跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.235.174.99) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/24 19:18
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:李怡芬
研究生(外文):LEE I-FEN
論文名稱:甘油及酵素之添加對殺菌液全蛋冷凍貯存期間功能性之探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Functional Properties of Pasteurized Frozen Liquid Whole Eggs with Glycerol and Enzymes
指導教授:黃加成黃加成引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Cherng Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:台南科技大學
系所名稱:生活應用科學研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:生活應用科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:酵素甘油殺菌液蛋白殺菌液全蛋功能特性
外文關鍵詞:EnzymeGglycerolPasteurized Liquid Egg WhitePasteurized Liquid Whole EggFunctional property
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:605
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:66
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究旨在探討液蛋白及液全蛋於冷藏及冷凍期間之功能性,及藉添加甘油與酵素對液全蛋功能性之影響,以供業者對液蛋白及液全蛋功能性之認知與利用。結果摘要如下:
一、無論殺菌或未殺菌液蛋白之水分含量約87.44~88.59%,粗灰分含量約0.65~0.69%,粗蛋白質含量約10.24~10.61,粗脂肪含量約0.18~0.36%。未殺菌及殺菌液全蛋之水分含量約76.43~77.34%,粗灰分含量約0.84~0.94%,粗蛋白質含量約11.76~13.63%,粗脂肪含量約8.83~9.91%。
二、殺菌及未殺菌液蛋白在3±1℃經四週保存,其pH 值並無顯著變化,生菌數達104 CFU/g,而經8週後,則增加達107 CFU/g以上,在未殺菌組已有變敗之現象,但殺菌組則延長達12週時,才有腐敗的現象。液蛋白之起泡性則未殺菌液蛋白在冷藏或冷凍條件下優於殺菌液蛋白,所製天使蛋糕亦較殺菌液蛋白體積為高(p<0.05)。然冷凍之殺菌液蛋白需較長打發時間才可達濕性發泡期(wet peak)。
三、液全蛋之黏度於冷凍時顯著高於未冷凍,且未殺菌液全蛋之黏度顯著的高於殺菌液全蛋。而利用液全蛋所製海綿蛋糕之體積也則因冷凍而比未冷凍時顯著降低。添加甘油能降低冷凍液全蛋之黏度及增加海綿蛋糕體積的效果(p<0.05)。不同酵素(胰蛋白酶、鳳梨酵素及木瓜酵素)對冷凍殺菌液全蛋之水解率有隨作用時間及濃度增加而增加,在0.01%之酵素濃度時各種酵素其水解率以胰蛋白酶>鳳梨酵素>木瓜酵素,且對冷凍液全蛋之黏度有顯著降低及增加海綿蛋糕體積之效果(p<0.05)。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of liquid egg white and liquid whole egg during refrigerating and freezing and the influences of glycerol and enzyme on the functional properties of liquid whole egg, to provide the cognitive and utilization of liquid egg white and liquid whole egg to the industry. The results were summarized as follows:
1. The chemical compositions of the non-pasteurized and pasteurized liquid egg white were as follows: moisture 87.44~88.59%, ash 0.65~0.69%, crude protein 10.24~10.61%, crude fat 0.18~0.36%. The chemical compositions of the non-pasteurized and pasteurized liquid whole egg were as follows: moisture 76.43~77.34%, ash 0.84~0.94%, crude protein 11.76~13.63 %, crude fat 8.83~9.91%.
2. The pH values of non-pasteurized and pasteurized liquid egg white both did not change significantly after storage at 3±1℃ for four weeks and total plate counts were 104 CFU/g . After 8 weeks, the total plate counts were increased to 107 CFU/g and non-pasteurized liquid egg white was deteriorated but the pasteurized liquid egg white were not spoiled until 12 weeks. The foaming capacity and angel cake capacity of non-pasteurized liquid egg white were superior to that of pasteurized liquid egg white (p<0.05) no matter refrigeration or freezing stored. Frozen pasteurized liquid egg white required more time to whip to wet peak.
3. The viscosity of frozen liquid whole egg was higher than that of unfrozen sample, and that viscosities of non-pasteurized liquid whole egg were higher apparently than those of pasteurized. The sponge cake capacity of frozen liquid whole egg was lower apparently than those unfrozen sample. The addition of glycerol decreased the viscosity of frozen liquid whole egg but the sponge cake capacity was increased (p<0.05). The hydrolysis ratio of frozen pasteurized liquid whole egg increased as hydrolysis time and concentration of various enzymes (trypin, bromelain and papain )were increased, and trypsin > bromelain > papain at 0.01% concentration. The addition of enzymes decreased the viscosity of frozen liquid whole egg significantly but the sponge cake capacity was increasing (p<0.05).
壹、 中文摘要……………………………………………………………1
貳、 前言…………………………………………………………………3
參、 文獻檢討……………………………………………………………4
一、 雞蛋蛋白與蛋黃之組成分……………………………………4
二、 蛋白之起泡性…………………………………………………7
(一)泡沫形成的機制 …………………………………………7
(二)蛋白中蛋白質的起泡力..…………………………………7
   (三)影響蛋白起泡性之因子..…………………………………9
1.打拌的方式. .……………………………………………9
2.攪拌或均質..……………………………………………10
3.溫度..……………………………………………………10
4.添加物..…………………………………………………11
5.pH值……………………………………………………11
三、 蛋黃的乳化性…………………………………………………12
(一) 乳濁液形成之機制………………………………………13
    (二)乳化作用之構成成分.……………………………………15
(三)影響蛋黃乳化性之因子…………………………………16
1.溶液黏度..……………………………………………….16
2.添加物..………………………………………………….16
3.pH值..…………………………………………………...17
4.冷凍..…………………………………………………….17
5.乾燥..…………………………………………………….18
6.加熱殺菌..……………………………………………….18
7.均質化..………………………………………………….19
8.貯藏..…………………………………………………….19
四、 蛋黃的冷凍凝膠....…………………………………………....19
(一) 冷凍凝膠之原因....………………………………………..20
(二) 影響蛋黃冷凍凝膠之因素………………………………..21
五、 液蛋製造及利用性.…………………………………………...23
(一) 液蛋之製造過程..………………………………………...24
(二) 液蛋之加工利用性..……………………………………...33
六、 蛋白分解酵素對液蛋機能性之探討.………………………...37
肆、 試驗材料與方法..………………………………………………...40
一、 試驗材料……………………………………………………..40
(一) 原料液蛋………………………...………………………..40
(二) 副原料.…………………………..………………………..40
(三) 試驗藥品…………………………………………….……40
二、 試驗方法...……………………………………………………41
(一) 液蛋白及液全蛋化學組成…..……………………………41
(二)液蛋白於冷藏及冷凍期間品質之變化..…………………41
(三)液全蛋於冷凍期間黏度之變化..…………………………41
(四)液全蛋於冷凍期間乳化容量及海綿蛋糕體積之變化..…41
(五)甘油對液全蛋冷凍期間品質之影響..……………………42
(六)不同酵素及濃度對冷凍殺菌液全蛋水解率之探討..……42
(七)添加不同酵素對液全蛋品質之影響..……………………42
(八)蛋糕之製備..………………………………………………42
三、分析項目
(一)一般化學成分分析..………………………………………44
(二)pH值………………………………………………………46
(三)總生菌數….………………………………………………46
(四)黏度….……………………………………………………47
(五)起泡力….…………………………………………………47
(六)泡沫安定性….……………………………………………47
(七)蛋糕體積測定….…………………………………………48
(八)酵素水解率測定..………………………………………48
(九)酵素水解全蛋後其水解物之胺基態氮測定.……………48
(十)乳化容量.…………………………………………………49
(十一)統計分析...………..……………………………………50
伍、結果與討論..………………………………………………………51
陸、結論..………………………………………………………………91
柒、參考文獻..…………………………………………………………94
捌、英文摘要.…………………………………………………………106
柒、參考文獻
丁懷謙和林慶文。1985。捲蛋之試製。中畜會誌 14(1-2):89-105。
小澤康郎。1951。日農技術研究所報告。G2:11。
中華穀類食品工業研究所。2002。殺菌液蛋運用烘焙加工暨團膳手冊。財團法人中央畜產會,台北市。
中華穀類食品工業研究所。2004。殺菌液蛋運用烘焙加工暨團膳手冊。中華穀類食品工業技術研究所,台北市。
北峰和惠。2002。日本液蛋之發展概況。國際液蛋加工及利用技術研討會論文。財團法人中央畜產會,台北市。
吳奕智。2002。不同酸鹼環境及界面活性劑對雞蛋蛋白起泡性及泡沫安定性之探討。碩士論文。國立台灣海洋大學食品研究所。
李英欽和張勝善。1987。製作脫溶脢蛋白水解物之研究。中畜會誌 16(3-4):179-189。
周俐齡。2000。添加物、殺菌及冷凍條件對冷凍解凍蛋黃與全蛋的流變與功能性質之影響。
押田一夫。1975。マヨネーズの製造に關する基礎的研究。日本食品工業學會誌 22:501-506。
林秀年。1993。酵素水解淘汰雞肉及其利用之研究。碩士論文。靜宜大學食品營養研究所。
金井忠平。1976。日食品工業。19(8):57。
金井忠平和栗原健志。1955。液蛋のサルモネラ汚染と安全對策。食 品と開発。30(5):25-29。
張勝善。1999。蛋品加工學,第301-378頁。華香園出版社,台北市。
張惠香。1989。以卵白水解物試製天然調味料基質之初步研究。碩士論文。中興大學食品科學研究所。
淺野悠輔和石原良三。1985。卵-その化學と加工技術。pp.149-157。光琳、日本。
陳存傑。1978。鮮蛋的微生物特性及清洗。食品工業 10(9):13-16.
陳秀蓮。1993。常用調味料中的蛋白質水解液。食品工業 25(6):33-43。
陳怡兆。1992。凍藏溫度對蛋黃品質之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學畜產學研究所。
陳姿蓉。2001。液蛋之巴斯德殺菌條件及其功能性質之評估。碩士論 文。靜宜大學食品營養研究所。
陳香婷。2001。台灣液蛋需求之分析。碩士論文。東海大學食品科研究所。
筒井知己。1986。鶏卵卵黄成分タンパク質の分別特性および機能特性に關する研究。 Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 33:349-357。
楊勝欽。1990。不同處理對商業卵白起泡特性之影響。食品科學17(3):192~201。
廖哲逸。1994。液蛋之微生物汙染與防制。食品工業 26(4):29-40。
廖哲逸。1998。液蛋製造之微生物汙染控制。食品資訊 155:55-61。
劉冠汝。1990。酵素水解雞蛋卵白的加熱凝膠及起泡特性之探討。碩士論文。靜宜大學應用化學研究所。
劉冠汝和楊勝欽。1993。雞蛋卵白的酵素部份水解及其對卵白起泡性之影響。食品科學 20(1):51-63。
劉建功、廖哲逸、陳德昇、李榮輝和邱克明。1993。液蛋製程之危害分析與重要控制點系統。食品工業發展研究所,新竹。
劉建功。1993。液蛋製造之安全衛生。食品工業 25(3):51-60。
劉鐘堅。1996。雞蛋蛋白在不同處理條件下自我乳化現象之探討與其在雞蛋蛋白功能性質改良之研究。碩士論文。國立台灣海洋大學食品研究所。
蔡采芳。1997。雞蛋蛋白水解物之製備及其性質之研究。碩士論文。國立台灣大學農業化學研究所。
魏妙岑和張勝善。1993。液蛋細菌之鑑定。中畜會誌 22(4)455-461.
A.O.A.C. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis. 14th ed. Assoc- iation of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington D. C.
Andersen, J. 2003. From Egg Products to Necessary Technology. International Symposium on Liquid Egg Technology. pp:66-68.
Baldwin, R. E.1986. Functional properties of egg in foods. Egg science and Technology. 3rd In: W. J. Stadelman ,O.J. Cotterill, ed. Westport.
Barmore, M. A. 1936. The influence of various factors, including altitude, in the production of angel food cake. Colo., Agric. Exp. Stn., Tech. Bull. 15.
Bellairs, R. 1961. The structure of the yolk of the hen’s egg as studied by electron microscopy. I. The yolk of the unincubated egg. J. Biophys Biochem Cytol. 11:207-225.
Briant, A. M. and A. R. Willman. 1956. Whole-egg spong cakes. J. Home Econ. 48:420-421.
Chang , C. M., W. D. Powrie, and O. Fennema. 1977. Studies on the gestation of egg yolk and plasma upon freezing and thawing. J. Food. Sci. 42:1658-1665.
Chang, C. M., W. D. Powrie, and O. Fennema. 1970. Disc gel electrophoresis of proteins in native and heat treated albumen, yolk and centrifuged whole egg. J Food Sci. 35(4):774-778.
Chapin, R. B.1951. Some factors affecting the emulsifying properties of hen’s egg. Ph. D. Dissertation, Iowa State Univ, Ames, Iowa.
Cherry, J. P.and K.H.McWatters. 1981. Whippability and aeration, p.149-196.In Protein Functionality in Foods. D. C. Washington,ed. American Chemical Society.
Chung, R. A. and L. K. Ferrier. 1995. Heat denaturation and emulsifying properties of egg yolk phosvitin. J. Food Sci. 60:906-908. 
Corran, J. W. and C. M. Lewis. 1924. Lecithin and cholesterol in relation to the physical nature of cell membranes. Biochem. J. 18:1364-1370.
Cotterill, O. J. and E. M. Funk. 1963. Effect of pH and lipase treatment on yolk-contaminated egg white. Food Technol. 17:1183-1188.
Cotterill, O. J., C. C. Chang, L. E. McBee, and H. Heymann. 1992. Metallic cations Affect functional performance of spray-dried heat-treated Egg White. J. Food Sci. 57:1321-1332.
Cotterill, O. J., F. E. Cunninigham, and E. M. Funk. 1963. Effect of chemical additives on yolk-contaminated liquid egg white. Poult. Sci. 42:1049-1057.
Cotterill, O. J., J. Glauert, and H. J. Bassett. 1976. Emulsifying properties of salted yolk after pasteurization and storage. Poult. Sci. 55:544-548.
Cotterill, O.J., F. E. Cunninigham, and E. M. Funk. 1965. Improving yolk-contaminated egg white by heat treatments. Poult. Sci. 44:228-235.
Cunningham, F. E. 1975. Influence of added lecithin on prope- rties of hen’s egg yolk. Poult. Sci. 54:1307-1308.
Cunningham, F. E. 1995. Egg product pasteurization. In: Egg Science and Technology. P254-260. W. J. Stadelman. ed. USA.
Cunningham, F. E. and H. Lineweaver. 1965. Stabilization of egg white proteins to pasteurizing temperatures above 60℃. Food Technol. 19:1142-1447.
Cunningham, F. E. and O. J. Cotterill. 1964. Effect of centrifuging yolk-contaminated liquid egg white on functional performance. Poult. Sci. 43:283-291.
FDA. 1996. Bacteriological Analytical Manual for Foods. U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington. D. C.
Fleming, A. 1922. On a remarkable bacteriolytic element found in tissues and secretions. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 93:306-317.
Forsythe, R. H. and D. H. Bergguist. 1951. The effect of physical treatments on some properties of egg white. Poult. Sci. 30:302-311.
Friberg, S. 1976. Emulsion stability. p2-11. In: Food Emulsions. S, Friberg, ed. New York.
Fujimaki, M., M. Yamashita, S. Arai, and H. Kato. 1970. Enzymetic modification of proteins in foodstuffs part I. enzymatic for preparing bland proteinlike substances. Agric. Biol. Chem. 34(9):1325-1332.
Garibaldi, J. A., J. W. Donovan, J. G. Davis, and S. L. Cimino. 1968. Heat denaturation of the ovomucin-lysozyme electrostatic complex: A source of damage to the whipping properties of pasteurized egg white. J. Food Sci. 33:514-524.
Giese, J. 1994. Ultrapasteurized liquid whole eggs earn 1994 IFT food technology industrial achievement award. Food Technol. 48(9):94-96.
Gilbert, A. B.1971. The egg: Its physical and chemical aspects. In“Physiology and Biochemistry of the Domestic Fowel”; Vol.3.p.1291. ed by Ball, D.J.and Freeman, B.M., Academic Press, New York.
Griswold, R.M.1962. The Experimental study of food. Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston, M.A.
Grunden, L. P., D. H. Vadehra, and R. C. Baker. 1974. Effects of proteolytic enzymes on the functionality of chicken egg albumen. J. Food. Sci. 39:834-841.
Halling, P. J. 1981. Protein-stabilized foams and emulsions. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 47:461-464.
Harrison, L. J. and F. E. Cunningham. 1986. Influence of salt on properties of liquid yolk and functionality in mayonnaise. Poult. Sci. 65:915-921.
Heath, J. L. 1975. Investigation of changes in yolk moisture. Poultry Sci. 54:2007-2013.
Henry, W. C. and A. D. Barbour. 1933. Beating properties of egg white. Ind. Eng. Chem. 25:1054-1058.
Ijichi, K., H. H. Palmer, and H. Lineweaver. 1970. Frozen eggs for scrambling. J. Food Sci. 35:695-698.
Jaax, S. and D. Travnick. 1968. The effect of pasteurization, selected additives and freezing rate on the gelation of frozen-defrosted egg yolk. Poult. Sci. 47:1013-1022.
Janssen, H. J. L. 1971. Influence of pasteurization, freezing and storage on properties of egg products made from eggs stored for 7 and for 28 days. J. Sci Food Agric. 22(9):491-495.
Kamat, V. B., G. A. Lawrence, M. D. Barratt, A. Dark, R.B. Leslie, G. G. Skipley, and J. M. Stubbs.1973. Physical studies of egg yolk low density lipoprotein. Chem. Phys. Lipids. 9:1-25.
Kato, A. and T. Takagi. 1987. Estimation of the molecular weight distribution of heat-induced ovalbumin aggregates by the low-angle laser light scattering technique combined with high-performance gel chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37:633-637.
Kewpie, K. K. 1970. Frozen whole egg products. Jap. Patent. 40260/70.
King, A. and L. N. Mukherjee. 1940. The stability of emulsions stabilized by hydrophilic colloids. Trans. Commun. 59:185-191.
King, A.1941. Some factors governing the stability of oil-in -water emulsions. Trans. Faracay Soc. 37:168-180.
Kitabatake, N., K. Indo, and E. Doi. 1988. Limited proteolysis of ovalbumin by pepsin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 36:417-420.
Kobayashi, T.,I. Kato, K. Ohmiya, and S. Shimizu.1980. Recovery of foam stability of yolk-contaminated egg white by immobilized lipase. Agric. Biol. Chem. 44:413-418.
Kraft, A. A., J.C. Ayres, R. H. Forsythe, and J. R. Schultz. 1967. Keeping quality of pasteurized liquid egg yolk. Poult. Sci. 46:1282.
Kuehler, C. A. and C. M. Stine. 1974. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on some functional properties of whey protein. J. Food Sci. 39:379-382.
Lee, W. C. and T. C. Chen. 2002. Functional characteristics of egg white solids obtained from papain treated albumen. J. Food. Eng. 51:263-266.
Lopez, A., C. R. Fellers, and W. D. Powrie. 1954. Some factors affecting the gelation of frozen egg yolk. J. Milk and Food Technol. 17:334-340.
Lowe, B.1955. Experimental Cookery, 4th ed. W. John and Sons Co., NY.USA.
MacDonnell L. R., Feeney R. E., Hanson, H. L., Campbell, A., and T.F. Sugihara. 1955. The functional properities of the egg white proteins. Food Technol. 9:49-53.
Marion, W. W. 1958. An investigation of the gelation of frozen egg yolk after thawing. Ph. D. Thesis, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN.
Martin, W. G., J. Augustyniak, and W. H. Cook. 1964. Fractionation and characterization of the low-density lipoproteins of hen’s egg yolk. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 84:714-726.
Mayes, E. J. and M. A. Takeballi. 1983. Microbial contamination of the hen’s egg: a review. J. Food Protect 46(12):1092-1098.
McCready, S. T. and O. J. Cotterill. 1972. Centrifuged liquid whole egg. 3. Functional performance of frozen supernatant and precipitate fractions. Poult. Sci. 51:877-881.
Meyer, D. D. and M. Woodburn. 1965. Gelation of frozen-defrosted egg yolk as affected by selected additives: Viscosity and electrophoretic findings. Poult. Sci. 44:437-446.
Moast, W. A. 1980. Classification of bacteria from commercial egg washers and washed and unwashed eggs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40(4):7100-7104.
Moast, W. A. 1981. Factors affecting bacterial loads on shells of commercially washing eggs. Poult. Sci. 60:2084-2090.
Nakamura, R. and Y. Sato. 1964. Studies on the foaming property of the chicken egg white. Part IX. On the coagulated protein under various whipping conditions (The mechanism of foaminess). Agr. Biol. Chem. 28:524-529.
Nakamura, R.1963. Studies on the foaming property of chicken egg white. Part VI. Spread monolayer of the protein in fraction of the chicken egg white. Agric Biol. Chem. 27:427-430.
Palmer, H. H., K. Ijichi, and H. Roff. 1970. Partial thermal reversal of gelation in thawed egg yolk products. J. Food. Sci. 35:403-406.
Palmer, H. H., K. Ijichi, H. Roff and S. Redfern. 1969b. Sugared egg yolk: Effects of pasteurization and freezing on preformation and viscocity. Food Technol. 23:1581-1604.
Palmer, H. H., K. Ijichi, S. L. Cimino and H. Roff. 1969a. Salted egg yolks. 1. Viscosity and performance of pasteurized and frozen samples. Food Technol. 23:1486-1488.
Pankey, R. D. and W. J. Stadelman. 1969. Effect of dietary fats on some chemical and functional properties of eggs. J. Food Sci. 34:312-317.
Pearce, J. A. and C. G. Lavers. 1949. Liquid and frozen egg. V. Viscosity, baking quality and other measurements on frozen egg products. Can. J. Res. Food 27:231-240.
Peel, B. 1976. Occurrence of Salmonella in raw pasteurized liquid whole egg. Qeensl. J. Agric. Anim. Sci. 33(1):13-21.
Powrie, W. D. and S.Nakai. 1986. The chemistry of eggs and egg products. In”Egg Science and Technology”, 3rd, W.J. Stadelman and O.J. Cotterill, ed. AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, CT.
Powrie, W. D. and S.Nakai. 1995. The chemistry of eggs products. In”Egg Science and Technology”, 4th W.J. Stadelman and O.J. Cotterill, ed. New York.
Powrie, W. D., H. Little, and A. Lopez. 1963. Gelation of egg yolk. J. Food Sci. 28:38-46.
Quaglia, G. B. and E. Orban. 1987. Enzymatic solubilisation of proteins of sardine (Sardina pilichardus) by commercial proteases. J. Sci. Food Agric. 38:263-269.
Quaglia, G. B. and E. Orban. 1990. Influence of emzymatic hydrolysis on structure and emulsitying properties of (Sardina pilichardus) protein hydrolysates. J. Food Sci. 55(6):1571-1573,1619.
Rebeca, B. D., M. T. Pena-Vera, and M. Diaz-Castaneda. 1991. Production of fish protein hydrolysates with bacterial proteases; yield and nutritional value. J. Food Sci. 56(2):309-314.
Regenstein, J. M., L. P. Grunden, and R. C. Baker. 1978. Proteolytic enzymes and the functionality of chicken egg albumen. J. Food. Sci. 43:297-280.
Rose, D., N. T. Gridgeman, and D. A. Fletcher. 1966. Solids content of eggs. Poult. Sci. 45:221-226.
Sato, Y. and T. Aoki. 1975. Influence of various salts on gelation of low density lipoprotein (egg yolk) during its freezing and thawing. Agric. Biol. Chem. 39(1):29-35.
Sato, Y. and Y. Takagaki. 1976. Influnce of thawing rate aging temperature on viscosity of freezing-thawed yolk and low density lipoprotein. Agric. Biol. Chem. 40:49-55.
Schade, A. L. and L. Caroline.1944. Raw hen egg white and the role of iron in growth inhibition of Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sci. 100: 14-15.
Schultz, J. R., H. E. Snyder, and R. H. Forsythe.1966. Interactions of carbohydrates with egg lipoproteins. Poult. Sci. 45:1122-1126.
Seideman, W. C., O. J. Cotterill, and E. M. Funk, 1963. Factors affecting heat coagulation of egg white. Poult. Sci. 43:406-417.
Sell, H.M., A.G. Olsen, and R.E. Kremers.1935. Lecithoprotein: The emulsifying ingredient in egg yolk. Ind. Eng.Chem. 27: 1222-1223.
Shafi, R., O. J. Cotterill, and M. L. Nichols. 1970. Microbial flora of commercially pasteurized egg products. Poult. Sci. 2:579-585.
Sheldon, B. W. and J. D. Schuman. 1996. Thermal and biological treatments to control psychrotrophic pathogens. Poult. Sci. 75:1126-1132.
Sleigh, R., R. Hosken, M. B. Smith, and E. O. P. Thompson. 1969. Chemical characterization of a non-covalently linked peptide from plakalbumin. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 22:239-249.
Smith, C.F.1959. Shell egg deterioration. Diffusion of yolk lipids into albumen as the natural cause of failure in performance. Poult. Sci. 38:181-192.
Sugihara, T. F., K. Ijichi, and L. Kline. 1966. Heat pasteurization of liquid whole egg. Food Technol. 20:1076-1983.
Thomas, A. W. and M. I. Bailey. 1933. Gelation of frozen egg magma. Ind. Eng. Chem. 25:669-674.
Townsend, A. and S. Nakai.1983. Relationship between hydrophobicity and foaming characteristics of protein. J. Food Sci. 48:588-594.
Tsai, L. C. and C. A. Hudson.1985. Functional properties of egg white concentrated by ultrafiltration. Poult. Sci. 64:1494-1498.
Varadarajulu, P. and F. E. Cunningham.1972. A study of selected characteristics of hen’s yolk. I. Influence of albumen and selected additives. Poult. Sci. 51:542-546.
Wakamatu, T. Y., Y. Sato, and Y. Saito. 1983. On sodium chloride action in the gelation process of low density lipoprotein (LDL) from hen egg yolk. J. Food Sci. 48:501-512.
Wong, Y. C., T. J. Herald, and K. A. Hachmeister. Comparison between irradiation and thermally pasteurized liquid egg white on functional, physica, and microbiological properties. Poult. Sci. 75:803-808.
Yamamoto, A. 1975. Proteolytic enzymes. In: Enzymes in Food Processing. 2nd, G. Reed (Editor). Food Science and Technology. A. Series of Monographs.
Yeadon, D. A., L. A. Goldblatt, and A. M. Altschul.1958. Lecithin in oil-in-water emulsions. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc 35:435-438.
York, L. R. and L. E. Dawson. 1973. Self life of pasteurized liquid whole egg. Poult. Sci. 52:1657-1658.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top