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研究生:許翔傑
研究生(外文):Hsiang-Chieh Hsu
論文名稱:電壓調節模組之控制器的研製
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of Controller for Voltage Regulation Module
指導教授:賴炎生
口試委員:黃明熙陳建中王振興
口試日期:2007-06-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:中央處理器電壓調節模組小訊號模型補償器暫態響應
外文關鍵詞:CPUVRMSmall Signal ModelCompensatorTransient Response
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本論文主要研製一種普遍應用於個人電腦主機板上之電壓調節模組(Voltage Regulation Module, VRM)之控制器,並以英特爾公司的電壓測試工具(Voltage Test Tool, VTT)加以驗證。多相互錯式的電壓調節模組,為專供中央處理器的電源系
統,憑藉著高效能且使用較少外部元件,可有效的節省能源及降低整體成本。
首先利用狀態空間平均法 (State-space Averaging Method)推導出降壓型轉換器(Buck Converter)的小訊號模型(Small Signal Model)及其相關的轉移函數(Transfer Function),其次求得責任周期對輸出電壓的轉移函數,並藉由Maltab®/Simulink®軟體繪製其波德圖,再分別設計出對應於電壓模式控制(Voltage Mode Control)和電流模式控制(Current Mode Control)的補償器。最後以目前應用於主機板上的電壓調節模組解決方案為例,就不同材質的輸出大電容(Bulk Capacitor)、切換頻率及電感值,比較其效率、漣波電壓及暫態響應,證明電流控制模式具較佳的效率與暫態
響應。
The main purpose of this thesis is to design a controller for voltage regulation module (VRM), which is commonly used on the personal computer motherboard, and verify the test result using Intel Voltage Test Tool. Multiphase interleaved VRM is a power supply system for CPU, by means of high efficiency and using less external components. It effectively saves the energy and reduces the total cost.
First of all, the state-space averaging method is used to derive the small-signal model of step-down converter (Buck Converter) and related transfer functions. Second, the transfer function of duty cycle to output voltage is derived and the related Bode Plot is shown using Maltab®/Simulink® software. Then, the compensators for both voltage mode control and current mode control are designed accordingly. Finally, the examples of VRM solutions to current motherboard are illustrated and compared. The efficiency, ripple voltage and transient response based on different material of capacitor, switching frequency and inductance are examined. The results confirm that current mode control offers better performance regarding the efficiency and dynamic response speed.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 簡介 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 論文概要 2
第二章 電壓調節模組架構 3
2.1線性調節器 4
2.1.1 晶片式線性調節器 5
2.1.2 分離式線性調節器 6
2.2降壓型轉換器的動作原理 6
2.2.1 電感的伏秒平衡 7
2.2.2 電容的漣波 8
2.2.3 同步整流架構 9
2.2.4 相關波形 11
2.3降壓型轉換器的元件選擇 12
2.3.1 輸出電感的選擇 13
2.3.2 輸出電容的選擇 13
2.3.3 輸入電容的選擇 14
2.3.4 輸入電感的選擇 15
2.3.5 金氧半場效電晶體的選擇 15
2.4降壓型轉換器的其他架構 17
第三章 多相電壓調節模組的介紹 21
3.1多相交錯操作 23
3.2 電流偵測及均流 26
3.3 調適電壓位準 30
3.4 英特爾的規格 31
3.5 電壓測試工具 36
第四章 轉換器的控制及補償 38
4.1小訊號模型化流程 38
4.2 控制模式 45
4.2.1 電壓模式控制 46
4.2.2 峰值電流模式控制 48
4.3脈波寬度調變比較器架構 52
4.4補償器的設計 54
4.5電腦模擬 59
4.5.1 轉換器的轉移函數 60
4.5.2 系統的轉移函數 66
第五章 實驗系統與結果 73
5.1實驗系統 73
5.2實驗結果 74
5.2.1 輸出電壓漣波 76
5.2.2 輸出電壓的暫態響應 96
第六章 結論與建議 112
6.1結論 112
6.2建議 112
參考文獻 113
附錄 A 實驗測試板 115
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[2] Intel Corporation, “Voltage regulator-down (VRD) 11.0,” November 2006.
[3] K. Yao, M. Xu, Y. Meng and F. C. Lee, "Design consideration for VRM transientresponse based on the output impedance," IEEE Trans. on Power Electron., vol.18, no. 6, November. 2003.
[4] S. Kasat, Analysis, design and modeling of DC-DC converter usingSIMULINK, Master Thesis, Institute of Engineering and Technology Indore,Madhya Pradesh, India, December 2004.
[5] http://www.maxim-c.com/appnotes.cfm/appnote_number/751/
[6] Texas Instruments, “Technical review of low dropout voltage regulatoroperation and performance,” August 1999.
[7] 梁適安,交換式電源供給器之理論與實務設計,台北:全華圖書公司,1994,第13頁。
[8] STMicroelectronics Inc, “L6910 adjustable step down controller withsynchronous rectification datasheet,” May 2005.
[9] Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation, “Discrete power and signaltechnologies,” May 2004.
[10] STMicroelectronics Inc, “L6732 adjustable step-down controller withsynchronous rectification datasheet,” September 2006.
[11] X. Zhou, P.L. Wang, P. Xu, F. C. Lee, A. Q. Huang, “Investigation of candidateVRM topologies for future microprocessors,” September 2000.
[12] Texas Instruments, “Input and Output Capacitor Selection,” February 2006.
[13] Intersil Corporation, “ISL6552 Microprocessor CORE Voltage RegulatorMulti-phase Buck PWM Controller,” July 2004.
[14] 微電子雜誌,法蘭西斯,新一代處理器電源設計的新趨勢,2001,6月,第67-69頁。
[15] 涂榮杰,Multi-phase DC/DC Converters,RichTek Technology,2005,4月。
[16] Intersil Coporation, “ISL6556A optimized multi-phase PWM controller with 6-Bit DAC for VR10.X application datasheet,” March 2003.
[17] STMicroelectronics Inc, “L6714 4 phase controller with embedded drivers forIntel VR10,VR11 and AMD 6 Bit datasheet,” August 2006.
[18] STMicroelectronics Inc, “STD90NH02L N-channel 24V-0.0052Ω-60A-DPAKSTripFETTM III Power MOSFET datasheet,” January 2007.
[19] STMicroelectronics Inc, “STD70NH02L N-channel 24V-0.0062Ω-60A-DPAKSTripFETTM III Power MOSFET Datasheet,” January 2007.
[20] http://www.coilcraft.com/pdfs/Doc469
[21] http://www.coilcraft.com/pdfs/Doc361_Current&Temp.pdf
[22] Intel Corporation, “Intel® LGA775-V2 Voltage Test Tool Load Line TestMethodology,” January 2006
[23] X. Zhou, P. Xu and F. C. Lee “A novel current-sharing control technique forlow-voltage high-current voltage regulator module applications” November2000.
[24] Unitrode Application note, “Modelling, Analysis and Compensation of theCurrent-Mode Converter.” 1999.
[25] Texas Instruments Incorporated, “Current-Mode Control of Switching PowerSupplies,” 2001.
[26] O. Zambetti, A.Zafanana “LTB Tech for multiphase DC/DC converter,”Electronic Engineering Times-Asia September 2006
[27] Intersil Corporation, “Designing Stable Compensation Networks for SinglePhase Voltage Mode Buck Regulators,” December 2003.
[28] http://www.aimtron.com.tw/SupportFiles/Buck%20Converter.pdf
[29] A. I. Pressman, Switching Power Design, Massachusetts: The McGraw-HillCompanies, Inc, 1999, pp.444-457.
[30]http://www.terasoft.com.tw/events/seminar/2004/fad
/2004prof.asp

[31] Fairchild Semiconductor, “Application bulletin AB-20 optimum currentsensing techniques in CPU converters,” Jan. 1999.
[32] W. Qiu, and Z. Liang, “Practical design considerations of current sharingcontrol for parallel VRM applications,” 2005.
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