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研究生:蘇真民
研究生(外文):Jhen-Min Su
論文名稱:飼糧中大豆油添加對冷藏羊肉共軛亞麻油酸,二十二碳烯酸含量及脂肪氧化酸敗值之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of dietary soybean oil on conjugated linoleic acid, DHA and lipid oxidation of chilled lamb loin chops
指導教授:郭俊欽郭俊欽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Chin Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:144
中文關鍵詞:共軛亞麻油酸羊肉瘤胃微生物生物氫化作用共軛亞麻油酸聚氯乙烯膜滴水率羊背脂酸敗值
外文關鍵詞:conjugated linoleic acidloin lamb chopButyrivibriofibrisolvensbiohydrogenation
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本試驗飼養18隻努比亞(Nubian)閹公羊(初始體重約40 kg)分別三組,每組6隻,分別在飼糧中添加不同量 (0、2.5和5.0 %) 之大豆油,經肥育5個月後體重達60 kg左右,逢機屠宰5頭。屠宰之後,取羊里肌肉並切成1公分厚之肉排 (loin chops),以聚氯乙烯膜(polyvinylchloride, PVC)包裝並於低溫(2 ℃)貯藏0、3、6及9天。貯藏期間分析羊肉TBARS值(thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances)、pH值、色澤(L*、a*、b* 值)、共軛亞麻油酸(conjugated linoleic acid, CLA)、脂肪酸和膽固醇含量及滴水率(purge loss)之變化。研究結果發現,各處理組之TBARS值和pH值皆隨貯藏時間增加而上升;於各貯藏時間,2.5 %大豆油組之TBARS值高於控制組與5.0 %大豆油組;控制組與5.0 %大豆油組並無顯著差異,但5.0 %大豆油組有高於控制組之趨勢。控制組之pH值顯著高於5.0 %大豆油組(P<0.05)。一般而言,5.0 %大豆油組之a*值和b*值高於控制組和2.5 %大豆油組,不過於貯藏期間2.5和5.0 %大豆油組之a*值和b*值有下降趨勢。在羊肉脂肪酸組成方面,0、2.5和5.0 %大豆油組之共軛亞麻油酸(C18:2 cis-9, trans-11)含量依序為0.88、0.93和0.92 %,三組處理並無顯著差異;大豆油添加組 (2.5和5.0 %) 有降低羊肉中飽和脂肪酸之趨勢,但與控制組並無顯著差異(P>0.05);2.5和5.0 %大豆油組之多元不飽和脂肪酸顯著多於控制組(P<0.05),尤其是DHA(Decosahexaenoic acid, C22:6 n3)之含量;但單元不飽和脂肪酸則以控制組較高,而5.0 %大豆油組較低。在羊背脂脂肪酸組成方面,0、2.5和5.0 %大豆油組之CLA含量依序為1.00、1.27和1.42 %,大豆油添加量愈高,其CLA有上升趨勢;大豆油添加組 ( 2.5和5.0 % )會增加羊背脂中飽和脂肪酸含量。羊背脂之總單元不飽和脂肪酸以5.0 %大豆油組較低,5.0 %大豆油組之總不飽和脂肪酸較低,主要是DHA降低之緣故。羊肉中膽固醇在0、2.5和5.0 %大豆油組含量依序為56.3、56.2和56.1 mg/100g fresh tissue,三組處理無顯著差異(P>0.05)。大豆油添加量愈多,滴水率愈低,且三組之滴水率皆隨著貯藏時間增長而增加。
Eighteen Nubian lambs having a mean live weight of 40 kg were randomly allocated in three groups. The lambs in each group were group fed on of three dietary treatments, designated control ( 0 % ), 2.5 % soyb-
ean oil, and 5.0 % soybean oil. Five months passed away, and they were at a mean live weight of 60 kg, then it was time to slaughter. Slices of the longissimus muscle between the 12th and 13th ribs were sampled from all lambs at slaughter and analysed for fatty acid composition of intra-muscular, subcutaneous fat and cholesterol in lambs meat. Besides, 1-cm sirloin lamb chops were storaged at 2℃ for 0, 3, 6, and 9 days, and study thiobarbituric acid reactive substance ( TBARS ) values, pH value, color ( L*, a* and b* values ), and percent of purge loss. All of TBARS and pH values increased with storage. 2.5 % soybean oil of TBARS value was higher than control and 5.0 % soybean oil, and no significant difference was found between control and 5.0 % soybean oil. Control of pH value was higher than 2.5 % soybean oil. In general, 5.0 % soybean oil of a* and b* value were higher than control and 2.5 % soybean oil, but 2.5 % and 5.0 % soybean oil decreased with storage. In fatty acid composition of intra-muscular, CLA content were 0.88, 0.9 and 0.92 %FAME (% fatty acid methyl ester) for control, 2.5 % and 5.0 % soybean oil, and the three treatments had on significant differences. And then, we found lambs were fed diets containing soybean oil (2.5 or 5.0 %) can decreased saturated fatty acid in lamb intra-muscular. 2.5% or 5.0 % soybean oil of polysaturated fatty acid content was higher than control ( P<0.05 ), especially DHA ( C22:6 n3 ). Monosatruated fatty acid content was highest by control, and lowest by 5.0 % soybean oil. In fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat, CLA content were 1.00, 1.27and 1.42 % for control, 2.5 % and 5.0 % soybean oil, and on significant difference was found between 2.5 and 5.0 % soybean oil. And then, we found lambs were fed diets containing soybean oil (2.5 or 5.0 %) can increase saturated fatty acid in lamb subcutaneous fat, and control of that was lower than 5.0 % soybean oil, and 2.5% soybean oil with control or 5.0% soybean oil had on significant difference. Total monosaturated fatty acid content were lowest by 5.0% soybean oil, and control with 2.5% soybean oil had on significant difference. Above all, C22:6 n3 was decreased by 5.0% soybean oil. Cholesterol contents in intra-muscular were 56.33, 56.24 and 56.12 mg/100 g fresh tissue, and the three treatments had no significant difference ( P>0.05 ). Percent of purge loss was highest by control, and lowest by 5.0% soybean oil. The percent of purge loss value were increased during storage.
目 錄
封面內頁 頁 次
目錄 ……………………………………………………………… Ι
圖次 ……………………………………………………………… Ⅵ
表次 ……………………………………………………………… Ⅷ
中文摘要 ………………………………………………………… X
英文摘要 …………………………………………………………. XII
壹、前 言 ……………………………………………………….. 1
貳、文獻回顧 ……………………………………………………. 3
ㄧ、共軛亞麻油酸之結構 ……………………………………… 4
二、共軛亞麻油酸之來源 ……………………………………… 6
(ㄧ)共軛亞麻油酸在瘤胃中合成 ……………………………… 6
(1)生物氫化作用 ………………………………………….... 6
(2)共軛亞麻油酸來自瘤胃並於組織與乳脂中堆積 ……... 7
(3)化學合成 ……………………………………………….... 9
三、共軛亞麻油酸之生物功效 ………………………………… 9
(ㄧ)腫瘤細胞抑制作用 ……………………………………… 9
(二)預防冠狀動脈粥狀硬化 …………………………………. 11
(三)免疫系統的影響 …………………………………………. 12
(四)體脂肪的調節 ……………………………………………. 13
(五)促進生長 …………………………………………………. 18
(六)抗氧化作用 ………………………………………………. 18
四、共軛亞麻油酸與加工之影響 ……………………………… 19
五、影響乳脂中共軛亞麻油酸之因素 ………………………… 23
(ㄧ)動物品種與年齡 …………………………………………. 23
(二)季節與放牧 ………………………………………………. 23
(三)飼糧配方 …………………………………………………. 25
(1)油菜籽與共軛亞麻油酸關係 ………………………… 26
(2)蔬菜油與共軛亞麻油酸關係 …………………………. 27
(3)魚油與共軛亞麻油酸關係 ……………………………. 28
参、材料與方法 …………………………………………………. 30
ㄧ、動物飼糧與管理 …………………………………………….. 31
二、試驗設計 …………………………………………………….. 33
三、試驗方法 …………………………………………………….. 33
(1)包裝材料 ……………………………………………….. 33
(2)分裝儲藏 ……………………………………………….. 33
四、探討分析項目 ……………………………………………….. 37
A、ㄧ般成分分析 ………………………………………………... 37
1.水分 ………………………………………………………… 37
2.灰分 ………………………………………………………… 37
3.粗脂肪 ……………………………………………………… 38
4.粗蛋白 ………………………………………………………. 39
B、分析項目 ……………………………………………………. 41
1.酸鹼值 ……………………………………………………… 41
2.硫巴比妥酸值 ……………………………………………… 41
3.色澤分析 ……………………………………………………. 42
4.損失率 ……………………………………………………… 43
5.加熱處理羊肉排 …………………………………………… 43
(1)水煮 …………………………………………………… 43
(2)烤箱加熱 ……………………………………………… 44
6.脂肪酸組成分析 …………………………………………… 44
7.膽固醇測定 ………………………………………………. 46
五、統計分析 ……………………………………………………. 47
肆、結果與討論 ………………………………………………….. 48
ㄧ、ㄧ般成分分析 ……………………………………………….. 48
二、酸鹼值 ……………………………………………………….. 49
三、硫巴比妥酸值 ……………………………………………….. 54
四、色澤 ………………………………………………………….. 56
(ㄧ)明亮度 ………………………………………………….. 56
(二)紅色度 ………………………………………………….. 60
(三)黃色度 ………………………………………………….. 62
五、滴水率 ……………………………………………………… 67
六、羊肉加熱處理 ……………………………………………… 69
(1)水煮和烤箱加熱羊肉 …………………………………… 69
(2)水煮和烤箱加熱羊背脂 ………………………………… 71
七、脂肪酸組成 ………………………………………………… 73
(ㄧ)生鮮之羊肉與背脂的脂肪酸組成比較 ………………… 73
1. 生鮮之羊肉 ………………………………………………… 76
(1)生鮮羊肉共軛亞麻油酸與碳18脂肪酸之關係……….. 76
(2)生鮮羊肉總飽和脂肪酸、總單元不飽和脂肪酸
與總多元不飽和脂肪酸………………………………… 79
2. 生鮮羊背脂 ………………………………………………… 80
(1)生鮮羊背脂共軛亞麻油酸與碳18脂肪酸之關係….... 80
(2)生鮮羊背脂之總飽和脂肪酸、總單元不飽和脂肪酸
與總多元不飽和脂肪酸………………………………… 83
(3)生鮮羊肉與生鮮羊背脂在異油酸(C18:1, t11)
與共軛亞麻油酸(cis-9, trans-11 C18:2)之比值……. 83
(二)羊肉與背脂經烤箱加熱處理後的脂肪酸組成比較 … 84
1. 烤箱加熱之羊肉 …………………………….…….............. 84
(1)烤箱加熱羊肉共軛亞麻油酸與碳18脂肪酸之關係… 84
(2)未加熱生鮮羊肉與烤箱加熱羊肉後亞麻油酸含量之比較...85
(3)烤箱加熱羊肉之總飽和脂肪酸…………………………. 85
(4)烤箱加熱羊肉之總單元不飽和脂肪酸
與總多元不飽和脂肪酸…………………………………. 85
2. 烤箱加熱之羊背脂…………………………………………… 87
(1)烤箱加熱羊背脂共軛亞麻油酸與碳18脂肪酸之關係 . 87
(2)烤箱加熱羊背脂之總飽和脂肪酸、總單元不飽和脂肪酸
和總多元不飽和脂肪酸………………………………….. 89
(三)羊肉與背脂水煮後的脂肪酸組成比較 ……………….. 89
1. 水煮之羊肉 ……………………………………………………. 90
(1)水煮羊肉共軛亞麻油酸與碳18脂肪酸之關係………… 90
(2)水煮羊肉之飽和脂肪酸………………………………….. 90
(3)水煮羊肉之單元不飽和脂肪酸………………………….. 92
(4)水煮羊肉之多元不飽和脂肪酸……………………………. 92
(5)羊肉經烤箱加熱和水煮後之變化…………………….... 92
2. 水煮之羊背脂 ………………………………………………. 93
(1)水煮羊背脂共軛亞麻油酸與碳18脂肪酸之關係……….. 93
(2)水煮羊背脂之飽和脂肪酸含量、總單元不飽和脂肪酸
和總多元不飽和脂肪酸………………………………… 93
八、膽固醇 ……………………………………………………… 95
伍、結 論 ………………………………………………………… 97
陸、參考文獻 …………………………………………………… 101
柒、附錄………………………………………………………… 130
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