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研究生:楊瑋涵
研究生(外文):Wei-Han Yang
論文名稱:ㄧ氧化碳接觸溫度與時間及包裝對豬里肌肉排之微生物、化學及物理性質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Exposure temperature and time for carbon monoxide pretreatment and packaging on microbial, chemical and physical properties of pork loin chops
指導教授:郭俊欽郭俊欽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Chin Kuo, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:調節氣體包裝一氧化碳CO型肌紅蛋白顏色
外文關鍵詞:modified atmosphere packagingcarbon monoxidecarboxymyoglobincolor
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本試驗將豬里肌肉排預先以100% CO之調氣包裝處理,置於2 或25 ℃下維持30分鐘,之後移出包裝袋,置於2℃分別以PVC(polyvinylchloride)保鮮膜包裝,貯藏0、2、4、6及8天;或真空包裝袋包裝,貯藏0、3、6、9及12天,於各貯藏階段分析樣品之pH值、TBARS(thiobarbituric acid reactive substances)值、變性肌紅蛋白百分比(percent metmyoglobin)、色澤(L*、a*、b* value)、總生菌數(total plate counts)和乳酸菌數(lactic acid bacteria),同時分析肉排中CO殘留量及烹煮後肉排中CO殘留量。

PVC包裝之結果顯示各組之pH值沒有顯著差異。三組之TBARS值隨者貯藏時間增加而稍有增加之趨勢,但於第6天Air-2組除外,然而CO處理組之TBARS值並沒有降低。於各貯藏時間,三組之變
性肌紅蛋白百分比無顯著差異(p>0.05),但Air-2組(未經CO處理)之變性肌紅蛋白百分比稍高於CO-2組(肉排以100% CO預處理並置於2℃下維持30分鐘)及CO-25組(肉排以100% CO預處理並置於25℃下維持30分鐘)。一般而言,Air-2組之L*值及b*值於貯藏階段高於CO-2組及CO-25組(p<0.05),而CO-2組與CO-25組之L*值則無顯著差異(p>0.05)。於貯藏期間,CO-2組及CO-25組之a*值顯著高於Air-2組(p<0.05),表示CO處理可促使肉品顏色保持鮮紅色。第2天除外,於貯藏期間CO-2組之總生菌數顯著低於Air-2組及CO-25組(p<0.05)。肉排中CO殘留量皆隨貯藏天數增加而減少,CO處理組以CO-2組之CO含量最低;烹煮後肉排中CO殘留量皆顯著降低(p<0.05)。

真空包裝之結果發現,各組之pH值及TBARS值無顯著差異(p>0.05)。變性肌紅蛋白百分比以CO-2組及CO-25組顯著低於Air-2組(p<0.05)。在色澤方面,各組之L*值無顯著差異(p>0.05);於貯藏期間CO-2組及CO-25組之a*值顯著高於Air-2組(p<0.05),而且沒有顯著變化,顯示出經過CO處理之肉排其紅色值較高,而且很穩定;則b*值隨著貯藏時間增加而略有上升之趨勢。各處理組之乳酸菌數及總生菌數皆隨著貯藏時間增加而有增加之趨勢,貯藏至第6天,控制組之乳酸菌數及總生菌顯著高於CO-2組及CO-25組 (p<0.05),而且控制組之總生菌數已經超過107 CFU/g,顯示出CO對於菌數似乎有抑菌之效果。隨著貯藏時間增加而肉中CO殘留量沒有下降之趨勢,CO處理組以CO-2組含量最低;烹煮後肉排中CO殘留量皆顯著降低(p<0.05)。
In this study, pork loin chops was pretreated with 100%CO-MAP at 2℃ or 25℃ for 30 min, then PVC packaged and vacuum packaged. Storage times were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days for PVC packaged, and 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days for vacuum packaged. Samples were stored at 2℃, and study pH value, thiobarbituic acid reactive substances(TBARS)value, percent metmyoglobin, color(L*、a*and b* value), total plate count, lactic acid bacteria and CO residue.
The result of PVC packaged showed that pH values were not significant. All of TBARS values slightly increased with storage time. However, CO-2 (100% CO in a MAP at 2℃ for 30 min)and CO-25 (100% CO in a MAP at 25℃ for 30 min)of TBARS values were not decreased. Air-2 (air in a MAP at 2℃ for 30 min)had slightly higher percent metmyoglobin than CO-2 and CO-25, but between all treatments had no significant differences. Air-2 had higher L* value and b* value than CO-2 and CO-25 during storage, and no significant difference was found between CO-2 and CO-25. Both CO-2 and CO-25 had higher a* value than Air-2. The result were indicated that samples treated with CO to develop stable red color. The total plate counts of CO-2 were significantly lower than Air-2 and CO-25. In CO residue of meat, all treatments decreased with storage, and CO reside of CO-2 were lower than CO-25. After cooking, CO residue in meat were decreased.
The result of vacuum packaged showed that pH values and TBARS values were not significant. Both CO-2 and CO-25 had lower percent metmyoglobin than Air-2. In color, L* value of all treatments had no significant differences. Both CO-2 and CO-25 had higher a* value than Air-2 during storage. And all of b* values slightly increased with storage time. All of total plate counts and lactic acid bacteria increased with storage time. After 6 days of storage, Air-2 had higher total plate counts and lactic acid bacteria than CO-2 and CO-25. And then, total plate counts of Air-2 were over 107 CFU/g, indicating that CO seem to have the inhibitory effect on microbial growth. In CO residue of meat, all treatments did not decreased with storage, and CO reside of CO-2 were lower than CO-25. After cooking, CO residue in meat were decreased.
封面內頁 頁 次
目錄 ………………………………………………………………… Ι
圖次 ………………………………………………………………… Ⅴ
表次 ……………………………………………………………….... Ⅷ
中文摘要 ………………….………………………………..………. 2
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………..….. 4
壹、前言 …………………………………………………………… 6
貳、文獻回顧 ……………………………………………………… 9
ㄧ、包裝的目的 …………………………………………………. 10
二、包裝之方法 …………………………………………………. 10
(一)調節氣體包裝 …………………………………..………. 10
1. 定義 ………………………………………………..…… 10
2. 調氣包裝之優缺點 …………………………………….. 11
(1)優點 …………………………………………………. 11
(2)缺點 …………………………………………………. 12
(二)真空包裝 ………………………………………..………. 12
1. 定義 ………………………………………………..….... 12
2. 真空包裝之優缺點 …………………………………….. 12
(1)優點 …………………………………………………. 12
(2)缺點 …………………………………………………. 13
(三)低氧包裝技術 ………………………..…………………. 16
三、一氧化碳之介紹 ……………………………………………. 18
(一)一氧化碳與顏色 …………………..……………………. 18
(二)一氧化碳對微生物之影響 ……………..………………. 21
(三)一氧化碳之毒性 ……………..…………………………. 22
1. 一氧化碳對於人體的影響 ………….…..……………. 22
2. 暴露於經過一氧化碳處理之生鮮肉品的影響 …….... 23
(四)勞工安全 ……………..…………………………………. 25
(五)相關一氧化碳之食品管制 ……………..………………. 28
参、材料與方法 ………………………………………………...… 30
ㄧ、實驗材料 ……………………………………………………. 31
二、試驗設計 ……………………………………………………. 31
三、實驗方法 ……………………………………………………. 31
四、分析項目 ……………………………………………………. 35
1. 酸鹼值 …………………………………………………… 35
2. 硫巴比妥酸值 …………………………………………… 35
3. 色澤分析 ………………………………………………… 36
4. 變性肌紅蛋白百分比 …………………………………… 37
5. 微生物測定 ……………………………………………… 38
(1)總生菌數 ………………..….……………………… 38
(2)乳酸菌數 ……………..……………………………. 39
6. 加熱處理豬里肌肉排 ……………………………………. 39
7. 肉排中一氧化碳殘留量之測定 …………………………. 39
五、統計分析 …………………………………………………….. 42
肆、結果與討論 …………………………………………………… 43
第一部份 ㄧ氧化碳接觸時間與溫度對豬里肌肉排之探討 …….. 44
1. 酸鹼值 …………..……………………………………... 44
2. 紅色值 …………..……………………………………... 44
2. 硫巴比妥酸值測定 …………..………………………... 45
第二部份 豬里肌肉排預處理一氧化碳後以不同包裝方式貯藏之
探討 …………………………………..………………………..…… 52
一、豬里肌肉預先以100% CO處理30分鐘後,再以PVC
包裝貯藏 …………………..……………………………… 52
1. 酸鹼值 …………..……………………………………... 52
2. 硫巴比妥酸值測定 …………..………………………... 52
3. 變性肌紅蛋白百分比 ……..…………………………... 54
4. 色澤 ……………..……………………………………... 57
(1)明亮度 …………………………………………….. 57
(2)紅色度 …………………………………………….. 58
(3)黃色度 …………………………………………….. 61
5. 總生菌數 …………..…………………………………... 64
6. 肉排中ㄧ氧化碳殘留量 …...……..…………………… 66
二、豬里肌肉預先以100% CO處理30分鐘後,再以真空包
裝貯藏 …………………………………………………….. 70
1. 酸鹼值 …………..……………………………………... 70
2. 硫巴比妥酸值測定 …………..………………………... 70
3. 變性肌紅蛋白百分比 ……..…………………………... 73
4. 色澤 ……………..……………………………………... 75
(1)明亮度 …………………………………………….. 75
(2)紅色度 …………………………………………….. 75
(3)黃色度 …………………………………………….. 78
5. 總生菌數 …………..…………………………………... 78
(1)乳酸菌數 ………………………………………….. 78
(2)總生菌數 ………………………………………….. 80
6. 肉排中ㄧ氧化碳殘留量 ………..……………………... 83
伍、結論 …………………………………………………………… 86
陸、參考文獻 ……………………………………………………… 90
柒、附錄 …………………………………………………………… 102
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