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研究生:蔡文芳
研究生(外文):Wen-Fang Tasi
論文名稱:脂肪含量及乳鐵蛋白對絞碎豬肉微生物及化學特性之影響
論文名稱(外文):Microbial and chemical properties of ground pork as affect by fat content and lactoferrin.
指導教授:郭俊欽郭俊欽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Chin Kuo,Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:142
中文關鍵詞:乳鐵蛋白脂肪絞碎豬肉微生物非血基質鐵硫巴比妥酸值
外文關鍵詞:fatground porkmicrobiologynonheme ironTBARS value
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本實驗在第一部分先探討乳鐵蛋白的最小抑菌濃度。研究結果發現乳鐵蛋白對Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144的最小抑菌濃度為800 ppm,而乳鐵蛋白對Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 14207無抑制效果。第二部分是探討脂肪含量(不添加背脂之豬後腿絞肉,Lean meat組;3/4豬後腿絞肉+1/4背脂,1/4 fat組;1/2豬後腿絞肉+1/2背脂,1/2 fat組)、乳鐵蛋白含量(不添加乳鐵蛋白,Control組;添加800 ppm乳鐵蛋白,1X組;添加2400 ppm乳鐵蛋白,3X組)及貯藏時間(0、2、4、6及8天)對冷藏(4℃)非真空絞肉之總生菌數(total plate counts)、TBARS(thiobarbituric acid reative substances)值、色澤(L*、a*、b*)、總鐵、非血基質鐵(nonheme iron)之影響。研究結果發現,隨著貯藏時間增加,所有組的總生菌數、TBARS值、非血基質鐵都會增加。添加乳鐵蛋白(1X組和3X組)可抑制微生物的生長,但1X組和3X組之總生菌卻無顯著差異;在貯藏前4天時,1/2 fat組及1/4 fat組之總生菌數較Lean meat組低,但之後脂質氧化情形嚴重,並造成微生物快速生長。在脂質氧化方面,添加乳鐵蛋白有促進脂肪氧化情形,3X組之TBARS顯著高於1X組及Control組。在色澤方面,乳鐵蛋白對肉品之明亮度(L*值)、黃色度(b*值)沒有顯著影響,但會使肉品紅色度(a*值)稍微增加;添加脂肪含量愈高,絞肉之L*值和b*值愈高,但對a*值沒有顯著影響。在總鐵方面,添加乳鐵蛋白愈多,總鐵含量愈高,但貯藏期間游離出的游離鐵含量也愈高。
The study of first part is to investigate the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of lactoferrin (LF). Results indicted that MICs of LF toward Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 are 800 ppm. LF showed no antibacterial activity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 14207. The second part is to investigate fat content (all lean meat,lean meat treatment;3/4 ground pork and 1/4 pork back fat,1/4 fat treatment;1/2 ground pork and 1/2 pork back fat,1/2 fat treatment) or lactoferrin (meat samples without adding lactoferrin,Control treatment;meat samples with adding 800ppm lactoferrin,1X treatment;meat samples with adding 2400ppm lactoferrin,3X) of non-vacuum-packing groud pork stored at 4℃ for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. The total plate counts, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value (TBARS value), color (L*、a*、b*), total iron and nonheme iron in all treatments increased as time of storage increased up to 8 days.1X treatment and 3X treatment can inhibit the growth of microbe but there was no significant difference. The total plate counts was lower in 1/2fat and 1/4 fat treatments than in control. But the lipid oxidation is serious, and creates the microorganism fast growth. The increase lactoferrin had pro-oxidation situation, The TBARS value was higher in 3X treatment than in 1X treatment and control. In the color, no significant influence was found between lactoferrin treatments and control of the L* and b* value. But the a* value would be increased slightly. The increase fat content was higher, the L* and b* value was higher, but the a* value no significant influence. The total iron content was highest by 3X treatment, and lowest by control. The content of free iron were increased during storage.
目錄
封面內頁 頁次
目錄....................................................Ι
圖次....................................................Ⅴ
表次....................................................Ⅷ
中文摘要................................................Ⅸ
英文摘要................................................ⅩⅠ
壹、 前言................................................1
貳、 文獻回顧............................................2
1. 乳鐵蛋白...............................................2
1.1乳鐵蛋白的發現.......................................2
1.2乳鐵蛋白的簡介.......................................2
1.3乳鐵蛋白的結構與特性.................................3
1.4乳鐵蛋白之製造.......................................9
1.5乳鐵蛋白之功能......................................10
1.5.1抗氧化性.........................................10
1.5.2天然抑菌劑.......................................12
1.5.2.1抗菌活性......................................12
1.5.2.2抗真菌活性....................................14
1.5.2.3抗病毒活性....................................15
1.5.2.4抗寄生蟲活性..................................17
1.5.3調節發炎免疫反應.................................17
1.5.4抗癌作用及抗腫瘤作用.............................18
1.5.5鐵離子的運送與吸收...............................19
1.5.6乳鐵蛋白之受器與功能.............................20
1.6乳鐵蛋白未來之法規及應用............................20
2.鐵....................................................22
2.1鐵之種類...........................................22
2.1.1總鐵...........................................22
2.1.2血基質鐵.......................................22
2.1.3非血基質鐵.....................................24
2.2鐵與脂質氧化之關係.................................24
2.3鐵影響肉品之品質...................................26
3.脂質..................................................29
3.1脂質自氧化..........................................29
3.1.1自氧化反應機制...................................29
3.2抗氧化劑............................................30
3.3在肉品和肉製品中的脂質氧化..........................32
3.3.1肉中顏色的改變...................................32
3.3.2肉中的脂質氧化...................................33
3.3.3肉中的不良風味...................................33
參、材料與方法...........................................35
第一部分 牛乳鐵蛋白抗菌活性測試..........................35
一、 實驗材料........................................35
二、 實驗儀器........................................35
三、 實驗方法-最小抑菌濃度之測定.....................36
四、 統計分析........................................42
第二部分 牛乳鐵蛋白對不同脂肪含量豬後腿絞肉之探討........43
一、 實驗材料........................................47
二、 實驗設計........................................47
三、 絞碎豬肉之製備..................................47
四、 一般成分分析....................................50
(一) 水分.........................................50
(二) 粗脂肪.......................................50
五、 分析項目........................................51
(一) 水活性.......................................51
(二) 色澤分析.....................................51
(三) 硫巴比妥酸值.................................52
(四) 總生菌.......................................53
(五) 總鐵含量.....................................53
(六) 非血基質鐵...................................55
六、 統計分析........................................59
肆、結果與討論...........................................60
第一部分 牛乳鐵蛋白之最小抑菌濃度測試....................60
一、金黃葡萄球菌.....................................60
二、綠膿桿菌.........................................61
第二部分 脂肪含量及乳鐵蛋白對豬腿絞肉微生物及化學特性影響
一、一般成分分析.....................................63
二、硫巴比妥酸值.....................................63
三、總生菌...........................................68
四、色澤分析.........................................75
五、總鐵.............................................83
六、非血基質鐵.......................................83
伍、結論.................................................89
陸、參考文獻.............................................91

圖次
頁次
圖一、乳鐵蛋白所扮演的角色...............................4
圖二、(A)牛及(B)人乳鐵蛋白之3-D結構..................5
圖三、人乳鐵蛋白N-球葉及C-球葉之結構....................7
圖四、牛乳鐵蛋白N-球葉之三價鐵結合位置...................8
圖五、乳鐵蛋白製造之簡單流程圖...........................11
圖六、鐵之氧化還原循環反應...............................27
圖七、鐵與血基質蛋白質之氧化還原反應.....................28
圖八、(A) 綠膿桿菌的生長曲線,以及 (B) 對數生長期之菌數對
數值與吸光值之回歸曲線圖...........................39
圖九、(A) 金黃葡萄球菌的生長曲線,以及 (B) 對數生長期之菌
數對數值與吸光值之回歸曲線圖.......................40
圖十、乳鐵蛋白對金黃葡萄球菌的生長抑制率.................44
圖十一、乳鐵蛋白對綠膿桿菌的生長抑制率...................45
圖十二、乳鐵蛋白添加量對豬後腿絞肉於貯藏期間(4℃)總生
菌數之影響.........................................46
圖十三、試驗設計.........................................49
圖十四、總鐵含量之標準曲線...............................55
圖十五、非血基質鐵之標準曲線.............................57
圖十六、牛乳鐵蛋白添加量對豬腿絞肉於貯藏期間(4℃)硫巴比
妥酸值的影響.....................................67
圖十七、不同脂肪含量的豬腿絞肉於貯藏期間(4℃)對硫巴比妥
酸值的影響.......................................69
圖十八、不同脂肪含量的豬腿絞肉於貯藏期間(4℃)對總生菌數
的影響...........................................71
圖十九、豬後腿絞肉添加不同濃度的乳鐵蛋白處理對總生菌數的
影響.............................................73
圖二十、乳鐵蛋白對不同脂肪含量豬絞肉之L*值之影響........76
圖二十一、不同脂肪含量的豬後腿絞肉於貯藏期間(4℃)對a*值
的影響.........................................78
圖二十二、乳鐵蛋白對不同脂肪含量豬絞肉之a*值的影響.......80
圖二十三、不同脂肪含量的豬後腿絞肉於貯藏期間(4℃)對b*值
的影響.........................................81
圖二十四、乳鐵蛋白對不同脂肪含量豬絞肉之b*值的影響.......82
圖二十五、豬後腿絞肉添加不同濃度的乳鐵蛋白處理對總鐵的
影響...........................................84
圖二十六、不同脂肪含量的豬後腿絞肉對總鐵的影響...........85
圖二十七、貯藏時間對絞肉非血基質鐵(各處理組之平均值)的
影響...........................................87
圖二十八、不同濃度的乳鐵蛋白處理對絞肉非血基質鐵的影響...88

















表次
頁次
表一、乳鐵蛋白抗病毒之影響...............................16
表二、豬肉羊肉及牛肉各部位的鐵含量.......................23
表三、不同脂肪含量對絞碎豬腿肉組成之影響.................64
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