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研究生:林政毅
研究生(外文):Chen-I Lin
論文名稱:混合強韌性與脆弱性的H.264視訊浮水印機制
論文名稱(外文):A hybrid scheme of robust and fragile watermarking for H.264 video
指導教授:郭天穎郭天穎引用關係
口試委員:蘇柏齊王鴻智
口試日期:2007-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:H.264視訊浮水印區塊能量動作向量
外文關鍵詞:H.264video watermarkingblock energymotion vector
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近年來由於視訊應用越來越受歡迎,在網路上分享視訊逐漸成為日常生活中不可或缺的一部份。然而,數位內容極易被竄改與複製,因此,版權保護以及驗證數位內容的完整性已成為重要的議題。數位浮水印即是一種數位內容所有權的保護方法。在本論文中,因H.264視訊壓縮編碼是目前最新的視訊壓縮標準,我們提出了一個適用於H.264壓縮標準的數位浮水印技術。我們以區塊能量及事先統計分析頻率係數抵抗重新壓縮攻擊能力,來選擇畫面內編碼畫面的頻率係數而將強韌性浮水印嵌入其中;另一方面,將認證資訊由MD5加密產生脆弱性浮水印,嵌入此浮水印於每個視訊群組中畫面間編碼畫面的動作向量,完成浮水印的嵌入。我們的浮水印技術在偵測浮水印時不需原來視訊的資訊。實驗結果可證明,我們的浮水印技術可以維持很好的視訊品質,強韌性浮水印能抵抗重複壓縮或是常見的訊號處理攻擊,脆弱性浮水印本身亦能有效地感應轉換編碼攻擊和一般訊號處理攻擊。另外,此演算法計算複雜度低,可適用於即時性應用上。
Digital video is becoming an important part of daily life. One example is the popular activity of video sharing over Internet. However, digital contents can be modified easily or duplicated without loss of quality, which brings about the growing concerns of copyright protection and integrity verification. Digital watermarking is one technology to serve for this purpose. Since H.264 is the latest video compression standard, in this thesis, we proposed a blind H.264 video watermarking technique. In the proposed method, robust watermark is embedded on the carefully selected intra-frames’ frequency coefficients, based on their block energy and pre-analyzed statistics of the re-compression test. On the other hand, the fragile watermark is generated by MD5 on the verification data, and then is embedded into inter-frames’ motion vectors to preserve the video integrity. Our scheme does not need the original video sequence for watermark detection. Experimental results show that our watermarking technique retains good video quality. The proposed robust watermarking algorithm is robust to various attacks, and fragile watermarking algorithm performed well in terms of sensitivity against transcoding and common signal processing. Additionally, the algorithm is not very complex and appropriate for real-time applications.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT iii
誌 謝 v
目 錄 vii
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 xi
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機與目的 1
1.2數位浮水印簡介 3
1.3數位浮水印應用 4
1.4 論文組織架構 5
第二章 視訊浮水印技術 7
2.1視訊浮水印的需求 7
2.2時間域及頻率域浮水印技術簡介 9
2.3 H.264視訊浮水印技術回顧 12
2.4 H.264視訊壓縮標準簡介 15
2.4.1 畫面內預測(Intra Prediction) 16
2.4.2 畫面間預測(Inter Prediction) 17
2.4.3 Lagrangian位元率-失真最佳化 21
2.4.4 轉換(Transform)及量化(Quantization) 24
2.4.5 去區塊濾波器(Deblocking Filter) 26
第三章 混合強韌性與脆弱性的H.264視訊浮水印機制 27
3.1混合視訊浮水印系統架構 27
3.2強韌性浮水印演算法 28
3.2.1 強韌性浮水印產生 29
3.2.2 強韌性浮水印嵌入位置選擇 29
3.2.3 強韌性浮水印嵌入 42
3.2.4 強韌性浮水印萃取 43
3.3脆弱性浮水印演算法 43
3.3.1 脆弱性浮水印產生 44
3.3.2 脆弱性浮水印嵌入位置選擇 45
3.3.3 脆弱性浮水印嵌入 45
3.3.4 脆弱性浮水印萃取 47
第四章 實驗結果與討論 49
4.1實驗環境 49
4.2強韌性浮水印實驗結果 50
4.2.1 強韌性浮水印視覺透明度測試 51
4.2.2 強韌性浮水印強韌性測試 67
4.2.3 強韌性浮水印誤判率測試 100
4.3脆弱性浮水印實驗結果 101
4.3.1 脆弱性浮水印視覺透明度測試 102
4.3.2 脆弱性浮水印感應度測試 116
4.4混合浮水印技術實驗結果 131
第五章 結論與未來工作 139
參考文獻 141
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