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研究生:薛朝安
研究生(外文):Chao-An Hsueh
論文名稱:台灣中部地區高臭氧事件之探討
論文名稱(外文):High Ozone Episodes in Central Taiwan
指導教授:程萬里程萬里引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wan-Li Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:環境科學與工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:212
中文關鍵詞:臭氧事件滴定效應主成份分析繫留探空系統空氣污染模式
外文關鍵詞:O3 episodeTitration effectPrincipal xomponent analysisTethersonde systemThe air pollution model
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
在大多數的城市中臭氧(O3)污染問題越來越嚴重。就以天氣類型來看,主要多發生在秋季。當熱帶低壓北移時,台灣綜觀風場屬於東風形勢。受到中央山脈的阻擋,使得西半部地區呈現微弱的西風系,造成污染物不易擴散而導致高O3濃度。然而到目前為止,由於缺乏垂直氣象資料與當地複雜的地形資料,使得有較少數的研究能結合複雜的光化學反應來一起探討氣象條件、地形特徵與空氣品質。因此,本研究想要來探討引起高O3 濃度事件中地形的特徵與氣象條件、近地面與垂直剖面的光化學反應,以及空氣污染物之來源。
本研究藉由基本的統計方法及主成份分析(PCA)來對於近地面之氣象參數(風速、風向及混合層高度)與空氣污染物濃度(O3、NO、NO2及CO)進行分析。然而,為了補償垂直剖面資料的不足,我們使用繫留探空系統來收集垂直氣象的參數資料與空氣污染物的濃度。此外,本研究亦引用澳洲聯邦科學與工業研究機構(Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, CSIRO)所屬之大氣研究部門研發之空氣污染模式(The Air Pollution Model Version 3, TAPM V3.0),並加入當地風場資料同化,以模擬驗證此期間之氣塊軌跡移動路徑。
結果顯示當熱帶低壓北移並接近台灣之天氣型態下,容易造成高O3 濃度的發生。滴定反應能夠被分類成三個時段(0000 LST - 0600 LST、0900 LST - 1000 LST、1200 LST - 1300 LST)。在第一個時段中,O3 與O3/Ox 之線性關係最強(R2 > 0.8),且地形特徵明顯地支配著O3濃度變化的空間特性,並可分成三個空間形式(沿海地區、都會區及內陸地區)。線性回歸比率在近地面15 - 50 m(R2 = 5.92E-01)比高空300 - 600 m(R2 = 3.40E-01)高,表示NO2 濃度在高空300 - 600 m的產生比率低於近地面。而CO濃度在靜風狀態下(風速 < 1.5 m/s)之貢獻量最大(> 50 %),表示在此時段中,空氣污染物主要以當地排放為主。在第三個時段中,O3/Ox的比率接近穩定,表示O3 濃度急遽上升的同時,NO2 濃度並無隨之上升,反而是因為O3 濃度於太陽輻射旺盛下大量的被產生, NO 濃度不足無法同時快速的參與滴定反應產生NO2 。在本研究中所監測到的高O3 濃度事件,雖然不包含在時間與空間特性的統計分類上。推測原因可能是9月17日時,由於O3前驅物於前一晚的累積,加上當日1200 LST - 1500 LST 之混合層發展至635 m,太陽輻射旺盛(1.34 - 2.52 MJ/m2),且低風速(< 3 m/s)之情況下,造成南投地區於近地面100 m處發生高O3濃度事件(121.5 ppb)。再由TAPM模擬氣塊軌跡顯示,空氣污染物會由沿海及都會地區所傳輸,其氣塊軌跡之移動路徑與污染物來源方向相似。表示本模式未來在解析污染物來源時,可充分利用其氣塊順、逆軌跡線來加以分析。
Ozone pollution is getting worse in most major cities. The weather type which occurs during the autumn months, when the northern edge of the tropical depression reaches this area, has weak-to-moderate easterly winds covering the region. It is unfavorable for pollutant dispersion, resulting in high O3 concentrations. So far, few studies have discussed the complicated photochemical reactions associated with meteorological conditions, topographical features and air quality, because of the poor vertical meteorological data and the complicated local topographical patterns. This study intends to discuss the features of topographical and meteorological conditions triggering high O3 concentration episodes, photochemical reactions at the surface and the vertical profile of O3 episodes and source of the air pollutants.
The surface data of meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction and mixing height) and air pollutant concentrations (O3, NO, NO2 and CO) was analyzed by basic statistical methods and principal component analysis (PCA). Also, to compensate for the deficiency of the recorded data, we used a tethersonde balloon system to collect vertical meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations. In addition, we also quote the air pollution model (TAPM), a computer model developed by Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Australia. Moreover, we also used with the local meteorological data assimilation to simulated the trajectory of air parcel in this study.
Results indicated that high O3 concentration episodes occurred when the tropical depression drifted northward and approached Taiwan. The titration reactions could be classified into three temporal phases - 0000 LST - 0600 LST, 0900 LST - 1000 LST and 1200 LST - 1300 LST. During the first phase, the O3 and O3/Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) linear relation of the regressions was the strongest (R2 > 0.8), and the topographical feature clearly dominated the spatial characteristics of O3 concentration variation, classified into three spatial patterns- the coastal region, the urban area and the inward area. The rate of the regression at the height of 15 - 50 m (R2 = 5.92E-01) was higher than that at the height of 300 - 600 m (R2 = 3.40E-01). This indicated that the rate of production of NO2 at 300 - 600 m was larger than that at the height of 15 - 50 m. The contribution of CO concentration in calm winds (wind speed < 1.5 m/s) was more than 50 %. In this phase, the air pollutants came mainly from local emission. During the third phase, the nearly constant ratio O3/Ox, indicated that O3 concentration rose abruptly but the NO2 concentration was near constant since the O3 concentration is produced in considerable quantities under the strong solar radiation and reacted with limited NO to produce NO2. The O3 episode appeared after this phase and was not included in the statistical classification of temporal and spatial characteristics. For instance, on September 17, 2005 at 1500 LST the high O3 concentration, 121.5 ppb, episode occurred at less than 100 m in Nantou due to four factors: the accumulated precursors of O3 during the previous night, mixing height of 635 m, solar radiation of 1.34 - 2.52 MJ/m2 (1200 LST - 1500 LST) and low wind speed (< 3 m/s). The TAPM simulated indicate that the most of the air pollutants from the coastal and urban area are transmitted by the air parcel trajectory. The trajectory of air parcel move-way with alike the direction of air pollutants source. It means that we can use the follow or back trajectory of air parcel to interpret the air pollutants source in the future.
第一章 緒論 ......................................................... 1
1-1 前言 ........................................................... 1
1-2 研究動機與目的 .................................................. 3
第二章 文獻回顧 ..................................................... 5
2-1臭氧之生成機制 ................................................... 5
2-2 臭氧污染與綜觀天氣型態之相關研究 .................................. 9
2-3臭氧污染與局部環流之相關研究 ...................................... 11
2-4軌跡模式探討污染物來源之相關研究 .................................. 13
2-5 文獻探討 ...................................................... 15
第三章 研究方法 .................................................... 16
3-1 研究背景 ...................................................... 16
3-2 中部地區監測資料收集 ............................................ 18
3-3 繫留探空 ...................................................... 19
3-4 使用儀器設備 ................................................... 21
3-4.1 探空監測儀器說明 ............................................. 21
3-4.2 空氣採樣設備說明 ............................................. 21
3-4.3 空氣品質分析儀器說明 .......................................... 22
3-5 主成份分析(Principal Component Analysis) ..................... 25
3-6 空氣污染模式(The Air Pollution Model version 3.0) ............ 27
3-7 模式所需資料 ................................................... 32
3-7.1 氣象資料來源 ................................................. 32
3-7.2 污染物排放資料來源 ............................................ 33
3-8 模式網格設定 ................................................... 34
3-9 模式模擬結果評估方法 ............................................ 35
3-9.1 氣象場模擬 ................................................... 35
3-9.2 臭氧濃度模擬 ................................................. 36
第四章 結果與討論 ...................................................38
4-1 2005年秋季綜觀天氣型態 .......................................... 38
4-2 空氣品質監測 ................................................... 40
4-2.1 O3 濃度時空分佈 ............................................. 41
4-2.2 O3 與NO2 滴定反應 ........................................... 43
4-2.3 O3 濃度主成份分析 ........................................... 51
4-2.4 O3、NO2與CO 污染物來源 ...................................... 53
4-3 繫留探空監測 ................................................... 59
4-3.1 垂直氣象場 ................................................... 59
4-3.2 垂直滴定反應與污染物分佈 ...................................... 61
4-4 TAPM模式模擬結果 .............................................. 64
4-4.1 氣象場模擬結果評估 ............................................ 65
4-4.2 O3 濃度模擬結果評估 ......................................... 67
4-5 TAPM氣塊軌跡線推算 ............................................ 68
第五章 結論與建議 ................................................... 72
5-1 結論 .......................................................... 72
5-2 建議 .......................................................... 75
參考文獻 .......................................................... 76
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