concept of culture on paradigm for understanding
organizations and ourselves?”, in Frost, P. et al. (Eds), Organizational Culture, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA.

Tagiuri, R., & Litwin, G.H. (Eds.) (1968). Organizational climate Exploration of a
Concept:. Boston: Division of Research, Harvard Graduate School of Business.

Taiwanese Culture [Web document]. Available:http://www.pacificbridge.com/
publication.asp?id=6 [ 2007, 25 January].

The Philippines Cultural Perspective. [Web document]. Available:http://en.wikipedia.org/
wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_the_Philippines [2007, 25 January].

Trice, H., & Beyer, J. M. (1993). The cultures of work organizations. Engle-wood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice Hall.

Uni-President Enterprises Corporation [Company website]. Available: http://www.uni-
president.com.ph/ [2007, 25 January].

Uni-President Enterprises Corporation [Company website]. Available: http://www.
unipresident.com/about/1-1.asp, http://www.unipresident.com/intl/uni_president/
uni_president_01.htm, http://www.unipresident.com/bmap/1-2-2.asp
[2007, 25 January].

Van Maanen, J. (1979a). The fact of fiction in organizational ethnography.
Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 539-550

Van Maanen, J. (1979b). The self, the situation, and the rules of interpersonal relations.
In W. Bennis and others, Essays in interpersonal dynamics. Florence, KY: Dorsey

Wagner, D. B., & Spencer J. L. (1996). The role of surveys in transforming culture: Data,
knowledge, and action. In Kraut, A. I. (Eds.), Organizational surveys: Tools for assessment and change. (pp.67-87). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Wallach, E. J. (1983). “Individuals and organizations: the cultural match”, Training and
Development Journal, Vol. 37, pp. 29-36.

Weick, k. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weiss, D.J., Davis, R.V., England, G.W. & Lofquist, L.H. (1967). “Minesota studies in
vocational rehabilitation”, Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, Vol. 22, University of Minnesota Industrial Relations Center, Minneapolis.

Wilkins, A.L., & Ouchi, W.G. (1983). “Efficient cultures: exploring the relationship
between culture and organizational performance”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 28, pp. 468-81.

Zammuto, R. F., & Krakower, J.Y. (1991). “Quantitative and qualitative
studies of organizational culture.” Research in Organizational Change and
Development, Volume 5, pages 83-114. Greewich, CT: JAI Press.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top