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研究生:陳靜君
研究生(外文):Jodie Chen
論文名稱:共同閱讀與單字學習:針對臺灣國小生學習英語之研究
論文名稱(外文):Vocabulary Learning through Shared Reading: A Study on young Taiwanese EFL learners
指導教授:尤菊芳
指導教授(外文):Jyu-Fang Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:294
中文關鍵詞:刻意單字教學非刻意單字教學共同閱讀英語初學者
外文關鍵詞:explicit vocabulary instructionincidental vocabulary learningshared readingnovice EFL learners
相關次數:
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本研究旨在探討「說故事搭配共同閱讀」和「單字教學搭配共同閱讀」兩種不同教學法對初學英語孩童的成效。為了瞭解其中差異,研究者觀察並比較參與者在接受「說故事搭配共同閱讀」和「單字教學搭配共同閱讀」兩種教學法後之前測與後測。本研究所使用的資料蒐集工具包括四本故事書,兩種教學法之教案,上課實況錄影帶,以及前測與接受兩種教學法後之後測。二十四位就讀南投偏遠地區的孩童(包括十位男生,十四位女生)參與為期九星期的研究。研究開始前,所有參與者均接受前測。前測有兩個目的,一是鎖定教學的目標單字,二是藉此將參與者分成A、B兩班。每一本書都有十個目標單字。第一種教學法「說故事搭配共同閱讀」一開始以說故事的方式呈現,搭配共同閱讀緊接在後。既不事先呈現也不教授目標單字。第二種教學法「單字教學搭配共同閱讀」在一開始即先教授目標單字,之後才進行搭配共同閱讀。所得資料以相依樣本t考驗以及獨立樣本t考驗分析,所有統計顯著測試的顯著水準α值低於0.05。本研究最主要的發現:第一,「單字教學搭配共同閱讀」和「說故事搭配共同閱讀」都能增加英語初學者的單字學習成長。第二,「單字教學搭配共同閱讀」比「說故事搭配共同閱讀」更能增加英語初學者的單字學習成長。第三,「單字教學搭配共同閱讀」更能幫助原本低成就的英語初學者。未來研究可針對增長教學時數和探討結合說故事及單字教學搭配共同閱讀是否更能增加英語初學者的單字學習成長。

關鍵字: 刻意單字教學、非刻意單字教學、共同閱讀、英語初學者
This study was developed and implemented in an elementary school in Nantou to assess whether different instructional treatments would enhance vocabulary gain. The program uses two approaches to provide vocabulary development: (1) shared reading with storytelling, and (2) shared reading with explicit vocabulary instruction. A mixed class of 24 elementary school students from grade 4 to grade 6 (including 10 boys and 14 girls) were invited to participate throughout the 9-week implementation period. Participants’ pre and posttests before and after incorporating the storytelling and explicit vocabulary instruction in a storybook shared reading program were administered and analyzed. Results from the t tests indicate that the both shared reading with storytelling as well as shared reading with explicit vocabulary instruction cultivate participants’ vocabulary growth. It was also found that shared reading with explicit vocabulary instruction better enhanced participants’ vocabulary gain than shared reading with storytelling did. Moreover, shared reading with explicit vocabulary instruction helped novice EFL lower-achievers far more than novice EFL higher-achievers in terms of vocabulary gain. Further research on long-term treatment effects and on the possible positive effect of a new treatment termed shared reading with combined storytelling and explicit vocabulary instruction is recommended.

Key Words: explicit vocabulary instruction, incidental vocabulary learning, shared reading, novice EFL learners
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………….....i
ABSTRACT (English)....................................................................................iv
ABSTRACT (Chinese)……………………………………………………...vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………...vii
LISTS OF TABLES………………………………………………………...xii
LISTS OF FIGURES………………………………………………………xiv

CHAPTER ONE 1
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 3
1.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS 4
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 6
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 7

CHAPTER TWO 9
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9
2.1 IMPORTANCE OF VOCABULARY LEARNING 9
2.2 SHARED READING AND VOCABULARY LEARNING 11
2.3 CHILDREN VOCABULARY LEARNING 17
2.3.1 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction 17
2.3.1.1 Instructed Vocabulary Learning 18
2.3.1.2 Techniques or Activities in Explicit Vocabulary Instruction 21
2.3.2 Incidental Vocabulary Learning 28
2.3.2.1 Listening to Stories 29
2.3.2.2 Reading Stories 32
2.4 SUMMARY 34

CHAPTER THREE 35
METHOD 35
3.1 PARTICIPANTS 35
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 38
3.2.1 Materials Selection 38
3.2.2 Implementing Procedure 40
3.2.3 Lesson Plans 44
3.2.3.1 Lesson Planning for Shared Reading with Storytelling 45
3.2.3.2 Lesson Planning for Shared Reading with Explicit Vocabulary Instruction 52
3.2.4 Instructional Techniques 54
3.2.4.1 Shared Reading 54
3.2.4.2 Vocabulary Instructional Techniques or Activities 59
3.3 MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTS 70
3.3.1 Pretest 70
3.3.1.1 Design of Pretests 70
3.3.1.2 Selection of Pretest Vocabulary Items 72
3.3.1.3 Scoring of Pretests 74
3.3.1.4 Selection of Target Words 75
3.3.2 Posttest 77
3.3.2.1 Design of Posttests 77
3.4 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES 78
3.5 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 79
3.5.1 Scoring System 80
3.5.2 Reliability of the Instruments 80
3.5.3 Data Analysis Procedures 83

CHAPTER FOUR 86
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 86
4.1 OVERVIEW 86
4.2 RESEARCH RESULTS 86
4.2.1 Descriptive Statistics of Participants’ Performance on Pretests and Posttests within Each Treatment 86
4.2.2 Significance of Participants’ Vocabulary Gains on Treatment 1 88
4.2.3 Significance of Participants’ Vocabulary Gains on Treatment 2 89
4.2.4 Overall Results of Participants’ Vocabulary Gains 90
4.2.5 Significance of Treatment Comparison 93
4.2.6 Significance of Participants Grouping 97
4.3 DISCUSSION OF THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS 103
4.3.1 Question 1: Does the implementation of shared reading with storytelling (Treatment 1) enhance the vocabulary growth of novice EFL learners? 104
4.3.2 Question 2: Does the implementation of shared reading with explicit vocabulary instruction (Treatment 2) enhance the vocabulary growth of novice EFL learners? 107
4.3.3 Question 3: Does Treatment 2 enhance the vocabulary growth of novice EFL learners better than Treatment 1, given that the total instruction time is the same? 109
4.3.4 Question 4: Does Treatment 2 benefit novice EFL lower-achievers better than novice EFL higher-achievers on vocabulary acquisition/learning? 110
4.4 RESEARCHER’S OBSERVATION 111

CHAPTER FIVE 117
CONCLUSIONS 117
5.1 OVERVIEW 117
5.2 SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR FINDINGS 117
5.3 PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 120
5.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 121
5.5 SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 122

REFERENCES 125

APPENDIXES
APPENDIX A Pretest Broom 136
APPENDIX B Pretest Willy 138
APPENDIX C Pretest Arnie 139
APPENDIX D Pretest King 140
APPENDIX E Selection Of Target Words Broom 141
APPENDIX F Selection Of Target Words Willy 143
APPENDIX G Selection Of Target Words Arnie 145
APPENDIX H Selection Of Target Words King 147
APPENDIX I Pretest 1 149
APPENDIX J Pretest 2 153
APPENDIX K Lesson Plan (T1 Broom) 155
APPENDIX L Lesson plan (T1 Willy) 169
APPENDIX M Lesson Plan (T1 Arnie) 182
APPENDIX N Lesson Plan (T1 King) 194
APPENDIX O Lesson Plan (T2 Broom) 206
APPENDIX P Lesson Plan (T2 Willy) 223
APPENDIX Q Lesson Plan (T2 Arnie) 238
APPENDIX R Lesson Plan (T2 King) 251
APPENDIX S Posttest Broom 267
APPENDIX T Posttest Willy 268
APPENDIX U Posttest Arnie 269
APPENDIX V Posttest King 270
APPENDIX W Result Of Pretest Broom 271
APPENDIX X Result Of Pretest Willy 273
APPENDIX Y Result Of Pretest Arnie 275
APPENDIX Z Result Of Pretest King 277
APPENDIX AA Result Of Posttest Broom 279
APPENDIX AB Result Of Posttest Willy 281
APPENDIX AC Result Of Posttest Arnie 283
APPENDIX AD Result Of Posttest King 285
APPENDIX AE Reliability Analysis Pretest Broom 287
APPENDIX AF Reliability Analysis Pretest Willy 288
APPENDIX AG Reliability Analysis Pretest Arnie 289
APPENDIX AH Reliability Analysis Pretest King 290
APPENDIX AI Reliability Analysis Posttest Broom 291
APPENDIX AJ Reliability Analysis Posttest Willy 292
APPENDIX AK Reliability Analysis Posttest Arnie 293
APPENDIX AL Reliability Analysis Posttest King 294

LISTS OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Survey on children’s favorite English reading style 16
Table 3.1 Participants………………………………………………………36
Table 3.2 Frequency of target words in storytelling Broom and Willy 46
Table 3.3 Frequency of target words in storytelling Arnie and King…........46
Table 3.4 Lesson planning for shared reading with storytelling, phase 1, Treatment 1 48
Table 3.5 Lesson planning for shared reading with storytelling, phase 2, Treatment 1 48
Table 3.6 Lesson planning for shared reading with explicit vocabulary instruction, phase 1, Treatment 2 49
Table 3.7 Lesson planning for shared reading with explicit vocabulary instruction,phase 2, Treatment 2 49
Table 3.8 Types of content words from each storybook 73
Table 3.9 The VKS scoring system 75
Table 3.10 Target words from four storybooks 77
Table 3.11 Reliability of instruments, pretests 81
Table 3.12 Reliability of instruments, posttests 82
Table 3.13 Summary of item alphas for four pretests 83
Table 3.14 Summary of item alphas for four posttests 83
Table 4.1 Paired samples statistics of pretests and posttests by books on T1 (N=12) 87
Table 4.2 Paired samples statistics of pretests and posttests by books on T2 (N=12) 87
Table 4.3 Paired samples t tests of pretests and posttests by books on T1 (N=12) 89
Table 4.4 Paired samples t tests of pretests and posttests by books on T2 (N=12) 90
Table 4.5 Vocabulary gains by books, Treatment 1 (N=12) 91
Table 4.6 Vocabulary gains by books, Treatment 2 (N=12) 92
Table 4.7 Summary of VG on T1 and T2 (N=12) 92
Table 4.8 Paired samples statistics of Treatment 1 & Treatment 2 (N=24) 94
Table 4.9 Paired samples t test of Treatment 1 & Treatment (N=24) 94
Table 4.10 Paired samples statistics of Treatment 1 & Treatment 2 (N=24) 95
Table 4.11 Paired samples t test of Treatment 1 & Treatment (N=24) 95
Table 4.12 Paired samples statistics of Treatment 1 & Treatment 2 (N=48) 96
Table 4.13 Paired samples t test of Treatment 1 & Treatment (N=48) 96
Table 4.14 Pretests by Classes 97
Table 4.15 Independent samples statistics of class A & class B on pretest (N=12) 98
Table 4.16 Independent samples t tests of class A & class B on pretest (N=12) ..98
Table 4.17 Independent samples statistics of class A & class B on posttest (N=12) . 99
Table 4.18 Independent samples t test of class A & class B on posttest (N=12) 99
Table 4.19 Treatment 1, Posttests by class (N=12) 100
Table 4.20 Vocabulary Gain by class from Treatment 1 (N=12) 100
Table 4.21 Independent samples statistics of class A & class B on T1 (N=12) 101
Table 4.22 Independent samples t tests of class A & class B on T1 (N=12) 101
Table 4.23 Treatment 2, Posttests by class (N=12) 101
Table 4.24 Vocabulary Gain by class from Treatment 2 (N=12) 102
Table 4.25 Independent samples statistics of class A & class B on T2 (N=12) 103
Table 4.26 Independent samples test of class A & class B on T2 (N=12) 103


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Semantic mapping- diagram………………...………………….24
Figure 2.2 Image- mountain………………………………..………………28
Figure 3.1 Treatment 1 and Treatment 2 curriculum design chart…………43
Figure 3.2 Semantic mapping in Arnie…………………………………….64
Figure 3.3 Pair-up activity sheet in Where Is My Broom?............................69
Figure 3.4 Image- shark……………………………………………………70
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中文部份:
尤菊芳〈1998〉。 淺談英文單字教學。 載於依筱雯(主編),國中英語教學面面觀(33-38頁)。 台北:敦煌。

張玉玲〈2001〉。全語言兒童英語教學 (Teaching children English in the whole language approach)。台中:敦煌。

張湘君〈2005〉。英文繪本創意教學 (1)。台北:維京。

陳淳麗〈1999〉。國小英語師資訓練手冊。台北:師德。
黃惠玲〈2003〉。如何將故事文字改寫成精彩口語?。 載於蘇妙慧(主編), 英文工廠 (English works)(85-87頁)。台北:東西。

歐陽心怡〈2004〉。千萬別“教”單字 (Exploring vocabulary)。台北:佳音。
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