跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.213.63.130) 您好!臺灣時間:2023/01/29 10:34
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:何慶煌
研究生(外文):Ching-Hwang Hor
論文名稱:創業精神與經濟指標之關聯性的實證研究─以台灣近十年之經濟指標為探討主體
論文名稱(外文):AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE CORRELATION AMONG ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS─BASED ON 1996~2005 TAIWANESE ECONOMIC INDICATORS
指導教授:林南宏林南宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nan-Hong Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:事業經營學系(所)
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:創業精神職業選擇理論總體經濟指標時間序列政治變動
外文關鍵詞:EntrepreneurshipOccupation ChoiceMacro Economic IndicatorsTime SeriesPolitical Change
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:25
  • 點閱點閱:767
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:270
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:7
新創事業是國家經濟的活水,係保持經濟成長、創造就業機會、社會安定及提升產業競爭的原動力,而創業精神正是這股活水的源頭。本研究依循著數據學派的研究,認係外在經濟環境的變遷,以激發創業精神的發揮,意即,由於總體經濟因素的變動,導致創業精神被激發,並引發新創立企業的後續活動。
本研究採用SPSS套裝統計軟體為時間序列分析工具,以台灣近十年(1996~2005)之經濟指標數據為探討,以新創設中小企業家數代表創業精神,並從職業選擇理論、供給面驅動因子與需求面驅動因子等面向,探討總體經濟指標與創業精神間之關聯性,及發現影響之關鍵參數與係數。另外,本研究也以2000年台灣執政政黨改變為干擾變數,探究是否存在著結構性改變,創業精神是否因政治變動而受影響。
本研究實證結果發現:國民所得、失業人口、儲蓄總額、政府稅收總額及政府消費支出等因素,與創業精神之發揮具有顯著正向關係。對於銀行放款總額與人口總數則呈現負向關係;而政治變動對於創業精神則未有顯著影響。
本研究結論:一、「職業選擇理論(Occupation Choice)」獲得具體驗證,創業精神受到外在環境經濟因素影響,基於本身主動或被迫的追求更好預期報酬的選擇。二、「財務融資的可及性(Financial Availability)」為創業精神的驅動因子,獲得具體驗證,銀行放款總額與創業精神有顯著負向相關,顯示台灣銀行體系融資機制仍處於開發中國家的水準,尚有相當改善的空間。三、「政府財政收支政策(Fiscal Capacity)」為創業精神的驅動因子,政府財政收支政策的透明度高,社會安全制度越完善者,則創業比率越高。四、「人口結構老化」為創業精神發揮的一大隱憂。五、政治變動並未影響台灣創業精神的發揮。
Newly-Established Enterprises is the driving force of a national economy. It is an agent to keep an economy growing, create employment, maintain stability in the society, and increase industry competitiveness. And the root of this driving force is entrepreneurship. This study follows the idea of Rate School which thinks the external economic environment changes inspire entrepreneurship. That means when macroeconomic factors change, entrepreneurship spirit is inspired and then the activities of Newly-Established Enterprises is triggered.
This study uses SPSS statistics software as its time series analysis tool and analyzes Taiwan’s economic indicators from recent ten years (1996~2005). The study uses the number of Newly-Established Enterprises to symbolize entrepreneurship and look at the aspects of Occupation Choice, Supply side and Demand side driving factors. It also discusses the relationship between macroeconomic indicators and entrepreneurship and discovers the key influencing parameters and coefficients. Furthermore, the study treats the governing party change in 2000 as a confounding variable to see whether there is any structural changes and whether entrepreneurship is affected by political changes.
The research finds that National Income, Unemployment population, Savings number, Government tax income and Government expenditure has positive relationship with entrepreneur spirits. However, Bank Loan/Credit and total population numbers have negative effect on entrepreneurship; however, political changes have no obvious effect on entrepreneurship.
Conclusions of this study: I.“Occupation Choice theory” has gained concrete proof and entrepreneurship is influenced by external economic environment factors, and entrepreneurship is based on choice of searching for better expected return either positively or passively. II.“Financial Availability” as a driving factor of entrepreneurship has also been concretely proved. The negative relationship between Bank Loan/Credit and entrepreneurship symbolize that the financial mechanism with Taiwan’s Banking infrastructure is still on the level of developing countries and has substantial room for improvement. III.“Fiscal Capacity”is also a driving factor of entrepreneurship. The higher the visibility of governmental income and spending policy and better social security system, the higher the Newly-Established Enterprises ratio. IV.“Aging population structure”is a hidden worry to entrepreneurship and could have adverse effect in the future. V. Political changes do not affect Taiwan’s entrepreneurial spirits.
目 錄
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i
ABSTRACT ii
中文摘要 iv
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒 論 1
研究背景與動機 1
研究目的 8
論文結構 8
第二章 文獻探討 10
何謂創業精神 10
何謂創業家 13
創業精神的動機 14
創業精神、新創公司與經濟成長 19
創業精神的驅動因子 20
台灣中小企業之定義 23
第三章 研究方法 25
研究架構 25
研究假說 26
統計分析方法 29
研究流程圖 33
研究變數的定義與衡量 34
第四章 資料分析與實證結果 36
資料分析 36
研究假說之檢驗 46
第五章 結 論 47
管理意涵與建議 49
研究限制 51
後續研究方向 52
參考文獻 53
表目錄
表1-1台灣中小企業家數統計表 2
表1-2台灣中小企業銷售額統計表 3
表1-3台灣中小企業內銷額統計表 3
表1-4台灣中小企業出口額統計表 3
表1-5台灣大型企業與中小型企業之生產力比較表 5
表2-1創業精神特質學派與數據學派之差異比較表 16
表2-2特質學派研究彙集 17
表2-3創業精神經濟學論文彙集 18
表2-4創業精神驅動因子研究彙集 23
表2-5台灣中小企業之定義 24
表3-1研究變數說明 34
表4-1各變數敘述性統計 36
表4-2線性迴歸模式摘要 37
表4-3 ANOVA變異數分析表 38
表4-4線性迴歸係數摘要表 39
表4-5自我相關之BOX–LJUNG檢定摘要表 41
表4-6檢定模式比較表 42
表4-7模式一的最終參數值表 42
表4-8變異數分析表 43
表4-9迴歸係數摘要表 43
表4-10樣本群體統計量 45
表4-11政治變動獨立樣本T檢定 45
表4-12研究假說之驗證結果表 46
表5-1台灣創業精神的驅動因子表 49
圖目錄
圖1-1歷年中小企業銷售額占全體企業之比例折線圖 4
圖3-1研究架構圖 25
圖3-2研究流程圖 33
圖4-1自我相關圖ACF 40
圖4-2自我相關圖ACF 44

TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES iii
LIST OF TABLES iii
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 2
1.3 Thesis Structure 3
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 What is Entrepreneurship? 5
2.2 What is an “Entrepreneur”? 8
2.3 Motivation behind Entrepreneurship 9
2.4 Entrepreneurship, Newly-established enterprises and Economy Growth 11
2.5 The Driving Factors of Entrepreneurship 12
2.6 The definition of Taiwan’s SMEs 16
3. RESEARCH METHOD 17
3.1 Research Structure 17
3.2 Research Hypothesis 18
3.3 Statistical Analysis Method 22
3.4 Research Flow Chart 26
3.5 Research Variables Definition and Measurement 27
4. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH RESULTS 30
4.1 Data Analysis 30
4.2 Examination of Research Hypothesis 41
5. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 43
5.1 Conclusions 43
5.2 Meanings to Management and Suggestions 46
5.3 Research Limitations 49
5.4 Further Research Directions 49
REFERENCE 51

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 3-1 Research Structure 18
Fig. 3-2 Research Flow Chart 26
Fig. 4-1 Autocorrelation Graph (ACF) 34
Fig. 4-2 Autocorrelation Graph (ACF) 39

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1 Comparison Table for differences between Trait and Rate Schools 10
Table 2-2 Variable Collection of Entrepreneurship Driving Factors Studies 15
Table 3- 1 Description of Research Variables 27
Table 4-1 Variables descriptive Statistics 30
Table 4-2 Linear Regression Model 31
Table 4-3 ANOVA Variance Analysis Table 32
Table 4-4 Brief Linear Regression Coefficient Table 33
Table 4-5 Autocorrelation’s Box–Ljung Test Table 35
Table 4-6 Testing Model Comparison Table 36
Table 4-7 Model One Final Parameters Table 37
Table 4-8 Variance Analysis Table 37
Table 4-9 Regression Coefficient Table 37
Table 4-10 Sample Group Statistic 40
Table 4-11 Political Change Independent Sample t test 41
Table 4-12 Research Hypothesis Examination Result Table 41
Table 5-1 The Driving factors for Taiwan’s Entrepreneurship 46
參考文獻
一、中文部分:
Peter F. Drucker著,蕭富峰、李田樹譯,創新與創業精神,2005年,四版,台北市,臉譜出版社。
于宗先、王金利著,台灣中小企業的成長,2000年12月,初版,台北市,聯經出版公司。
王保進,視窗版SPSS與行為科學研究,1999年,初版,台北市,心裡出版社。
毛曉鷁 (2002),「創業精神之構成與體現」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
中小企業白皮書,2004,2005,2006年,初版,台北市,經濟部中小企業處。
何畏、易家祥譯,經濟發展理論,2005年,初版,台北縣,左岸文化事業有限公司。
李儒宜(1998),「創業家之個人特徵、創業動機與人格特質對於創業行為影響之探討」,東華大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
林少斌 (2004),「企業特徵、創業精神、組織績效、董監事職能之研究」,私立中華大學科技管理研究所博士論文。
林月雲 (1997),「創業導向、管理實務、人際網路與組織績效關係之研究」,中央大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。
許純真譯,預測的原理與應用,1999年三月,初版,台北市,台灣西書出版社。
許士軍著,管理學,1990,台北市,東華書局。
楊奕農著,時間序列分析---經濟與財務上之應用,2005年4月,初版,台北市,雙葉書廊有限公司。
陳耀茂編著,時間數列分析的SPSS使用手冊,2005年六月,初版,台北市,鼎茂圖書股份有限公司。
陳捷人 (2002),「總體經濟指標之綜合預測」,私立東吳大學國際貿易研究所碩士論文。
黃秀珊 (2002),「台灣中小企業創業精神之研究」,銘傳大學國際企業學系碩士論文。
張紹勳著,研究方法,2001年1月,修訂版,台中市,滄海書局。
張金山 (1990) ,「創業行為與成就動機、家族背景之相關性研究」, 國立台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。
蔡菊人 (2001) ,「創業精神、科技策略、外部網絡與經營績效關係之研究」, 國立中山大學資訊管理學系研究所碩士論文。
蔡宗穎(2000),「水產養殖土地利用變遷之多變量預測模式建立 — 以屏東縣水產養殖用地為例」,國立台灣大學地理學研究所碩士論文。
謝登隆、徐繼達編著,總體經濟理論與對策,2001年,八版,台北市,智勝文化事業有限公司。
羅志如、范家驤、厲以寧、胡代光等著,西方經濟學基礎理論,1996年,台北市,揚智文化。

二、西文部分:
Acs, Z. J. and D. B. Audretsch (eds), Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2003.
Aldrich, H. “Using an ecological perspective to study organizational founding rates.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(3). (1990): 7-24.
Arenius, P. and A Kovalainen. “Similarities and Differences Across the Factors Associated with Women’s Self-employment Preferences in the Nordic Countries.” Intenational Small Business Journal, Vol., 24(1). (2006): 31–59.
Armington, C. and Z. J. Acs. “The Determinants of Regional Variation in New Firm Formation”, Regional Studies, Vol., 36. (2002): 33-45.
Aronson, R. “Self-employment: A labor market perspective.” Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, (1991).
Asquith, D. and J. Weston, “Small BusinessGrowth Patterns and Jobs.” Business Economics , Vol. 29, Iss 3. (1994): 13-21.
Audretsch, D. B. and M. Feldman, “R&D spillovers and the Geography of Innovation and Production”, American Economic Review, 86. (1996): 630-640.
_______________, and P. Stephan, “Company-scientist Locational Links: The Case of Biotechnology”, American Economic Review, 86. (1996): 641-652.
_______________, A. R. Thurik, I. Verheul and A. R. M. Wennekers (eds.), Entrepreneurship: Determinants and Policy in a European – US comparison, Boston/Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
_______________, and M. Keibach, “Entrepreneurship Capital and Economic Performance”, Regional Studies, 38. (2004): 949-959.
Baumol, W. “Entrepreneurship and a century of growth”. Journal of Business Venturing, 1. (1986): 141-145.
__________, “Entrepreneurship theory in economics.” Journal of Business Venturing, 8. (1993): 197-210.
Birley, S. “The role of new firm births, deaths, and job generation.” Strategic Management Journal, 7. (1986): 361-376.
Brockhaus, R. H., “The Psychology of the Entrepreneur,” In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, and K. H. Vesper(Eds.), Encyclopedia Entrepreneurship, Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice Hall, (1982): 39-71.
Carree, M., A. van Stel, R. Thurik and S. Wennekers, “Enonomic Development and Business Ownership: An Analysis Using Data of 23 OECD Countries in the Period 1976-1996”, Small Business Economics, 19. (2002): 271-290.
Carroll, G. and E. Mosakowski, “The career dynamics of self-employment.”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 32. (1987): 570-589.
Cooper, A., “Entrepreneurship: The Past the Present, the Furure”, in Zoltan J. Acs and David B. Audretsch(eds.) Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Boston/Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2003): 21-36
Cunningham, J. B. and J. Lischeron “Defining Entrepreneurship,” Journal of Small Business Management , Vol. 29, Iss.1. (1991): 45–61.
Dean, T., G. Meyer, and J. DeCastro “Determinants of new-firm formations in manufacturing industries: Industry dynamics, entry barriers, and organizational inertia.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 17(4). (1993): 49-60.
Dess, G.; G. Lumpkin, and J. Covin, “Entrepreneurial Strategy Making and Firm Performance: Tests of Contingency and Configurational Models.” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 18, Iss. 1. (1997): 2-23.
Drucker, Peter F., Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practice and Principles, 1985.
Drucker, Peter F., “The Discipline of Innovation,” Harvard Business Review, 76 (6). (1998): 149-157.
_______________., Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Rye Field Publishing Co, 1995.
Evans, D. and B. Jovanovic. “An estimated model of entrepreneurial choice under liquidity constraints.” Journal of Political Economy, 97(4). (1989): 808-827.
________, and L. Leighton. “Some empirical aspects of entrepreneurship.” American Economic Review, 79(3). (1986): 519-535.
Geroski, P. A., “Entry, Innovation, and Productivity Growth”, Review of Economics and Statistics, 71.(1989): 572-578.
Ghosh, B. C. & W. Kwan, An analysis of key success factors of SMEs: A comparative study of Singapore/Malaysia and Australia/New Zealand, unpublished, 1996.
Grant, Don “The Political Economy of New Business Formation Across American States, 1970 – 1985” Social Science Quarterly Vol. 77 Number 1. (March 1996): 28–42.
Greenberg, D. B. & D. L. Sexton, An interactive model of new venture initiation, Journal of Small Business Management, 26(3). (1988): 1-7.
Hamilton, R. “Unemployment and business formation rates: Reconciling time-series and cross-section evidence.” Environment and Planning A, 21. (1989): 249-255.
Heckman, J. J. “Sample selection bias as specification error.” Econometrica, 47. (1979): 153-161.
Johansson, Edvard. “Self-employment and Liquidity Constraints: Evidence from Finland.” Scandinavian Journal of Economics Volume 102 Issue 1. (March 2000): 123
Kent, D. L. Sexton, and K.H. Vesper(Eds.), Encyclopedia Entrepreneurship, Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice Hall, (1982): 209-223.
Kirzner, I., Competition & Entrepreneurship, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.
_________,. “Entrepreneurial Discovery and the Competitive Market Process: An Austrian Approach.” Journal of Economic Literature, 35 (1). (1997): 60–85.
Kuznets, S. Economic Growth of Nations: Total Output and Production Structure, Cambridge, Mass: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971.
Lee, S. Y., R. Florida, and Z. J. Acs. “Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis of New Firm Formation”, Regional Studies, Vol., 38, 8. (2004): 879–891.
Leibenstein, H., “Entrepreneurship and Development”, American Economic Review, 58. (1968): 72-83.
Low, M. B. and I. C. MacMillan. “Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challenges.” Journal of Management, 14(2). (1988): 139-161.
Lucas R. “On the size distribution of business firms.” The Bell Journal of Economics, 9. (1978): 508-523.
Lumpkin, G. T. and G. G. Dess, “Clarifying the Entrepr eneurial Orientation Construct and Linking It to Performance,” The Academy of Management Review, Vol, 21, No.1. (1996), 135-172.
Miller, D. and P. H. Friesen, “Innovation in Conservative and Entrepreneurial firms: Two Models of Strategic Momentum,” Strategic Management, (1982).
Moon, Myung Jae. “The pursuit of managerial entrepreneurship: Does organization matter?,” Public Administration Review, Vol. 59, Iss. 1. (1999): 33-43.
Murphy, Patrick J. “A History Conceptural Thought for Entrepreneurship”, 2005 Best Conference Paper for Academy of Management.
Nelson, C. “Starting your own business – Four success stories.”, Communication World, 3,(8) .(1986): 18-29.
Neter, John. M.H. Kutner, C. J. Nachtsheim, and W. Wasserman : Applied Linear Regression Models Third Edition , MaGraw-Hill Book Co., International Edition 1999: 509–516.
Nickell, S., P. Nicolitsas and N. Dryden, “What Makes Firms Perform Well?”, European Economic Review, 41, (1997): 783-796.
_________, “Competition and Corporate Performance”, Journal of Political Economy 104, (1996): 724-746.
Peterson, R. A., Albaum, G., & Ridgway, N. M. “Consumers who buy from direct sales companies.” Journal of Retailing, 65(2),(1989): 273-286.
Pitrobelli Carlo, Roberta Rabellotti, and Matteo. Aquilina, “An Empirical Study of Determinants of Self-employment in Developing countries.” Journal of International Development, Vol., 16, Issue 6. (August 2004): 803–820.
Pitt, Leyland F. and Rushieda Kannemeyer, “The Role of Adaptation in Microenterprise Development: A Marketing Perspective,” Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Vol. 5, No. 2, (2000): 137-155.
Reynolds, P. “New firms: Societal contribution versus survival potential.” Journal of Business Venturing, 2. (1987): 231-246.
__________, “Sociology and entrepreneurship: Concepts and contributions.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 15. (1991): 47-70
__________, “Predicting new firm births: Interactions of organizational and human populations.”, State of the art in entrepreneurship. (1992): 268-297
__________, D. Storey and P. Westhead, “Cross-National Comparison of the Variation in new firm formation rate”, Regional Studies, Vol. 28. (1994): 443-456.
Ritsila, Jari. and Hannu. Tervo, “Effects of Unemployment on New Firm Formation: Micro-Level Panel Data Evidence from Finland”, Small Business Economics; 19,1. (Aug 2002): 31.
Robert G Schwartz, Richard D Teach, “Research Note: Entrepreneurship Research: An Empirical Perspective,” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24(3), (2000): 77-81.
Romanelli, E. “Environments and strategies of organization start-up: Effects on early survival.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 34. (1989): 369-387.
Sander Wennekers and Thurik Roy “Linking Enterpreneurship and Economic Growth” , Small Business Economics; 13,1. (Aug 1999): 27.
Schultz, T. W., “Investment in Entrepreneurial Ability”, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 82, (1980): 437-448.
Schumpeter, J. “The theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, interest, and the business cycle.” Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1934).
Shame, William. “Venture Management:The Business of the Inventor, Entrepreueur”, in New York: The Free Press, 1974.
Shane, Scott. “Explaining variation in rates of entrepreneurship in the United States: 1899-1988”,Journal of Management. (Sept-Oct, 1996).
Singh, S. “Relevance of social factors in entrepreneurial growth.” Journal of Sociological Studies, 4. (1985): 72-85.
Siropolis, N. C. Small business management : A guide to entrepreneurship (7th ed.). Boston: Houghton Miffin, 27. (1989).
Spencer J. W., and C. Gomez. “The Relation among National Institutional structures, Economic Factors and Domestic Entrepreneurial Activity: A Multicountry study”, Journal of Business Researches, 57. (2004): 1098–1107.
Spilling O. R. “Regional Variation of New Firm Formation: The Norwegian Case”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 8. (1996): 217-243.
Stel, van Andre, Carree, Martin and Thurik, Roy “The Effect of Entrepreneurial Activity on National Economic Growth”, Small Business Economics, Vol. 24. (2005):311–321.
Sternberg, Rolf. and Sander. Wennerkers, “Determinants and Effects of New Business Creation Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data” Small Business Economics , Vol. 24. (2005): 192–203.
Stevenson, H. & S. Harmeling, “A more chaotic entrepreneurial theory.” Journal of Business Venturing, 5, (1990): 1-14.
___________, H. I. Grousbeck, M. J. Roberts, and A. V. Bhidé, New Business Venturing and The Entrepreneur, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, International Editions: Singapore. 2000.
Stinchcombe, A. Organizations and social structure. in J. March (Ed.), Handbook of organizations. Chicago: Rand McNally. (1965): 142-193.
Stuart, T. and O. Sorenson, “The Geography of Opportunity: Spatial Heterogeneity in Founding Rate and Performance of Biotechnology firms”, Research Policy, 32. (2003): 229–253.
Stupak, Ronald J. and Rudolph B. Garrity, “Introduction,” Public Administration Review, Vol.16, No. 4 (Winter 1993): 409-415.
Swiss, James. “Adapting Total Quality Management (TQM) to Government.” Public Administration Review, 52(4), (1992): 356-362.
Tan J. Regulatory “environment and strategic orientations in a transitional economy: a study of Chinese private enterprise.” Entrep Theory Pract, (1996): 31-46.
Thomas H. and M. Jungbauer-Gans “Starting a Business After Unemployment: Characteristics and Chances of Success (empirical Evidence From A regional German Labour Market)”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 11. (1999): 317-333.
Timmons, J. A., New venture creation (4th ed.). Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin, 1994.
Tuma, N. and M. Hannah, “Social dynamics: Models and methods.” San Francisco: Academic Press, (1984).
Van Stel, Andre, Carree, Martin, and Roy. Therik, “The effect of Entrepreneurial Activity on National Economic Growth”, Small Business Economics, Vol. 24. (2005):311-321.
Vesper, K. H., “Entrepreneurial Academics – How Can We Tell when the Field Is Getting Somewhere?”, Journal of Business Venturing 3(1), (1988): 1-10.
Yamata G., “Urban Informal employment and self-employment in developing countries:Theory and Evidence.” Economic Development and Culture Change. 44. (1996): 289-314.
Zahra, S. A., D. F. Jennings, and D. F. Kuratko, “The Antecedents and Consequences of Firm-Level Entrepreneurship: The State of the Field,” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 24, No. 2. (1999): 45-65.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top