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研究生:顏鵬毅
研究生(外文):Ping-Yi Yen
論文名稱:在無線感測網路上基於叢集式架構之具有效能通道存取排程
論文名稱(外文):A Cluster-based Energy-Efficient Channel Access Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:許子衡
指導教授(外文):Tz-Heng Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:45
中文關鍵詞:無線感測網路LEACH媒體存取控制協定吞吐量傳輸延遲分時多重存取(TDMA)
外文關鍵詞:Wireless Sensor NetworkLEACHMACThroughputTransmission DelayTDMA
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在無線感測網路(Wireless Sensor Networks)裡,媒體存取控制(Medium Access Control)協定的設計有幾個關鍵因素,例如節省能源、頻寬使用、吞吐量、資料延遲等等。
近幾年來,有許多研究已經提出不同的叢集式(Cluster-based)媒體存取控制協定,如LEACH是利用叢集並將叢集裡的感測節點所收集的資料聚集(Aggregation)起來加以整合,然後傳輸給基地台(Base Station),這樣的方式能節省能源的消耗, LEACH是運用TDMA機制去做時槽的排程,時槽排程演算法會影響資料傳輸延遲與時槽(Time Slot)使用率。
在本篇論文裡,我們改良BMA(Bit-Map-Assisted)的協定,提出一個內部叢集資料通訊BMA-RR MAC協定,BMA-RR是事件驅動(Event-driven)為基礎的無線感測網路,只有當事件發生時感測節點才會收集資料,收集資料之後無線感測節點再將資料傳輸給叢集頭。本篇論文協定裡,是以Round-Robin的演算法來做資料時槽的排程,利用無線感測節點閒置期間(Idle Period)來分配更多的資料時槽(Data Slot),以便接收或傳輸更多的資料,讓資料傳輸有更好的效率、降低資料存取的延遲。
Recent years, many researchers proposed different kinds of cluster-based MAC protocols for wireless sensors. There are several factors, e.g., energy saving, bandwidth usage, and transmission delay, affect the design of MAC protocols in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we proposed a cluster-based energy-efficient MAC protocol named BMA-RR. The proposed MAC protocol uses Round-Robin algorithm to schedule the packets transmissions in time-slots. BMA-RR is based on event-driven data collecting scheme which gathers data when a data event is happen. After the data is collected, the sensor transmits data to its cluster head. By using Round-Robin algorithm to schedule the data transmission, the proposed BMA-RR can allocate more data slot in sending and receiving data.
摘要..........................................................iv
Abstract.......................................................v
誌謝..........................................................vi
目次.........................................................vii
表目錄.......................................................viii
圖目錄........................................................ix
第一章 簡介.....................................................1
1.1 無線感測網路................................................1
第二章 相關研究.................................................5
2.1 無線電能源消耗模型(The radio energy consumption modal).......5
2.2 媒體存取控制(MAC)協定.......................................6
2.3 無線感測網路的路由協定.......................................7
第三章 在無線感測網路上基於叢集式架構之具有效能通道存取排程..........14
3.1 叢集設定階段(Cluster Set-up Phase).........................16
3.2 穩定狀態階段(Steady-state Phase)...........................18
3.3 演算法....................................................19
3.4 電源分析...................................................22
第四章 實驗模擬與分析...........................................26
4.1 模擬架構...................................................26
4.2 模擬結果...................................................27
4.2.1 Case(1),k=4之模擬結果....................................28
4.2.2 Case(2),k=5之模擬結果....................................30
4.2.3 Case(3),k=6之模擬結果....................................33
4.2.4 電源消耗與傳輸資料比較之模擬結果............................35
第五章 結論....................................................37
參考文獻........................................................38
附錄A 模擬參數的設定............................................45

表目錄
表1 資料節點的狀態-情況(1)......................................21
表2 資料節點的狀態-情況(2)......................................22
表3 各個感測節點所要傳送的資料數量...............................45

圖目錄
圖1 無線感測網路環境架構圖...........................................2
圖2 無線電能源消耗模型...............................................5
圖3 Flooding路由協定的基本架構.......................................8
圖4 SPIN路由協定的基本架構..........................................10
圖5 LEACH路由協定的叢集式基本架構....................................11
圖6 PEGASIS路由協定的鏈基礎架構.....................................12
圖7 BMA-RR的單一回合圖解............................................15
圖8 形成叢集的流程圖................................................18
圖9 叢集頭的資料時槽排程-情況(1).....................................21
圖10 叢集頭的資料時槽排程-情況(2)....................................22
圖11 單一叢集網路拓撲架構圖,N-1個感測節點以及1個叢集頭................26
圖12 Case(1)的平均延遲比較,N=11和k=4以及p的變化情況..................29
圖13 Case(1)的總電源消耗比較,N=11和k=4以及p的變化情況................29
圖14 Case(1)的傳輸量比較,N=11和k=4以及p的變化情況....................30
圖15 Case(2)的平均延遲比較,N=11和k=5以及p的變化情況..................31
圖16 Case(2)的總電源消耗比較,N=11和k=5以及p的變化情況................32
圖17 Case(2)的傳輸量比較,N=11和k=5以及p的變化情況....................32
圖18 Case(3)的平均延遲比較,N=11和k=6以及p的變化情況..................34
圖19 Case(3)的總電源消耗比較,N=11和k=6以及p的變化情況................34
圖20 Case(3)的傳輸量比較,N=11和k=6以及p的變化情況....................35
圖21 運作時間之感測節點總電源消耗與總傳輸資料量比較。(a)總電源消耗;(b)總傳輸資料量..............................................................36
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