跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(34.226.244.254) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/03 02:41
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:侯雅苓
研究生(外文):Ya-Ling, Hou
論文名稱:人參皂苷萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1對四氯化碳誘發大鼠肝發炎反應及纖維化之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Panax ginseng ginsenoside extract and ginsenoside Rb1 on CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis in rats
指導教授:趙振瑞趙振瑞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jane C-J Chao, Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:臺北醫學大學
系所名稱:保健營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:人參皂苷發炎反應纖維化
外文關鍵詞:ginsenosidesinflammationtaiwanafterfibrosis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:761
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:319
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
近年來,慢性肝炎及肝硬化已成為台灣十大死因之第七位,且研究指出肝癌之發生與肝炎及肝硬化有關,因此,本研究目的在於探討人參萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1對四氯化碳誘發老鼠肝損傷發炎反應及肝纖維化之影響。將老鼠隨機分成四組:控制組 (正常飲食+腹腔注射橄欖油)、CCl4組 (正常飲食+腹腔注射CCl4)、人參皂苷萃取物組 (人參皂苷萃取物+腹腔注射CCl4)、人參皂苷Rb1組 (人參皂苷Rb1+腹腔注射CCl4)。人參皂苷萃取物為80%人參皂苷,含8種人參皂苷 (Rh1、Rh2、Rg1、Rg2、Rg3、Rd、Rc、Rb1) ,人參皂苷Rb1純度為98%,分別以0.05%及0.005% (w/w) 之比例添加於飼料中。實驗為期九週,每週給予每公斤體重0.75 mL之40% CCl4,一週一次共給予八次;控制組則注射同等劑量之橄欖油。九週後進行犧牲並採集血液樣本及肝組織,進行病理組織切片、肝功能指標、脂質代謝、肝發炎反應指標,及肝纖維化指標之測定分析。病理切片結果顯示,人參皂苷萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1可降低CCl4所造成肝臟脂肪空泡堆積,其效果又以人參皂苷Rb1較為顯著 (p<0.05);而人參萃皂苷取物可減少肝臟細胞壞死 (p<0.05) 及膠原蛋白堆積的情形。實驗期間,給予人參皂苷萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1能顯著降低因肝損傷而引起glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase (GOT)、glutamate pyruvate aminotransferase (GPT) 活性上升之情形 (p<0.05),且可顯著降低肝臟中三酸甘油酯 (p<0.05) 含量。在發炎反應指標方面,人參皂苷萃取物可顯著降低肝臟中促發炎細胞激素tumor necrosis factor-α、interleukin-1含量 (p<0.05),且人參萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1均可顯著降低肝臟prostaglandin E2 濃度 (p<0.05)。纖維化指標方面,人參皂苷萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1均能顯著抑制肝臟中膠原蛋白前驅物-羥基脯胺酸 (hydroxyproline) 含量,及肝臟金屬蛋白酵素組織抑制物-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1) 濃度 (p<0.05)。因此,給予人參皂苷萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1可降低四氯化碳誘發肝損傷下老鼠血漿GOT、GPT 上升的情形,並降低發炎反應,而達到抑制肝臟纖維化之功能。
Chronic hepatitis has been currently become the 7th leading cause of death in Taiwan, and is associated with the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. This study investigated ginsenosides on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatitis and fibrosis in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, CCl4, CCl4+Panax ginseng ginsenoside extract (GE; 80% ginsenosides with Rh1, Rh2, Rg1, Rg2, Rg3, Rd, Rc, and Rb1), and CCl4+Rb1 (Rb1; 98% Rb1) groups. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 40% CCl4 at a dose of 0.75 mL/kg body weight once a week for 7 weeks two weeks after oral administration of GE or Rb1 at a dose of 0.05% or 0.005%, respectively. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with an equivalent dosage of olive oil as the control group. After 9-week treatments with ginsenosides, plasma and liver were collected for biochemical and pathological analyses. The pathological results showed that the GE and Rb1 groups significantly reduced hepatic fat deposition (p<0.05), especially the Rb1 group. The GE group decreased hepatic necrosis and collagen accumulation. Both GE and Rb1 treatments reduced plasma glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate aminotransferase (GPT) activities during the experimental period, as well as plasma and hepatic triglycerides elevated by CCl4 (p<0.05). The GE group inhibited hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin-1(p<0.05). Both GE and Rb1 treatments reduced hepatic prostaglandin E2 levels (p<0.05). Both GE and Rb1 decreased hepatic collagen precursor – hydroxyproline and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels (p<0.05). Therefore, Panax ginseng ginsenoside extract and Rb1 can reduce GOT and GPT activities and moderate hepatic necrosis and inflammation induced by CCl4 to inhibit liver fibrosis.
中文摘要 II
英文摘要 IV
致謝 VI
圖目次 XIV
表目次 XVI
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 肝臟結構及特性 5
第二節 四氯化碳誘導肝損傷之模式 8
第三節 肝纖維化形成機制 11
第四節 發炎反應與肝損傷 14
一、腫瘤壞死因子-α 15
二、介白質-1b 16
三、環氧化酶與前列腺素 E2 17
四、可溶性細胞間黏著分子-1 18
五、 介白質-10 19
第五節 纖維化與肝損傷 20
第六節 人參 23
一、 結構及其特性 23
二、 人參及人參皂苷過去相關研究 26
第三章 實驗材料與設計 28
第一節 實驗動物 28
第二節 實驗設計 29
一、分組及飼料給予 29
二、誘發肝傷害模式 29
三、血液及肝臟樣本採集 30
第四章 測定項目及方法 34
第一節 病理切片分析 35
第二節 肝功能指標測定 37
ㄧ、血漿GOT活性 37
二、血漿GPT活性 37
第三節 血漿與肝臟脂質濃度測定 38
ㄧ、 血漿三酸甘油酯濃度 38
二、 血漿總膽固醇濃度 38
三、 肝臟三酸甘油酯濃度 39
四、 肝臟總膽固醇濃度 40
第四節 肝發炎反應指標測定 41
ㄧ、 腫瘤壞死因子-α 41
二、 介白素-1b 42
三、 介白素-10 42
四、 前列腺素E2 43
五、 可溶性細胞內黏著分子-1 44
第五節 肝纖維化指標測定 45
一、 肝臟中膠原蛋白含量 45
二、 基質金屬蛋白酵素-2 46
三、 金屬蛋白酵素組織抑制物-1 47
第六節 統計方法 48
第五章 結果 49
第一節 老鼠體重、攝食量、肝臟總重與相對肝臟重量 49
第二節 肝臟組織病理切片 53
一、 Haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) 染色 53
二、 Masson trichrome與 silver染色 54
第三節 肝功能指標 60
第四節 脂質代謝 62
一、血漿三酸甘油酯及總膽固醇濃度 62
二、肝臟三酸甘油酯及總膽固醇濃度 64
第五節 肝臟發炎反應指標 66
一、 TNF-α含量 66
二、 IL-1含量 66
三、 PGE2含量 66
四、 sICAM-1含量 67
五、 IL-10含量 67
第六節 肝臟纖維化指標 73
一、肝臟hydroxyproline 含量 73
二、 MMP-2表現量 73
三、TIMP-1表現量 73
第六章 討論 77
第一節 人參皂苷萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1對脂質代謝之影響 77
第二節 人參皂苷萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1對肝功能指標之影響 80
第三節 人參皂苷萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1對肝發炎反應之影響 82
第四節 人參皂苷萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1對肝纖維化之影響 85
第五節 人參皂苷萃取物及人參皂苷Rb1之綜合討論 87
第七章 總結 88
第八章 參考文獻 89
Agren MS, Taplin CJ, Woessner JF, Jr., Eaglstein WH and Mertz PM (1992) Collagenase in wound healing: effect of wound age and type. J Invest Dermatol 99: 709-714

Balkwill F and Mantovani A (2001) Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet 357: 539-545

Barisione G, Fontana L, Cottalasso D, Domenicotti C, Pronzato MA and Nanni G (1993) [Changes in lipoglycoprotein metabolism in toxic fatty liver]. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 39: 101-112

Bataller R and Brenner DA (2005) Liver fibrosis. J Clin Invest 115: 209-218

Bedossa P, Houglum K, Trautwein C, Holstege A and Chojkier M (1994) Stimulation of collagen alpha 1(I) gene expression is associated with lipid peroxidation in hepatocellular injury: a link to tissue fibrosis? Hepatology 19: 1262-1271

Benyon RC and Arthur MJ (2001) Extracellular matrix degradation and the role of hepatic stellate cells. Semin Liver Dis 21: 373-384

Benyon RC, Hovell CJ, Da Gaca M, Jones EH, Iredale JP and Arthur MJ (1999) Progelatinase A is produced and activated by rat hepatic stellate cells and promotes their proliferation. Hepatology 30: 977-986

Bjornsson OG, Bourgeois CS and Gibbons GF (1998) Varying very low-density lipoprotein secretion of rat hepatocytes by altering cellular levels of calcium and the activity of protein kinase C. Eur J Clin Invest 28: 720-729

Boll M, Weber LW, Becker E and Stampfl A (2001) Pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte injury bioactivation of CCI4 by cytochrome P450 and effects on lipid homeostasis. Z Naturforsch [C] 56: 111-121

Briskin DP (2000) Medicinal plants and phytomedicines. Linking plant biochemistry and physiology to human health. Plant Physiol 124: 507-514
Casini A, Ceni E, Salzano R, Biondi P, Parola M, Galli A, Foschi M, Caligiuri A, Pinzani M and Surrenti C (1997) Neutrophil-derived superoxide anion induces lipid peroxidation and stimulates collagen synthesis in human hepatic stellate cells: role of nitric oxide. Hepatology 25: 361-367

Cho JY, Yoo ES, Baik KU, Park MH and Han BH (2001) In vitro inhibitory effect of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and its modulation by known TNF-alpha antagonists. Planta Med 67: 213-218

Cicero AF, Vitale G, Savino G and Arletti R (2003) Panax notoginseng (Burk.) effects on fibrinogen and lipid plasma level in rats fed on a high-fat diet. Phytother Res 17: 174-178

Crofford LJ (1997) COX-1 and COX-2 tissue expression: implications and predictions. J Rheumatol Suppl 49: 15-19

Deng HL and Zhang JT (1991) Anti-lipid peroxilative effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1. Chin Med J (Engl) 104: 395-398

Galli A, Svegliati-Baroni G, Ceni E, Milani S, Ridolfi F, Salzano R, Tarocchi M, Grappone C, Pellegrini G, Benedetti A, Surrenti C and Casini A (2005) Oxidative stress stimulates proliferation and invasiveness of hepatic stellate cells via a MMP2-mediated mechanism. Hepatology 41: 1074-1084

Gressner AM and Weiskirchen R (2006) Modern pathogenetic concepts of liver fibrosis suggest stellate cells and TGF-beta as major players and therapeutic targets. J Cell Mol Med 10: 76-99

Hanada T and Yoshimura A (2002) Regulation of cytokine signaling and inflammation. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 13: 413-421

Hasegawa H (2004) Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: metabolic activation of ginsenoside: deglycosylation by intestinal bacteria and esterification with fatty acid. J Pharmacol Sci 95: 153-157

Huang YS (1989) [Effect of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 on lipid peroxidation of rat in vitro]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 11: 460-462

Huong NT, Matsumoto K, Kasai R, Yamasaki K and Watanabe H (1998) In vitro antioxidant activity of Vietnamese ginseng saponin and its components. Biol Pharm Bull 21: 978-981

Jaeschke H and Smith CW (1997) Mechanisms of neutrophil-induced parenchymal cell injury. J Leukoc Biol 61: 647-653

Jaeschke H, Smith CW, Clemens MG, Ganey PE and Roth RA (1996) Mechanisms of inflammatory liver injury: adhesion molecules and cytotoxicity of neutrophils. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 139: 213-226

Kew MC and Popper H (1984) Relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis 4: 136-146

Kim HJ, Chun YJ, Park JD, Kim SI, Roh JK and Jeong TC (1997) Protection of rat liver microsomes against carbon tetrachloride-induced lipid peroxidation by red ginseng saponin through cytochrome P450 inhibition. Planta Med 63: 415-418

Kim KT, Yoo KM, Lee JW, Eom SH, Hwang IK and Lee CY (2007) Protective effect of steamed American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on V79-4 cells induced by oxidative stress. J Ethnopharmacol 111: 443-450

Kitts DD, Wijewickreme AN and Hu C (2000) Antioxidant properties of a North American ginseng extract. Mol Cell Biochem 203: 1-10

Knittel T, Mehde M, Grundmann A, Saile B, Scharf JG and Ramadori G (2000) Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors during hepatic tissue repair in the rat. Histochem Cell Biol 113: 443-453

Knittel T, Mehde M, Kobold D, Saile B, Dinter C and Ramadori G (1999) Expression patterns of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells of rat liver: regulation by TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1. J Hepatol 30: 48-60
Kono H, Uesugi T, Froh M, Rusyn I, Bradford BU and Thurman RG (2001) ICAM-1 is involved in the mechanism of alcohol-induced liver injury: studies with knockout mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 280: G1289-1295

Larrick JW and Kunkel SL (1988) The role of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 in the immunoinflammatory response. Pharm Res 5: 129-139

Lee HU, Bae EA, Han MJ, Kim NJ and Kim DH (2005) Hepatoprotective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced liver injury. Liver Int 25: 1069-1073

Lee SH, Seo GS, Ko G, Kim JB and Sohn DH (2005) Anti-inflammatory activity of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol: enhanced heme oxygenase 1 expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Planta Med 71: 1167-1170

Lee TY, Mai LM, Wang GJ, Chiu JH, Lin YL and Lin HC (2003) Protective mechanism of salvia miltiorrhiza on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. J Pharmacol Sci 91: 202-210

Lombardi B, Ugazio G and Raick AN (1966) Choline-deficiency fatty liver: relation of plasma phospholipids to liver triglycerides. Am J Physiol 210: 31-36

Louis H, Van Laethem JL, Wu W, Quertinmont E, Degraef C, Van den Berg K, Demols A, Goldman M, Le Moine O, Geerts A and Deviere J (1998) Interleukin-10 controls neutrophilic infiltration, hepatocyte proliferation, and liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. Hepatology 28: 1607-1615

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL and Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193: 265-275

Lu SN, Su WW, Yang SS, Chang TT, Cheng KS, Wu JC, Lin HH, Wu SS, Lee CM, Changchien CS, Chen CJ, Sheu JC, Chen DS and Chen CH (2006) Secular trends and geographic variations of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan. Int J Cancer
Moore KW, Vieira P, Fiorentino DF, Trounstine ML, Khan TA and Mosmann TR (1990) Homology of cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (IL-10) to the Epstein-Barr virus gene BCRFI. Science 248: 1230-1234

Nieto N, Friedman SL and Cederbaum AI (2002) Cytochrome P450 2E1-derived reactive oxygen species mediate paracrine stimulation of collagen I protein synthesis by hepatic stellate cells. J Biol Chem 277: 9853-9864

Nunez O, Fernandez-Martinez A, Majano PL, Apolinario A, Gomez-Gonzalo M, Benedicto I, Lopez-Cabrera M, Bosca L, Clemente G, Garcia-Monzon C and Martin-Sanz P (2004) Increased intrahepatic cyclooxygenase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression is associated with progressive liver disease in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: role of viral core and NS5A proteins. Gut 53: 1665-1672

Oh GS, Pae HO, Choi BM, Seo EA, Kim DH, Shin MK, Kim JD, Kim JB and Chung HT (2004) 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol, one of ginsenoside metabolites, inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions through inactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Cancer Lett 205: 23-29

Panasiuk A, Prokopowicz D and Panasiuk B (2004) Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and soluble adhesion molecules as possible prognostic markers of the efficacy of antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis C. World J Gastroenterol 10: 3639-3642

Park EK, Shin YW, Lee HU, Kim SS, Lee YC, Lee BY and Kim DH (2005) Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K on NO and prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses of RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide. Biol Pharm Bull 28: 652-656

Park KH, Shin HJ, Song YB, Hyun HC, Cho HJ, Ham HS, Yoo YB, Ko YC, Jun WT and Park HJ (2002) Possible role of ginsenoside Rb1 on regulation of rat liver triglycerides. Biol Pharm Bull 25: 457-460

Park W, Lim W, Cho J, Inoue H, Rhyu MR and Lee Y (2006) Inhibitory effects of ginsenoside-Rb1 on activation of the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced cyclooxygenase-2 promoter. Planta Med 72: 272-275

Park WH, Lee SK and Kim CH (2005) A Korean herbal medicine, Panax notoginseng, prevents liver fibrosis and hepatic microvascular dysfunction in rats. Life Sci 76: 1675-1690

Pata C, Yazar A, Altintas E, Polat G, Aydin O, Tiftik N and Konca K (2003) Serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and nitric oxide in patients with chronic hepatitis related to hepatitis C virus: connection fibrosis. Hepatogastroenterology 50: 794-797

Qureshi AA, Abuirmeileh N, Din ZZ, Ahmad Y, Burger WC and Elson CE (1983) Suppression of cholesterogenesis and reduction of LDL cholesterol by dietary ginseng and its fractions in chicken liver. Atherosclerosis 48: 81-94

Ramadori G and Armbrust T (2001) Cytokines in the liver. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13: 777-784

Rhule A, Navarro S, Smith JR and Shepherd DM (2006) Panax notoginseng attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells. J Ethnopharmacol 106: 121-128

Saxena R, Theise ND and Crawford JM (1999) Microanatomy of the human liver-exploring the hidden interfaces. Hepatology 30: 1339-1346

Simeonova PP, Gallucci RM, Hulderman T, Wilson R, Kommineni C, Rao M and Luster MI (2001) The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in liver toxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 177: 112-120

Weber LW, Boll M and Stampfl A (2003) Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: carbon tetrachloride as a toxicological model. Crit Rev Toxicol 33: 105-136

Yamada Y, Kirillova I, Peschon JJ and Fausto N (1997) Initiation of liver growth by tumor necrosis factor: deficient liver regeneration in mice lacking type I tumor necrosis factor receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94: 1441-1446

Yamamoto M, Uemura T, Nakama S, Uemiya M and Kumagai A (1983) Serum HDL-cholesterol-increasing and fatty liver-improving actions of Panax ginseng in high cholesterol diet-fed rats with clinical effect on hyperlipidemia in man. Am J Chin Med 11: 96-101

Yeh GY, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ and Phillips RS (2003) Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes. Diabetes Care 26: 1277-1294

Yu JL, Dou DQ, Chen XH, Yang HZ, Guo N and Cheng GF (2005) Protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides differentially modulate type 1 and type 2 cytokines production from murine splenocytes. Planta Med 71: 202-207

Yu SC and Li XY (2000) Effect of ginsenoside on IL-1 beta and IL-6 mRNA expression in hippocampal neurons in chronic inflammation model of aged rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin 21: 915-918

Yun TK (2003) Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds. Mutat Res 523-524: 63-74

Zhang D, Yasuda T, Yu Y, Zheng P, Kawabata T, Ma Y and Okada S (1996) Ginseng extract scavenges hydroxyl radical and protects unsaturated fatty acids from decomposition caused by iron-mediated lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 20: 145-150

Zheng H, Fletcher D, Kozak W, Jiang M, Hofmann KJ, Conn CA, Soszynski D, Grabiec C, Trumbauer ME, Shaw A and et al. (1995) Resistance to fever induction and impaired acute-phase response in interleukin-1 beta-deficient mice. Immunity 3: 9-19

Zhu SL, Chen L, Gao W and Zhou J (2004) [Changes of some immune-mediators in CCl4-induced liver injury mice]. Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao 37: 50-54

行政院衛生署http://www.doh.gov.tw/statistic/data/衛生統計叢書2/95/專區/95專區.htm
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 吳俊升。<中華撞球隊參加第13屆曼谷亞運之紀實>《大專體育》。第87期。2006年。頁94~99。
2. 吳俊升。<中華撞球隊參加第13屆曼谷亞運之紀實>《大專體育》。第87期。2006年。頁94~99。
3. 吳俊升。<中華撞球隊參加第13屆曼谷亞運之紀實>《大專體育》。第87期。2006年。頁94~99。
4. 王克武、賴姍姍。<台灣地區撞球運動初探>。《大專體育》第55期。2001年8月。頁121-126。
5. 王克武、賴姍姍。<台灣地區撞球運動初探>。《大專體育》第55期。2001年8月。頁121-126。
6. 王克武、賴姍姍。<台灣地區撞球運動初探>。《大專體育》第55期。2001年8月。頁121-126。
7. 王克武、賴姍姍。<大專院校撞球課程之教學初探>。《大專體育》第58期。2002年2月。頁5-13。
8. 王克武、賴姍姍。<大專院校撞球課程之教學初探>。《大專體育》第58期。2002年2月。頁5-13。
9. 王克武、賴姍姍。<大專院校撞球課程之教學初探>。《大專體育》第58期。2002年2月。頁5-13。
10. 吳俊升。<高雄市撞球運動之推展(1988-2005)>《大專體育》。第86期。2006年。頁62-69。
11. 吳俊升。<高雄市撞球運動之推展(1988-2005)>《大專體育》。第86期。2006年。頁62-69。
12. 吳俊升。<高雄市撞球運動之推展(1988-2005)>《大專體育》。第86期。2006年。頁62-69。
13. 吳茂昌。<媒體對推展排球運動的重要性探討>。《大專體育》第83期。2006年4月。頁135。
14. 吳茂昌。<媒體對推展排球運動的重要性探討>。《大專體育》第83期。2006年4月。頁135。
15. 吳茂昌。<媒體對推展排球運動的重要性探討>。《大專體育》第83期。2006年4月。頁135。