(3.215.183.251) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/22 21:32
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林慧慧
研究生(外文):Huei-Huei Lin
論文名稱:黑白棋策略教學對小六學童的推理能力、創造力與問題解決能力之影響研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Sixth Graders’ Reasoning Ability, Creativity and Problem-solving Ability through Othello Games
指導教授:黃萬居黃萬居引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wanchu Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:臺北市立教育大學
系所名稱:科學教育碩士學位學程
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:黑白棋推理能力創造力問題解決能力
外文關鍵詞:OthelloReasoning AbilityCreativityProblem-solving Ability
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:11
  • 點閱點閱:474
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:112
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:7
本研究旨在探討國小六年級學童經黑白棋策略教學後,對其推理能力、創造力與問題解決能力及下棋時的學習動機與態度的影響,並探討學童在進行比賽時黑白棋的策略應用。本研究以量為主、質為輔。實驗設計類型計有二實驗組二控制組前測-後測設計與所羅門四組設計。研究對象為臺北市萬華區某國小六年級四個班級。研究工具有「瑞文氏標準圖形推理測驗」(SPM)、「威廉斯創造力測驗」(CAP)、「科學創造力測驗」(SCE)和「問題解決測驗」(PSAT)。質性研究從回饋單、「黑白棋謎題」、「教師教學手札」和半結構訪談取得。「黑白棋策略教學」(OSL)作為電腦課的延伸課程,對實驗組(n=76)施以為期八週,每週15至20分鐘的策略教學與示範,學童可以安裝Gothello或WZebra黑白棋軟體當作棋與同儕練習下棋或課餘時面對面下棋。課程結束後舉行「班級黑白棋競賽」(OCT),控制組(n=74)則施於一般電腦課教學。研究結果顯示:實驗組與控制組在SPM與SCE的後測總分有顯著差異;實驗組與控制組在PSAT後測總分上無顯著差異;實驗教學後,實驗組對於黑白棋的學習動機與態度有正面效果;學童的黑白棋策略應用雖不及專家,但入門策略多數已得心應手。研究者對未來研究建議有:擴大至不同年齡層與區域,使研究的結果更具有代表性和推論性;宜探討日本相關文獻以加深文獻的深廣度;集合各層面的質性相關研究以探討更多學童思考發展的可能性。
This study was (1) to study sixth graders’ reasoning ability, creativity and problem-solving ability, motivation and attitude by implementing Othello Strategic Lessons (OSL), and (2) to investigate sixth graders’ strategic planning on Othello Class Tournament (OCT). This study was based on quantitative and qualitative data. Two types of experimental design were undertaken: two treatment/control groups’ pretest-posttest design and Solomon four-group design. Research instruments included Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), Williams Creative Assessment Packet (CAP), Scientific Creativity Examination (SCE), and Problem-solving Ability Test (PSAT). Qualitative data were collected from Feedback Questionnaire, Othello Puzzles Test, teacher’s field note and interviews. The treatment groups (n=76) received OSL as addition lessons in computer class weekly and an OCT was held after the lessons. Each Strategic Lesson took about 15 to 20 minutes and lasted for eight weeks. Students were shown to use Gothello or WZebra software to practice Othello game with peers or play face-to-face after class. The control groups (n=74) received normal computer lessons as curriculum planned. The results revealed: there were significant differences between treatment groups and control groups on total scores of reasoning ability posttest, SPM and creativity posttest, SCE; there was no significant difference on total score of problem-solving ability test posttest, PSAT; after the OSL and OCT, there were certain positive effects on treatment groups’ motivation and attitude toward Othello games; though students’ strategic planning were not as good as experts, they had made good uses of basic strategies of Othello. The researcher suggested enlarging the range of age and area to collect more data, reviewing more references from Japan to deepen the insight of literature review and accumulating more qualitative data to investigate the possibilities of student's mind developing.
ABSTRACT-----------------------------------------------I
CHINESE ABSTRACT-------------------------------------III
TABLE OF CONTENTS--------------------------------------V
LIST OF TABLES---------------------------------------VII
LIST OF FIGURES---------------------------------------IX
CHAPTER I----------------------------------------------1
INTRODUCTION-------------------------------------------1
Background--------------------------------------------1
The Significance of the Study-------------------------4
Purposes of the Study---------------------------------6
Research Questions------------------------------------6
Statement of the Hypotheses---------------------------7
Definition of Terms-----------------------------------9
Limitations------------------------------------------11
CHAPTER II--------------------------------------------13
LITERATURE REVIEW-------------------------------------13
The History of Othello Game--------------------------13
The Rationale of Reasoning Ability-------------------19
The Rationale of Creativity--------------------------24
The Rationale of Problem-solving Ability-------------29
Research on Chess Games in Education-----------------33
The potential ability of Children at Age 11-12-------41
CHAPTER III-------------------------------------------43
METHOD------------------------------------------------43
Research Design--------------------------------------43
Subjects and Field Design----------------------------48
Procedures-------------------------------------------50
Instruments------------------------------------------56
Data Analysis----------------------------------------62
Research Reliability and Validity--------------------64
CHAPTER IV--------------------------------------------67
RESULTS AND DICUSSIONS--------------------------------67
The Influences of OSL and OCT on Reasoning Ability---67
The Influences of OSL and OCT on Creativity----------72
The Influences of OSL and OCT on Problem-solving Ability
-----------------------------------------------------87
The Influences of OSL and OCT on Students' Behavior--91
The Influences of OSL on Othello Strategy Planning--100
CHAPTER V--------------------------------------------105
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION----------------------------105
Conclusion------------------------------------------106
Suggestion------------------------------------------108
REFERENCES-------------------------------------------111
APPENDICES-------------------------------------------119
APPENDIX A: Othello Strategic Lessons----------------121
APPENDIX B: Othello Puzzles--------------------------131
APPENDIX C: Feedback Questionnaire-------------------133
APPENDIX D: The Related Benchmarks and Teaching Contents
-----------------------------------------------------134
APPENDIX E: Evaluation Rules of SCE------------------135
APPENDIX F: Coding of Students-----------------------137
Barchillon, J. (1961). Creativity and its inhibition in child prodigies. In Personality dimensions of creativity. New York: Lincoln Institute of Psychotherapy.
Blumenfeld, P. C., Fishman, B.J., Krajcik, J.S., Marx, R.W., & Soloway, E. (2000). Creating usable innovations in systemic reform: Scaling-up technology-embedded project-based science in urban schools. Educational Psychologist, 35, 149-164.
Bruner, J. (1962). The conditions of creativity. In H. Gruber, G. Terrell, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Contemporary approaches to creative thinking (pp. 1-31). New York: Bobbs-Merrill.
Christiaen, J. (1976). Chess and Cognitive. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Beligum.
Chase W. G., & Simon H. A. (1973a). Perception in Chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 55-81.
Chen, Y. H., Wu, T. H., & Chien, C. C. (1980). Creative thinking and affective teaching (in Chinese). Kaohsiung: Fuwen.
Cheong, W. C. (2003). Reality and Meaning of Play (in Chinese). Unpublished Master thesis. Tung Hai University, Taiwan.
Dacey, J. S. (1989). Fundamentals of Creative Thinking. Lexington: Lexington Books.
Dauvergne, P. (2000). The Case for Chess as a Tool to Develop Our Children’s Minds.
de Bono, E. (1975). Think links. Blandford, dorset, UK:Direct Education Services.
de Graaf J. C., Lazard, E., & Nielsen, K. J. (2004). A small World Othello Championships guide. Retrieved May 20, 2007, from http://www.worldothellochampionships.com/
de Groot, A. D. (1965). Thought and Choice in Chess. The Hague:Mouton.
DeLoache, J., Miller,K., & Pierroutsakos, S. (1998). Reasoning and problem solving. In D. Kuhn and R. Siegler (Eds.), The handbook of child psychology: Vol. 2, Cognition, perception and language. New York: Riley.
Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston, MA: Heath.
Drummond, T. (2000). Harlem’s chess kings. Time, 155, 8.
Ellis, S., & Siegler, R.S. (1997). Planning and strategy choice, or why don’t children plan when they should? In S.L. Friedman & E.K. Sholnick (Eds.), Why, how and when do we plan: The developmental psychology of planning. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Ennis, R. H. (1975). An alternative to Piaget’s conceptualization of logical competence. Child Development, 47, 903-919.
Ennis, R. H. (1985). Large-scale assessment of critical thinking in the fourth grade. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.
Fabricius, W. (1988). The development of forward search in pre-schoolers. Child Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Frank, A. (1974). Chess and Aptitudes, Doctoral Dissertation. Stanley Epstein.
Franklin, B. (1786). The Moral of Chess. Retrieved February 5, 2007, from http://www.chessville.com/misc/Quotes/misc_trivia_quotes_Franklin.htm.
Ferguson, R. (1986). Developing Critical and Creativity through Chess. Report on ESEA Title IV-C project presented at the annual conference of the Pennsylvania Association for Gifted Education, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 11-12, 1986.
Field, A. P. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (second edition). London: Sage publications.
Ferguson, R. (1988). Development of Reasoning and Memory through Chess.
Ferguson, R. (1994). Teaching the Fourth R (Reflective Reasoning) through Chess. Doctoral dissertation.
Ferguson, R. (1995). Chess in Education Research Summary. Paper presented at the
Chess in Education A Wise Move Conference at the Borough of Manhattan Community College, January 12-13,1995.
Gage, B. A. (1986). An analysis of problem solving processes used in college chemistry quantitative equilibrium problems. Dissertation: The graduate school of the University of Maryland.
Gagne, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Gallagher, J.M., & Wright, R.J. (1979). Piaget and the study of analogy: Structural analysis of items. In J. Magary (Ed.), Piaget and the helping professions, Vol. 8, pp. 114-119. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.
Galton, F. (1870). Hereditary genius. New York: Appleton.
Garofalo, J., & Lester, F. (1985). Metacognition, cognitive monitoring, and mathematical performance. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 16(3), 163-176.
Gick, M. L. (1986). Problem-solving strategies. Education Psychology, 21(1-2), 99.
Gobet, F., & Campitelli, G. (2007). The Role of Domain-Specific Practice, Handedness, and Starting Age in Chess. Developmental Psychology. 43(1), 159-172.
Goswami, U. (1996). Analogical reasoning and cognitive development. In H.W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behaviour. San Diego: Academic Press.
Gruber, H. E. (1982). Darwin on man: a psychological study of scientific creativity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Guilford, J. P. (.1956). The structure of intellect. Psychological Bulletin, 53, 267-293.
Guilford, J. P. (.1959). Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hall, R. L. (1983). Why chess in the schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No: ED237368)
Hayes, J. R., & Simon, H. A. (1977). Psychological Differences among Problem Isomorphs. In R. J. Castellan, D. B. Pisoni, & G. R. Potts (Eds.), Cognitive Theory (Vol. 2, pp. 21-44). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hennessey, B. A. & Amabile, T. M. (1988). The conditions of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of creativity (pp. 2-11). New York: Cambridge Unviersity Press.
Holyoak, K. J. (1984). Mental models in problem solving. In J. R. Anderson & K. M. Kosslyn (Eds.), Tutorials in learning and memory (pp. 193-218). New York: Freeman.
Horgan, D., & Morgan, D. (1986). Chess and Education.(Memphis, TN) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED275408).
Horgan, D., Horgan, T., & Morgan, D. (1986). Abstract Schemas In Children’s Chess Cognition.(Nashville, TN)(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED274444).
Horgan, D., (1987). Chess as a way to teach thinking. (Article No. 11) United States Chess Federation Scholastic Department.
Horgan, D., & Morgan, D. (1988). Experience, Spatial Abilities, and Chess Skill. American Psychological Association (Atlanta,GA). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED305145).
Horgan, D. (1988). Where Experts Come From. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED305144).
Horgan, D. D., & Morgan, D. (1989). ‘Chess expertise in children’. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 4, 109-128.
Horgan, D. D. (1992). ‘Children and chess expertise: the role of calibration’. Psychological Research, 54, 44-50.
Huang, W. C., Chu, W. C., & Lin, H. H. (2007). A Study of the Relationships among the Scores of Othello Contest and Middle Graders’ Reasoning Ability, Creativity and Problem-solving Ability. Paper Presented at the Twelfth Annual International Conference, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam Changing Contours of Education: Future Trends 21-24 May 2007.
Hung, W. T. (1997). Cultivation of creative thinking and scientific creativity. A Tribune for Elementary Education (in Chinese), 123, 10-14.
Inhelder, B., & Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking. New York: Basic Books.
James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.
Japan Othello Association (2007). Othello Junior Grand Prix 2007. (in Japanese). Retrieved June 13, 2007, from http://www.megahouse.co.jp/othello_gp/index.html.
Kratochwill, T. R., & Goldman, J. A. (1973). Developmental changes in children’s judgments of age. Developmental Psychology, 9, 358-362.
Kohler, W. (1929). Gestalt Psychology, New York: Liveright.
Koide, M. (2006). Introduction to 2006 World Othello Tournament. Retrieved September 12, 2006, from http://www.woc2006.jp/main.html
Lazard E. (1993). The Discovery of Othello (in French). French Othello Federation:Paris.
Lin, H. T., & Wang, M. J. (1994). Williams Creative Assessment Packets Guidance (in Chinese). Taipei: Psychological Publishing.
Lin, P. J. (2003). A study on the Science and Living Technology Evaluation in Problem-solving Ability based on Students’ Living Experience (in Chinese). Unpublished Master thesis, Taipei Municipal Teachers College, Taiwan.
Linn, M. C. (1983). Theoretical and practical significance of formal reasoning. Journal of research in Science Teaching, 21, 235-254.
Liptrap, J. (1999). Chess and Standardized Test Scores. Chess Coach Newsletter, Spring, 11(1), 5-7.
McClosky, M., Carmazza, A., & Green, B. (1980). Curvilinear motion in the absence of external forces: Naïve beliefs about motion of objects. Science, 210, 1139-1141.
Mednick S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological review, 69, 220-232.
Merrifield, P. R., Guilford, J. P., Christensen, P. R., & Frick, J. W. (1962). The role of intellectual factors in problem solving. Psychological Monographs, 76, 1-21.
Milat, M. (1997). The role of chess in modern education. Retrieved September 20, 2006, from http://www.chess.bc.ca/marcel2.html.
Ministry of Education (2002). White Paper on Creative Education. Retrieved September 20, 2006, from http://www.creativity.edu.tw/project_introduction/english_intro.php
Ministry of Education (2003). Grade 1 to 9 curriculum. Taipei: MOE.
Moore, R. B. (1994). It’s your move: Offering Seminars to Teach Strategy Games. Gifted Child Today Magazine, 3(17), 26-27.
Mumford, M. D., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Redmond, M. R. (1991). Problem Construction and Cognition: Applying Problem Representation in Ill-Defined Domains. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Problem Finding, Problem Solving, and Creativity. NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Newell, A., & Simon, H. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
National Research Council (NRC). (1999). National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Nussbaum, J., & Novack, J. D. (1976). An Assessment of children’s concepts of the earth utilizing structured interview. Science Education, 60, 535-550.
O’leary, Z. (2004). The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage.
O’Leary, U., Rusch, K. M., & Guastello, S. J. (1991). Estimating age-stratified WAIS-Rs from scores on the Raven’s SPMs. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, 154-191.
Piaget, J. (1965). Biologie et connaisance. Paris:Gallimard.
Piaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (1958). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books.
Piaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (1974). The child’s construction of quantities. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Palm, C. (1990). Chess Improves Academic Performance. (Derived from “New York City Schools Chess Program.”)
Raven, P. C. (2000). The Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Change and stability over culture and time. Cognitive Psychology, 62, 7-45.
Quellmalz, E. S. (1987). Developing Reasoning skills. In R. J. Sternberg & J. B. Baron (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills: theory and practice (pp.86-105). New York: Freeman.
Ravensburger, S. (1987). Reversi (in german). Retrieved September 20, 2006, from http://www.ravensburger.de/portal/images/downloadfiles/spielanleitung/Reversi.pdf
Ribot, T. (1906). Essays on the creative imagination. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Rifner, P. J. (1992). Playing Chess: A Study of Problem-Solving Skills in Students with Average and Above Average Intelligence. Doctoral dissertation.
Rose, B. (2005). Othello: A minute to learn, a lifetime to master. British: Anjar Company.
Spearman, C. E. (1930). Creative mind. Cambridge University Press.
Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sternberg, R. J. (1986b). Toward a unified theory of human reasoning. Intelligence, 10, 281-314.
Springer, C. (1998). The discovery of Othello. Retrieved August 20, 2006, from http://home5.swipnet.se/~w-50714/othello/default.htm.
Tai, C. H. (2005). The Effectiveness of Go Playing Instruction with Multimedia-based Material (in chinese). Unpublished Master thesis. National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan.
Torrance, E. P. (1965). Rewarding creative behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Torrance, E. P. (1972). Can we teach children to think creatively? Journal of Creative and Gifted Learners, 6, 114-143.
Taylor, C. W. (1988). Various Approaches to and Definitions of Creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The Nature of Creativity (pp. 99-121). Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, L. M. (2005). Introducing cognitive development. New York: Psychology Press.
Thurstone, L. L. (1952). Creative talent. In L. L. Thurstone (Ed.), Application of psychology (pp.18-37). New York: Harper & Row.
Tzeng J. L. (2005). Thinking, deep thinking. Business Weekly, 943.
Vail, K. (1995). Check this, Mate: Chess moves kids. The American School Board Journal, 182, 38-40.
Verma, G.K., & Mallick, K. (1999). Researching education: perspectives and techniques, London: Falmer Press.
Wallas, G. (1926). The Art of Thought. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Wertheimer, M. (1945). Productive thinking. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.
Wiles, J., & Bondi, J. (1981). Skills Clusters for Creative Thinking Activity Book. Wiles, Bondi and Associates.
Wojcio, M. (1990). The Importance of Chess in the Classroom. (Article No. 3) United States Chess Federation Scholastic Department.
Wolff, A. S., & Frey, P. W. (1985). A Note on the Correlation of Visual-Spatial Ability and the Acquision of Game Skill. Educational Research Quarterly, 4(9), 4-5.

Wu, W. L (2004). A research on creative and critical thinking teaching module toward primary school students’ motivation to learn, critical thinking and scientific creativity. Unpublished Master thesis, Taipei Municipal Teachers College, Taiwan.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔