跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.211.26.178) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/24 22:38
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:王揚維
研究生(外文):Yang-wei Wang
論文名稱:微脂粒包覆尼古丁酸衍生物在美白上的應用
論文名稱(外文):Whitening application of Nicotinic acid derivatives and Phospholipids Based Formulations for Skin Permeation of Nicotinic acid derivatives
指導教授:方旭偉方旭偉引用關係劉得任劉得任引用關係
口試委員:梁有志鐘次文黃義侑
口試日期:2007-06-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:生物科技研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:美白防曬12-二油酰基-3-三甲基氨基丙烷微脂粒
外文關鍵詞:WhiteningsunscreenDOTAPLiposome
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:286
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本研究利用微脂粒做為尼古丁酸衍生物之包覆載體 , 評估不同組成配方之微脂粒包覆尼古丁酸衍生物在美白上之應用與效能 , 本研究所使用之微脂粒 , 主要包括四個主要組成 : 一為僅單純磷脂醯膽鹼 (DPPC) 組成 , 二為由磷脂醯膽鹼 (DPPC) 與膽固醇 (Cholesterol) 組成 , 三為由磷脂醯膽鹼 (DPPC) 與帶正電的長碳鏈醯胺 (SA ,Stearylamide) 組成 , 最後一組為1,2-二油酰基-3-三甲基氨基丙烷 (DOTAP) 與界面活性劑 ( Tween 20 ) 組成 , 實驗結果顯示 ; 在細胞實驗方面 , 不但證明尼古丁酸衍生物對黑色素細胞與黑色素具有抑制效果 , 也同時證明了微脂粒在單純鼠類黑色素癌細胞 ( B16-F10 ) 中 , 具有加強的療效 , 其中尤以 1, 2-二油酰基-3-三甲基氨基丙烷與界面活性劑組成最為顯著 (P<0.05) 。

在動物實驗方面 , 本研究使用四種微脂粒包覆尼古丁酸衍生物 , 藉由特定波長能量之紫外光 (UVB) , 照射 C57BL / 6Jnar 小鼠 ,比較各組在黑色素產生之差異 。 實驗結果證明 , 此尼古丁酸衍生物有明確的療效 ,可達25%上下(P<0.05) , 1,2-二油酰基-3-三甲基氨基丙烷等帶正電荷微脂粒的效果較好 , 其對黑色素抑制可達 60%上下 (P<0.05) , 而磷脂醯膽鹼與其不同改質結構與單純藥物效果之差異較不顯著 ,只達30至40% (P>0.05) 。而在Franz-cell穿透實驗中 , 本研究使用微脂粒包覆尼古丁酸衍生物 ,藉著 Franz-cell 擴散槽與SD大白鼠之皮膚進行實驗 , 以得知不同配方的穿透效果 ; 實驗結果發現 , 1,2-二油酰基-3-三甲基氨基丙烷 (DOTAP) 等帶正電荷微脂粒的效果最好 (P<0.05) , 而磷脂醯膽鹼 (DPPC) 與其不同改質結構與單純藥物效果差異較不顯著 (P>0.05) 。

整體實驗結果得知 , 此尼古丁酸衍生物有明確的療效 , 其次 , 含膽固醇組成的效果對穿透而言 , 些許地有負面影響 ; 而帶正電荷組成之微脂粒效果優於負電性組成之微脂粒 , 尤以1 , 2-二油酰基-3-三甲基氨基丙烷為最佳 。
The research for ability of whitening and promotion effect of modified liposome with nicotinic derivate is our major issue. The experiment contains three parts: cellular, transdermal, and animal test. DPPC (Only), DPPC with cholesterol, DOTAP with Tween 20, and DPPC with SA are four major liposomal structures and encapsulate nicotinic hydroxamate that is possible to eliminate growth of melanocytes and inhibit melanin production. In vitro, we try to explain influence of different types of liposomes and prove excellent inhibition effect of melanocytes growth and melanin production. As a result, our data show the best effect of DOTAP with Tween 20 and categorical inhibition influence of nicotinic derivate (P<0.05).

For animal test, C57BL/6Jnar mice were exposed by constant and stable UVB and anointed the sunburned places with different types of liposomes. We collect the data of blackness, which was detected by Cutometer MPA450. By data of animal experiment, we proved the sunscreen and whitening ability of the nicotinic derivate and found the best liposomal type, DOTAP with Tween. (Decrease blackness to 40%; P<0.05) As for transdermal experiment, we use Franz-cell type to account for different fusion effects of variable liposomal structures on skin of SD mice. Based on our data, we found that cationic liposome presents best transdermal ability (DOTAP; P<0.05) and no obvious difference of penetration between simple drug and traditional liposome. (DPPC and DPPC with cholesterol; P>0.05)

Apparently sanative influence of nicotinic derivate was proved by our research. Secondly, data of transdermal phenomena show negative influence of advancement of cholesterol content and positive effect of cationic liposome.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 v

第一章 文獻探討 1

1.1生技與化妝品市場的趨勢與發展狀況 1
1.2日照與黑色素生成之關係 3
1.2.1紫外線與皮膚的關係 3
1.2.2皮膚光照後引起的反應 4
1.2.2.1 短期光照的影響 4
1.2.2.2 長期光照的影響 5
1.3 皮膚構造與黑色素調控 6
1.3.1皮膚構造 6
1.3.2表皮(Epidermis) 7
1.3.3表皮的細胞 9
1.3.4真皮(Dermis) 11
1.3.5皮下組織(subcutaneous tissue) 11
1.4 黑色素介紹 12
1.4.1黑色素細胞 12
1.4.2黑色素介紹與形成機轉 12
1.4.3酪氨酸酶介紹與形成機轉 14
1.4.4黑色素光反應機制 17
1.5 防曬與褪黑機制 18
1.5.1美白與防曬的定義 18
1.5.2一般美白與防曬藥劑 19

第二章 微脂粒介紹 21

2.1分類 21
2.2.1 傳統結構分類 21
2.2.2 應用方式分類 21
2.2構造組成 22
2.2.1 基本結構 22
2.2.2 依極性結構部位分類 24
2.2.3 依帶電性分類 24
2.3 製備方法 26
2.4 穩定度與性質 28
2.4.1 微脂粒穩定性 28
2.4.2 控制微脂粒藥物的因素 30
2.4.3 實驗用微脂粒添加物成份 32

第三章 微脂粒對細胞與皮膚穿透之關係 33

3.1理想之微脂粒在穿透反應之特性 33
3.1.1 特性探討 33
3.1.2 微脂粒在穿透機制上之優勢 33
3.2 微脂粒在經皮吸收之應用與發展 34
3-3 微脂粒物在經皮吸收之物化作用 35
3-4 微脂粒與細胞或組織作用機制 37
3.4.1 微脂粒與組織作用機制 37
3.4.2 微脂粒與細胞作用機制 38
3.4.3 活性分子穿透皮膚的路徑 39
3.4.3 皮膚穿透機轉 40

第四章 研究動機與實驗目的 43

第五章 實驗方法與設備 45

5.1 實驗流程 45
5.2 實驗材料 45
5.3 實驗藥品 46
5.4 實驗設備 47
5.5 測試項目與方法 51
5.5.1 實驗動物及操作工具 51
5.5.2 實驗方法 52
5.5.2.1 溶液製備 52
5.5.2.2 凝膠製備 52
5.5.2.3 微脂粒製備 53
5.5.2.4 粒徑分析 54
5.5.2.5 界面電位分析 54
5.5.2.6 包覆率分析 55
5.5.2.7 細胞實驗-細胞培養 55
5.5.2.8 細胞實驗-細胞黑色素分析 56
5.5.2.9 細胞實驗- Alpha –MSH測試 57
5.5.2.10 細胞實驗- MTT分析 58
5.5.2.11 細胞實驗- DOTAP毒殺性分析 58
5.5.2.12 皮膚穿透實驗- Franz Cell 分析 59
5.5.2.13 動物實驗-照光試驗 60
5.5.2.14 動物實驗-黑色素分析 60
5.5.2.14 定實量驗-比色法與HPLC分析 61

第六章 結果與討論 62

6.1 不同構造微脂粒物化實驗結果 62
6.1.1 粒徑分析 62
6.1.2 界面電位分析 63
6.1.3 包覆率分析 65
6.1.4 劑型儲存性分析 66
6.2 細胞實驗分析 67
6.2.1 細胞黑色素分析 67
6.2.2 MTT分析 68
6.2.3 DOTAP毒殺性分析 70
6.3 動物實驗-黑色素分析 71
6.4 皮膚穿透實驗分析 74

第七章 結果與討論 79

第八章 未來展望 81

第九章 文獻探討 82
1. Shimogaki, H., Tanaka, Y., Tamai, H. and Masuda, M. 2000. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ellagic acid on melanogenesis inhibition. International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 22: 291-303.
2. Quevedo WC Jr, Szabo G, Virks J, Sinesi SJ. Melanocyte populations in UV-irradiated human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1965 Oct; 45(4): 295-8
3. Fitzpatrick TB, Quevedo WC Jr, Levene AL, McGovern VJ, Mishima Y, Oettle AG. Terminology of vertebrate melanin-containing cells: 1965. Science. 1966 Apr 1;152(718):88-9
4. Romero C.; Aberdam E.; Larnier C.; Ortonne J.P.: Retinoic acid as modulator of UVB-induced melanocyte differentiation. Involvement of the melanogenic enzymes expression. J. Cell Sci.
1994, 107 (Pt 4): 1095-103
5. Gonzalez S, Moran M, Kochevar IE. Chronic photodamage in skin of mast cell-deficient mice. Photochem Photobiol. 1999 Aug;70(2):248-53.
6. Lowell A.; Golgsmith: Biochemistry and Physiology of the skin. Oxford University Press, Inc, 1983
7. Goldsmith SM, Sherertz EF, Powell BL, Hurd DD. Cutaneous reactions to azacitidine. Arch Dermatol. 1991 Dec;127(12):1847-8
8. McCord JM, Fridovich I. , Superoxide dismutase: the first twenty years (1968-1988).
Free Radic Biol Med. 1988;5(5-6):363-9.
9.Fridovich, I. (1988) Superoxide radical: an endogenous toxicant. Ann. Rev.
10.Bergendi L, Benes L, Durackova Z, Ferencik M., Chemistry, physiology and pathology of free radicals.Life Sci. 1999;65(18-19):1865-74. Review.
11.(IARC. Solar and ultraviolet radiation. Lyon, 1992. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, (2006)
12.Jenkins, G. 2002. Molecular mechanisms of skin ageing. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. 123: 802-810.
13.Scharffetter-Kochanek et al. UV-induced reactive oxygen species in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Biol Chem. 1997 Nov;378(11):1247-57. Review.
14.Nelson, D. L. and Cox, M. M. 2000. Lehninger Principles of Biochmistry, Worth Publishers, p. 313.
15.Sheu, S. C., 2002, The newest practical physiological anatomy, Yung-Da,Taipei, Taiwan.
16.Elias P.M., Epidermal lipids, barrier function, and desquamation. J. Invest. Dermatol. 80, 44S-49S (1983)
17.Byorksten, J. A. 1958. A common molecular basis for the aging syndrome. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 6: 740.
18. Takakazu, S. and Stan, P. 1993. Differences in subcellular distribution of catechol-O-methyltransferase and tyrosinase in malignant melanoma. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 100: 222S-225S.
19.Marieb NJ, Spangler S, Kashgarian M, Heimann A, Schwartz ML, Schwartz PE. Cushing''s syndrome secondary to ectopic cortisol production by an ovarian carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Oct;57(4):737-40.
20.Laurent, No major role for the dopamine D2 receptor Ser-->Cys311 mutation in schizophrenia. Psychiatr Genet. 1994 Winter;4(4):229-30.
21.Prota, G. 1996. Melanins and Melanogenesis. Cosmetic and Tolletries Magazine. 111: 43-51.
22.C. B. Keith, Lawrence M: Melanins: Hair dyes for the future. Cosmetics & Toiletries 109: 59-64, 1994.
23.Orlow , Melanosomes are specialized members of the lysosomal lineage of organelles. J Invest Dermatol. 1995 Jul;105(1):3-7. Review.
24. Prota G.:Recent advances in the chemistry of melanogenesis in mammals. J Invest Dermatol 1980, 75(1): 122-7
25.Hunt, G., S. Kyne, S. Ito, K. Wakamatsu, C. Todd and A. J. Thody. 1995
26.Cooksey CJ, Garratt PJ, Land EJ, Pavel S, Ramsden CA, Riley PA, Smit NP. Evidence of the indirect formation of the catecholic intermediate substrate responsible for the autoactivation kinetics of tyrosinase. J Biol Chem. 1997 Oct 17;272(42):26226-35
27.Prota G. , The role of peroxidase in melanogenesis revisited. Pigment Cell Res. 1992;Suppl 2:25-31.
28. Aroca P, Garcia-Borron JC, Solano F, Lozano JA. Regulation of mammalian melanogenesis. I: Partial purification and characterization of a dopachrome converting factor: dopachrome tautomerase.
29.Boissy RE, Sakai C, Zhao H, Kobayashi T, Hearing VJ. Human tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) does not function as a DHICA oxidase activity in contrast to murine TRP-1. Exp Dermatol. 1998 Aug;7(4):198-204.
30.Ozeki H, Ito S, Wakamatsu K, Thody AJ. Spectrophotometer characterization of eumelanin and pheomelanin in hair.Pigment Cell Res. 1996 Oct;9(5):265-70.
31.Mayer A. M., “Polyphenol oxidases in plants-Recent progress”, phytochem, 26,pp.11-20, 1987.
32.Whitaker J. R., “Polyphenol oxidase. In Food Enzymes, Strueture and Mechanism”, chapman & Hall, New-York, pp. 271-307, 1995.
33.Marieb E.N.: Human Anatomy and Physiology, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, California, 1989
34.Orten J.M.; Neuhau O.W.: Human Biochemistry, London, 1975
35.Cantarow A.1963; Schepartz B.: Biochemistry, W. B. Saunders London
36.Guyton A.C.: Human Physiology and Mechanisems of Disease, W. B. Saunders, London, 1987
37..Linda L. H., Pharm D., “Use of hydroquinone as a bleaching cream”, Ann. Pharmacotherapy, 27, pp.592-593, 1993.
38.Paul D. M., Dennis W. K. Cotton ed. al., “The Molecular Biology of Skin”, BlackWell Scientific Publications Oseny Mead, Oxford Ox2 0EL, 1976.
39.Jara J.R.; Solano F.; Garcia-Borron J.C.; Aroca P.; Lozano J.A.: Regulation of mammalian melanogenesis. II: The role of metal cations. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1990, 1035(3): 276-85
40.Fuller B.B.; Viskochil D.H.: The role of RNA and protein synthesis in mediating the action of MSH on mouse melanoma cells. Life Sci. 1979,24(26): 2405-15
41. Jimenez M .; Kameyama K .; Maloy W .L.; Tomita Y .; Hearing V.J.: Mammalian tyrosinase: biosynthesis, processing, and modulation by melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 1988, 85(11): 3830-4
42. Wong G.; Pawelek J.: Melanocyte-stimulating hormone promotes activation of pre-existing tyrosinase molecules in Cloudman S91 melanoma cells. Nature 1975, 19; 255(5510): 644-6
43.Erol D. D., Calis U., Yulug N., “Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of some dithiocarbamate derivatives of kojic acid”, Boll. Chim. Farm., 134, pp.620-623,1995.
44.Lasic DD, Paphadjopoulos D,Liposomes revisited. Science. 1995 Mar 3;267(5202):1275-6. Review.
45.Cevc G, Blume G. Hydrocortisone and dexamethasone in very deformable drug carriers have increased biological potency, prolonged effect, and reduced therapeutic dosage. Biochim Biophys Acta 2004;1663:61–73.
46.Cevc G, Blume G. Lipid vesicles penetrate into intact skin owing to the transdermal osmotic gradients and hydration force. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992;1104(1):226–32.
47.Sospedra P,Alsina MA , Hepatitis A Synthetic Peptide VP3(110-121) Miscibility with Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, Dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, and Stearylamine Monolayers. Journal of colloid and interface science, 221(2), 230-235, (2000)
48.Yeagle PL. , Cholesterol and the cell membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985 Dec 9;822(3-4):267-87. Review.
49.Maria Teresa De Magistris, Mucosal delivery of vaccine antigens and its advantages in pediatrics. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 58(1),52-67, (2006)
50.Mezei M. and Gulasekharam V., Liposomes – a selective drug delivery system for the topical route of administration. I. Lotion dosage form. Life Sci. 26, 1473-1477. (1980)
51.Mishra D Garg Dubey Jain S, Jain NK. , V,M,Elastic liposomes mediated transdermal delivery of an anti-hypertensive agent: propranolol hydrochloride.J Pharm Sci. 2007 Jan;96(1):145-55
52.Yun-Kyoung Song and Chong-Kook Kim ,Topical delivery of low-molecular-weight heparin with surface-charged flexible liposomes Pages 271-280
53.Nishihata T., Kotera K., Nakano Y., Yamazaki M., Rat percutaneous transport of diclofenac and influence of hydrogenated soya phospholipids. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 35, 3807-3812 (1987)
54.Cevc G., Blume G., Lipid vesicles penetrate into intact skin owing to the transdermal osmotic gradients and hydration force. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1104, 226-232 (1992)
55. Touitou E., Dayan N., Bergelson L., Godin B., Eliaz M., Ethosomes – novel vesicular carriers for enhanced delivery: characterization and skin penetration properties. J. Contr. Rel. 65, 403-418 (2000)
56. Priborsky J., Muhlbachiba E., Evaluation of in vitro percutaneous absorption across human skin and in animal model. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 43, 468-472 (1990)
57.Morimoto Y., Sugibayashi K., Hosoya K., Higuchi W.I., Penetration enhancing effect of Azone on the transport of 5-fluorouracil across the hairless rat skin. Int. J. Pharm. 32, 31-38 (1986)
58.Barry, B. W. (2001) Novel mechanisms and devices to enable successful transdermal drug delivery. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 14: 101–114
59.Williams, A. C., Barry, B. W. (2004) Penetration enhancers. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 56: 603–618
60.Megrab, N. A., Williams, A. C., Barry, B. W. (1995) Oestradiol permeation across human skin and silastic membranes: effects of propylene glycol and supersaturation. J. Control. Release 36: 277–294
61.Miller, L. L., Kolaskie, C. J., Smith, G. A., Rivier, J. (1990) Transdermal iontophoresis of gonadotropin releasing hormone and two analogues. J. Pharm. Sci. 79: 490–493
62.Kost, J., Pliquett, U., Mitragotri, S., Yamamoto, A., Langer, R., Weaver, J. (1996) Synergistic effect of electric field and ultrasound on transdermal transport. Pharm. Res. 13: 633– 638
63.Tomohiro Hakozaki , Hirotsugu Takiwaki , Kukizo Miyamoto , Yasuhiro Sato and Seiji Arase . Ultrasound enhanced skin-lightening effect of vitamin C and niacinamide Skin Research and Technology 2006; 12: 105–113S
64.Li, MA Rizzo, S Bhattacharya and L Huang , Characterization of cationic lipid-protamine–DNA (LPD) complexes for intravenous gene delivery , Gene Therapy (1998) 5, 930–937
65.Bonner, M. C., Barry, B. W. (2006) Combined chemical and electroporation methods of skin penetration enhancement. In: Touitou, E., Barry, B. W. (eds) Enhancement in drug delivery.In press
66.Essa, E. A., Bonner, M. C., Barry, B. W. (2005) Electrical enhancement of transdermal delivery of ultradeformable liposomes. In: Bronaugh, R. L., Maibach, H. I. (eds) Percutaneous absorption. 4th edn, Marcel Dekker, NewYork and Basel
67.Honeywell-Nguyen, P. L., Bouwstra, J. A. (2005) Vesicles as a tool for transdermal and dermal delivery. Drug Discovery Today: Technologies 2: 67–74
68.Zellmer, S., Pfeil, W., Lasch, J. (1995) Interaction of phosphatidylcholine liposomes with the human stratum corneum. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1237: 176–182
69.El Maghraby, G. M., Williams, A. C., Barry, B. W. (1999) Skin delivery of oestradiol from deformable and traditional liposomes: mechanistic studies. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 51: 1123– 1134
70.El Maghraby, G. M., Williams, A. C., Barry, B. W. (2000a) Oestradiol skin delivery from ultradeformable liposomes: refinement of surfactant concentration. Int. J. Pharm. 196: 63–74
71.Cevc, G., Blume, G. (1992) Lipid vesicles penetrate into intact skin owing to the transdermal osmotic gradients and hydration force. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1104: 226–232
72.El Maghraby, G. M., Williams, A. C., Barry, B. W. (1999) Skin delivery of oestradiol from deformable and traditional liposomes: mechanistic studies. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 51: 1123– 1134
73.Torchilin VP, Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers. Nat. Rev Drug Discov 2005 Feb;4(2):145-60
74.Foldvari M., Non-invasive administration of drugs through the skin : challenges in delivery system design. PSTT 3(12) 417-425 (2000)
75.Gamal M. M. El Maghraby, Adrian C. Williams and Brian W. Barry Can drug-bearing liposomes penetrate intact skin? JPP 2006, 58: 415–429
76.Ganesan, M. G., Weiner, N. D., Flynn, G. L., Ho, N. F. H. (1984) Influence of liposomal drug entrapment on percutaneous absorption. Int. J. Pharm. 20: 139–154
77.Hofland, H. E. J., Bouwstra, J. A., Bodde, H. E., Spies, F., Junginger, H. E. (1995) Interaction between liposomes and human stratum corneum in vitro: freeze fracture electron microscopical visualization and small angle X-ray scattering studies. Br. J. Dermatol. 132: 853–866
78.Kato, A., Ishibashi, Y., Miyake, Y. (1987) Effect of egg yolk lecithin on transdermal delivery of bunazosin hydrochloride. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 39: 399–400
79.Kirjavainen, M., Urtti, A., Jaaskelainen, I., Suhonen, T. M., Paronen, P., Koskela, R. V., Kiesvaara, J., Monkkonen, J. (1996) Interaction of liposomes with human skin in vitro – the influence of lipid composition and structure. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1304: 179–189
80.Kirjavainen, M., Urtti, A., Koskela, R. V., Kiesvaara, J., Monkkonen, J. (1999a) Liposome-skin interactions and their effects on the skin permeation of drugs. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 7: 279–286
81.Yokomizo, Y., Sagitani, H. (1996a) Effects of phospholipids on the percutaneous penetration of indomethacin through the dorsal skin of the guinea pig, in vitro. J. Control. Release 38: 267–274
82.Jacobs, M., Martin, G. P., Marriott, C. (1988) Effects of phosphatidylcholine on the topical bioavailability of corticosteroids assessed by the human skin blanching assay. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 40: 829–833
83.Schaller, M., Korting, H. C. (1996) Interaction of liposomes with human skin: the role of the stratum corneum. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 18: 303–309
84.Kirjavainen, M., Urtti, A., Jaaskelainen, I., Suhonen, T. M., Paronen, P., Koskela, R. V., Kiesvaara, J., Monkkonen, J. (1996) Interaction of liposomes with human skin in vitro – the influence of lipid composition and structure. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1304: 179–189
85.Foldvari, M., Gesztes, A., Mezei, M. (1990) Dermal drug delivery by liposome encapsulation: clinical and electron microscopic studies. J. Microencaps. 7: 479–489
86.Egbaria, K., Ramachandran, C. Kittayanond, D., Weiner, N. (1990a) Topical delivery of liposomally encapsulated interferon evaluated by in vitro diffusion studies. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 107–110
87.Natsuki, R., Morita, Y., Osawa, S., Takeda, Y. (1996) Effects of liposome size on penetration of dl-tocopherol acetate into skin. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 19: 758–761
88.Du Plessis, J., Weiner, N., Muller, D. G. (1994a) The influence of in vivo treatment of skin with liposomes on the topical absorption of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic drug in vitro. Int. J. Pharm. 103: R1–R5
89.Short, S. M., Paasch, B. D., Turner, J. H., Weiner, N., Daugherty, A. L., Mrsny, R. J. (1996) Percutaneous absorption of biologically-active interferon-gamma in a human skin graft-nude mouse model. Pharm. Res. 13: 1020–1027
90.Kim A, Lee EH, Choi SH, Kim CK. Invitro and invivo transfection efficiency of a novel ultradeformable cationic liposome. Biomaterials 2004;25(2):305–13.
91.Lee EH, Kim A, Oh YK, Kim CK. Effect of edge activators on the formation and transfection efficiency of ultradeformable liposomes. Biomaterials 2005;26:205–10.
92.Warner, R. R., Myers, M. C., Taylor, D. A. (1988) Electron probe analysis of human skin: determination of the water concentration profile. J. Invest. Dermatol. 90: 218–224
93.Crosaaao P,Ceruti M. , Brusa P. , Arpicco S.,Dosio F. ,Cattel L. Preparation, characterization and properties of sterically stabilized paclitaxel-containing liposomes. J Control Release 2000 Jan 3;63(1-2):19-30
94.Kirjavainen M, Urtti A, Jaaskelainen I, Suhonen TM, Paronen P,Valjakka-Koskela R, Kiesvaara J, Monkkonen J. Interaction of liposomes with human skin in vitro—the influence of lipid compositionan d structure. Biochim Biophys Acta 1996;1304: 179–89.
95.Manosroi A, Kongkaneramit L, Manosroi J. Stability and transdermal absorption of topical amphotericin B liposome formulations. Int J Pharm 2004;270:279–86.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top