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研究生:邱苑伶
研究生(外文):Yuan-Ling Chiu
論文名稱:台灣貿易商高階經理人員所需具備之談判能力
論文名稱(外文):Negotiation Competencies Needed by Top Managers of Taiwanese Trading Companies
指導教授:陳景蔚陳景蔚引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:談判能力英文商務談判衝突解決徳爾菲法問卷式調查
外文關鍵詞:Negotiation CompetencyBusiness NegotiationConflict Resolutionthe Delphi Method
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商務談判技巧是21世紀最重要的生存能力之一。 談判能力不只是事業成功的關鍵,更是每天生活上不可或缺的一部分。 雖然市面上已有許多教授談判技巧 的相關書籍或者是網站,但是這些資源極少是將重點放在高階經理者所需的談判技巧上。故本研究希望能探討在眾多談判能力內,哪些是高階經理者比較需要並且實用的。
此研究採用了徳爾菲法問卷式調查,即透過三次相關的問卷,請18位台灣貿易公司內的高階經理者陳述他們的意見。18位高階經理者中包含了從業務經理到負責人的角色都有,貿易商有位於南部與北部,專家們也涵蓋了兩種性別。經由t-test 的檢定發現,各經理人對於談判策略的選擇並無性別上、區域上、或者就業資歷上的差異。 這意指著台灣高階經理人對英文商務談判方面的認知與所需談判能力的要求並無顯著差異。
在第一回合的問卷中顯示,有83.3%的經理者認可合作式的談判策略。而此問卷總共產生了70個高階經理者所需的談判能力陳述。有53項談判能力陳述的排名是介於平均值1 (非常同意) 和 2 (同意)之間,它們被視為是非常重要的核心技能。另外有14項平均值介於2 (同意) 和 3 (沒意見)之間,仍意示著它們的重要性。
最後針對各項題目的平均值,做了兩個性別之間的比對,和兩個區域的分別比對;發現無顯著差異。 此結果更是證實了此研究的穩定性和可靠性。
Negotiating competency is one of the most crucial proficiencies to possess in the 21st century. Not only is it vital to one’s success career-wise, one also has to negotiate in many daily activities. Many books, seminars, and other resources already exist readily on negotiation skills and tactics; however, not a large proportion of those are dedicated to negotiation competencies that are particularly essential for top managers. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the negotiation skills most needed by top managers, especially for those in trading companies in Taiwan.
This research employs the Delphi Method in three consecutive questionnaires, with 18 experts ranging from sales managers to owners of trading companies in Taiwan, to explore this topic. The trading companies are varied in location and the top managers varied in sex. From the results of the t-tests conducted on the comparison of negotiation strategies chosen by the top managers, there was no significant difference indicated. This implies that the awareness and use of business negotiation is reasonably solid and consistent among top managers in Taiwan.
Out of the 18 top managers, 83.3% considered the collaborative negotiation style as the preferred business practice for conflict resolution in general. The experts generated 70 negotiation competencies in total. There were 53 competencies that had an average ranking between 1 (Strongly Agree) and 2 (Agree), which means that these were viewed as very important by the managers. A further 14 competencies (up to number 67) had a mean ranking between 2 (Agree) and 3 (No Comment), which also means these were also considered significant. That only leaves three other competencies that were ranked between 3 (No Comment) and 4 (Disagree). These three can still be used as a reference though, since they were thought to be noteworthy by a number of the experts.
A final comparison of the means of each question item reveals that the opinions of the experts on business negotiation were quite analogous between the male and female groups; as well as between the companies located in the north and south. This further sustains the consistency of the overall results obtained from the experts.
Table of Contents
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………...iv
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………vii
Figure List……………………………………………………………………………ix
Table List……………………………………………………………………………….x
Chapter 1 Introduction………………………………………………………………...…1
1.1 Background of the Study………………………………………………………1
1.2 Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………………2
1.3 Objectives of the Study…………………………………………………………3
1.4 Significance of the Study……………………………………………………….4
1.5 Delimitation of the Study……………………………………………………….4
1.6 Organization of the Study………………………………………………………5
Chapter 2 Literature Review……………………………………………………………..6
2.1 Negotiation……………………………………………………………………..6
2.1.1 Stages of Negotiation……………………………………………………7
2.1.1.1 Preparation ……………………………………….……………...7 2.1.1.2 Opening …………………………………………………………8 2.1.1.3 Bargaining ………………..……………………………………...8
2.1.1.4 Closing ...………………………………………………………...9
2.1.2 Communication in Negotiation…………………………………………9
2.1.3 Personality in Negotiation …………………………………………11
2.1.4 Emotion in Negotiation …….…………………………………………12
2.2 Negotiation Strategies ………………………………………………………...14
2.2.1 The Accommodating Strategy…………………………………………16
2.2.2 The Collaborative Strategy……………………………………………16
2.2.3 The Avoiding Strategy…………………………………………………17
2.2.4 The Competitive Strategy……………………………………………...17
2.2.5 The Compromise Strategy…………………………………………….18
2.3 Negotiation in Management…………………………………………………..18
2.4 The Delphi Method……………………………………………………………20
2.4.1 History of the Delphi Method…………………………………………21
2.4.2 Fundamentals of the Delphi Method. …………………………………21
2.4.3. Application of the Delphi Method…………………………………….22
2.4.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Delphi Method………………..22
Chapter 3 Methodology………………………………………………………………24
3.1 Population and Sample………………………………………………………..24
3.2 Questionnaire Design…………………………………………………………25
3.2.1 Questionnaire One ...…………………………………………………..25
3.2.2. Questionnaire Two ....…………………………………………………26
3.3 Procedure for Data Collection……………………………………………….27
3.4 Termination of the Delphi Method …………………………………………29
3.4.1 The Chi-Square (χ²) Test of Stability ………………………………..29
3.5 Data Analysis………………………………………………………………….30
Chapter 4 Results of the Study……………………………………………………….32
4.1 Analysis of Subjects…………………………………………………………..32
4.1.1 Job Positions…………………………………………………………..32
4.1.2 Gender ………………………………………………………………...33
4.1.3 Location of Company……………………………………………….…33
4.1.4 Work Experience/History………………………………………….…..33
4.1.5 Negotiation Pattern ……………………………………………………34
4.1.6 Nationality of the Other Party/Opponent in Negotiation………………35
4.1.7 Negotiation Strategy…………………………………………………...36
4.2 Comparison of the Negotiation Strategy Chosen …………………………...36
4.3 IQR …………………………………………………………………………38
4.4 Chi-Square ……………………………………………………………………40
4.5 Results of the Questionnaire ……….…………………………………………45
4.5.1 Ranking of the Negotiation Competencies ……….………………….45
4.5.1.1 Ranking for All of the Items ………………………………………46
4.5.1.2 Ranking by Categories ………………………………………………49
4.5.2.1 Comparison of Each Question Item between the Two Sexes….……60
4.5.2.2 Comparison of Each Question Item between the Two Regions……64
Chapter 5 Summary ………………………………………………………………… 70
5.1 Summary ……………………………………………………………………...70
5.2 Implications of the Study …………………………………………………… 71
5.3 Suggestions for Further Research …………………………………………….72
Reference List…………………………………………………………………………..74
Appendix A- Questionnaire 1……………………………………………………….…79
Appendix B- Questionnaire 2…………………………………………………………88
Appendix C - Questionnaire 3………………………….………………………………95
Appendix D - List of the Participants and Company Names…………………………97
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