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研究生:武氏梅霞
研究生(外文):Mai-Ha Thi Vo
論文名稱:航空公司服務品質和乘客之滿意、價值和行為意圖之關係
論文名稱(外文):Airline Service Quality and Its Relationships with Satisfaction, Value, and Behavioral Intentions of Air Passengers: An Empirical Study of Vietnamese
指導教授:陳淑玲陳淑玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Ling Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:企業管理系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:服務品質價值滿意度行為意圖結構方程模式
外文關鍵詞:service qualityvaluesatisfactionbehavioral intentionsstructural equation model.
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摘要
由於市場結構變得更為競爭,全世界的航空公司已體認到需要做重大的改變以確保其生存和發展,因此航空公司致力於調整他們的經營策略,而服務品質正是航空公司與其競爭者做區隔的重要因素。另外,為了維繫顧客以尋求獲利,航空公司需要考慮服務品質與其它因素之間的關係,例如:乘客的價值、滿意和行為意圖等。本研究的目的是分析越南的航空公司其服務品質、乘客價值、乘客滿意度三者之間的關係,以及它們對行為意圖的影響。同時,為了辨識航空公司整體服務品質的關鍵驅策力,和檢視服務品質對乘客價值及滿意度的影響,本研究針對乘客所認知服務品質面向進行衡量,並透過結構方程模式提出一個理論性的建構,以檢驗這些因素之間相互的關係。
研究結果顯示,可靠性、同理心、及有形性三個構面,是航空公司整體服務品質的關鍵驅策力。此外,乘客滿意的前提條件是航空公司整體的服務品質與乘客價值。同時,乘客價值與滿意度對乘客的行為意圖有直接顯著的影響,而航空公司的服務品質對乘客的行為意圖則有間接的影響。本研究結果對下面兩方面有所貢獻:(1)可以增進對飛機乘客在選擇其所搭乘之航空公司決定過程的了解;(2)可以協助航空公司主管,尤其是越南航空公司的主管,對服務品質和其它可能影響公司運作效率之相關問題的回應。

關鍵字:服務品質、價值、滿意度、行為意圖、結構方程模式
ABSTRACT
As a result of a transition to a more competitive market structure, the airlines in the world have recognized the need for radical change to ensure their survival and prosperity. They have made major adjustments to the way they did business. Service quality is an important area where airlines can differentiate themselves from their competitors. Moreover, the airlines seeking customer retention which then leads to profitability need to consider service quality in the relationships with other factors such as value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions of passengers. This study aims to analyze the relationships among airline service quality, passenger value, satisfaction and their impacts on behavioral intentions in terms of Vietnamese perspectives. At the same time, dimensions of perceived service quality are measured to identify key drivers of overall airline service quality as well as examine their effects on passenger value and passenger satisfaction. A theoretical framework is developed to test the interrelationships among these constructs simultaneously, using structural equation modeling.
Results from the study indicate that three dimensions of reliability, empathy, and tangibles are the key drivers of overall airline service quality. Overall airline service quality and passenger value are found to be antecedents of passenger satisfaction. Also, passenger value and passenger satisfaction are found to directly effect on behavioral intentions, while airline service quality has an indirect effect on behavioral intentions of air passengers. Findings of the study contribute to improving our understanding of air passengers’ decision-making processes as well as facilitating the responds of airline executives, especially executives of Vietnam’s airlines, to the service quality issue and other related issues that may greatly determine the efficiency of their operation programs.

Keywords: service quality, value, satisfaction, behavioral intentions, structural equation model.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHINESE ABSTRACT I
ENGLISH ABSTRACT II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Motivation 6
1.3 Research Objectives 9
1.4 Research Structure 10
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 12
2.1 Service Quality 12
2.1.1 Service Quality Defined 12
2.1.2 Service Quality Dimensions 14
2.1.3 Service Quality Measurement 16
2.1.3.1 Gap Analysis 16
2.1.3.2 SERVQUAL Instrument 19
2.1.3.3 SERVQUAL Criticism and Alternative 21
2.1.3.4 Airline Service Quality Measurement 23
2.2 Customer Satisfaction 24
2.2.1 Customer Satisfaction 24
2.2.2 Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality 26
2.2.3 Air Passenger Satisfaction 28
2.3 Customer Value 28
2.4 Behavioral Intentions 30
2.5 Interrelationships among Research Constructs 31
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 34
3.1. Research Framwork and Hypotheses 34
3.1.1 Theoretical Framework 34
3.1.2 Hypotheses development 36
3.1.2.1 Key Drivers of Airline Service Quality 36
3.1.2.2 Key Drivers of Passenger Value 37
3.1.2.3 Key Drivers of Passenger Satisfaction 38
3.1.2.4 Airline Service Quality, Passenger Value, and Passenger Satisfaction 40
3.1.2.5 Effects on Behavioral Intentions of Air Passengers 41
3.2 Research Design 43
3.3 Sampling Design 44
3.4 Data Collection Procedures 45
3.4.1 Measurement of Research Constructs 45
3.4.2 Questionnaire Development 50
3.4.2.1 Questionnaire Design 50
3.4.2.2 Questionnaire Pre-testing 51
3.4.2.3 Final Questionnaire 53
3.4.3 Data Collection 54
3.5 Data Analysis Procedures 54
3.5.1 Data Analysis Methods 54
3.5.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 56
3.5.3 Structural Equation Model 57
3.5.4 Reliability and Validity 57
3.5.5 Model Fitting 60
CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 63
4.1 Descriptive Statistics 63
4.1.1 Characteristics of Air Passengers 63
4.2.2 Basic Statistics of Research Constructs 65
4.2 Measurement Model 66
4.2.1 Confirmatory Factor Analyses 66
4.2.1.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Exogenous Latent Variables 67
4.2.1.2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Endogenous Latent Variables 72
4.2.2 Reliability and Validity 75
4.2.2.1 Construct Reliability 76
4.2.2.2 Convergent Validity 77
4.2.2.3 Discriminant Validity 79
4.2.3 Summary of Measurement Model 81
4.3 Structural Equation Model 82
4.3.1 Full Structural Equation Model 82
4.3.2 Results of Hypothesis Testing 84
4.3.3 Indirect and Total Effects 88
4.3.4 Model of Parsimony 91
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS 95
5.1 Summary of Findings and Discussion 95
5.2 Implications 97
5.3 Contribution of Research 100
5.4 Limitations of Research 101
5.5 Directions for Future Research 102
5.6 Conclusions 103
REFERENCES 106
APPENDIXES Survey Instrument 114
APPENDIX-1 Questionanaire (English version) 115
APPENDIX -2 Questionnaire (Vietnamese version) 120





LIST OF TABLES


Table 3-1 Summary of Research Hypotheses………………………………………………...43
Table 3-2 Measures and Items of Initial Questionnaire……………………………...……….49
Table 3-3 Results of Pretest for Reliability…………………………………………………...52
Table 3-4 Measures, Items, and Reliability of Final Questionnaire………………………. …53
Table 3-5 Key Goodness-of-fit Indices…………………………………………… …….…...61
Table 4-1 Distribution for Respondents by Demographics…………………… …….……….64
Table 4-2 Distribution for Respondents by Flight-Related Experience……… …….………..65
Table 4-3 Mean and Standard Deviation of Research Measures……………… …….…….66
Table 4-4 Covariance Matrix of Measures (CFA model 1)…………………………...……... 69
Table 4-5 Parameters Estimates, Standard Errors, Critical Ratios, and P-values
(CFA Model 1)……………………………………………………………………… ….........69
Table 4-6 Goodness-of-fit Indices of CFA Model 1…………………………………………. 70
Table 4-7 Modification Indexes of Regression Weights (CFA Model 1)………………….… 71
Table 4-8 Goodness-of-fit Indices of CFA Model 1 and Revised CFA Model 1…………….72
Table 4-9 Covariance Matrix of Measures (CFA Model 2)…………………………………. 74
Table 4-10 Parameter Estimates, Standard Errors, Critical Ratios, and P-values
(CFA model 2)…………………………………………………………………….…………. 74
Table 4-11 Goodness-of-fit Indices of CFA Model 2……………………………….……….. 75
Table 4-12 Cronbach’s Alpha of Measures………………………………………….………. 76
Table 4-13 Parameters Estimates, Standard Errors, Critical Ratios, and
P-values for Measurement Model……………………………………………………….…... 78
Table 4-14 Correlations between Endogenous Latent Variables (CFA Model 2)…………… 79
Table 4-15 Correlations between Exogenous Latent Variables (CFA model 1)………….….. 80
Table 4-16 Fit Indices of CFA Model 1 and Its Revised CFA Models……………………… 81
Table 4-17 Goodness-of-fit Indices of Structural Model……………………………………. 83
Table 4-18 Unstandardized Estimates, Standard Errors, Critical Ratios,
and P-values for Structural Model…………………………………………………………... 85
Table 4-19 Results of Hypothesis Testing……………………………………………….…... 87
Table 4-20 Direct, Indirect and Total Effects of Exogenous and Endogenous
Latent Variables………………………………………………………………………….…... 90
Table 4-21 Direct, Indirect and Total Effects of Endogenous Latent Variables……………... 90
Table 4-22 Squared Multiple Correlations of Endogenous Latent Variables
for the Final Model…………………………………………………………………………... 93
Table 4-23 Indirect Effects (Model of Parsimony)………………………………….………..93
Table 4-24 Total Effects (Model of Parsimony)…………………………………….………..94

LIST OF FIGURES

 
Figure 2-1. Gaps model of service quality……………………………………………. ……..19
Figure 2-2. The difference between service quality and satisfaction……………………. …..27
Figure 3-1. The proposed theoretical framework………………………… …….……………35
Figure 3-2. Diagrammatical presentation of Hypothesis 1………………… …….…………..37
Figure 3-3. Diagrammatical presentation of Hypothesis 2……………… …………………..38
Figure 3-4. Diagrammatical presentation of Hypothesis 3………………………………….. 39
Figure 3-5. Diagrammatical presentation of Hypothesis 4, Hypothesis 5,
and Hypothesis 6……………………………………………………………… …….……….41
Figure 3-6. Diagrammatical presentation of Hypothesis 7, Hypothesis 8,
and Hypothesis 9………………………………………………………… …….…………….42
Figure 3-7. Summary of data analysis procedures………………………… ………………...62
Figure 4-1. CFA model of exogenous latent variables (CFA model 1)…………….………... 68
Figure 4-2. CFA model of endogenous latent variables (CFA model 2)………….…………. 73
Figure 4-3. Full structural equation model………………………………….……………….. 83
Figure 4-4. Final structural equation model…………………………… …….…………...….91
Figure 4-5. Results of direct effects and standardized coefficients………….……………… 92
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