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研究生:劉碧琴
研究生(外文):Pi-Chin Liu
論文名稱:心情狀態對決策捷思的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Mood States on Decision Heuristics
指導教授:楊仁壽楊仁壽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jen-Shou Yang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:管理研究所博士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:181
中文關鍵詞:可獲性捷思價性取向認知評價傾向認知處理策略定錨與調整捷思
外文關鍵詞:valence-based approachesavailability heuristicsanchoring and adjustment heuristicscognitive processes strategiescognitive appraisals tendency
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
  • 點閱點閱:470
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
當人們在不確定情境下進行判斷與決策時,往往以「比較」的方式或依「容易回想」的資訊來進行捷思判斷,故本研究以捷思為研究主題,探討心情對捷思的影響。為了解答這個問題,本研究嘗試從心情的價性取向(valence-based approaches)與認知評價傾向(cognitive appraisals tendency)出發,來進行心情與捷思間假說的推論,並透過兩個研究驗證假設。
研究一包含三個實驗,第一與第二個實驗乃針對不同心情引發方式進行測試,藉以驗證心情引發方式的有效性。第三個實驗則以人力資源領域的「留才」為主題,設計任務驗證心情對定錨效果的調節作用。實驗結果發現:(1)就「回想」與「閱讀情境故事」兩種心情引發的方法而言,「閱讀情境故事」的效果較佳;(2)在留職人數的判斷上存在定錨現象,在高定錨下判斷的留職人數高於低定錨下判斷的人數;(3)從價性取向來看,正負面心情對定錨效果無調節作用;(4)從認知評價取向來看,確定與不確定心情對定錨效果無調節作用;(5)生氣在低定錨時比焦慮有較低的定錨現象,在高定錨時則有較高的定錨現象。
研究二則以人力資源領域中的「選才」為背景,以「選任秘書」作為任務,在提供八項關於應徵者的描述後,要求受測者進行回想並判斷該應徵者的錄取機率。研究結果發現:(1)正負面心情對錄取機率的判斷無顯著差異;(2)確定與不確定心情對錄取機率有顯著差異;(3)正面確定與負面確定資訊的回想數目會影響確定與不確定心情下的錄取機率,回想的正面確定資訊多、負面確定資訊少,則錄取機率高。最後,本研究針對實驗結果進行理論意涵、實務意涵與未來研究方向之討論。
When people make a judgment or decision under some uncertain situations, they usually rely on comparisons or the easily recalled information to construct their evaluation. This research chooses heuristics as theme to explore what and how mood states influences decision heuristics. This research’s purpose is to apply and extend the framework of valence-based approaches and cognitive appraisals tendency in order to infer, validate and draw affective influence on heuristics.
This research includes two studies. The first one includes three experiments, the first and second experiments are focused on different methods to produce different moods which are proven to be effective. The third experiment is adopted a retain talent task to examine that how moods will adjust the anchoring effects. The results show that: (1) we compare two methods of manipulating moods and then find that reading and projecting themselves into a hypothetical situation is more effective than recalling imagining a time when they had experienced the target mood. (2) Anchoring effects has been observed in the retain talent task. High anchors lead to higher absolute estimates than low anchors. (3) From the valence-based approaches, positive or negative moods don’t adjust anchoring effects. (4) From the cognitive appraisal tendency, certain or uncertain moods don’t adjust anchoring effects. (5) Anger has a lower anchoring effect in a low anchor and a higher anchoring effect in a high anchor than anxiety.
In the second study, we adopt a selection of one secretary in human resource management as a task. We supply eight descriptions of an applicant and then ask participants to recall the descriptions and judge the percentage of this applicant’s recruitment. After analyzing of the result, we find that: (1) positive moods and negative moods don’t influence the percentage of the applicant’s recruitment. (2) Certain moods and uncertain moods influence the percentage of the applicant’s recruitment. (3) The recall number on positive-certain information or negative-certain information will influence the percentage, the high recall number on positive-certain information and the low recall number on negative-certain information will lead to the high percentage of this applicant’s recriuitment. Finally, this research discusses the implications of theory, practice and future research.
目 錄
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅱ
誌謝 Ⅲ
目錄 Ⅳ
表目錄 Ⅵ
圖目錄 Ⅷ
一、緒論 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的 3
二、理論基礎與研究假說 4
2.1情感 4
2.1.1情感的相關名詞定義 5
2.1.2心情效果的傳統研究 6
2.1.3心情效果的現代認知理論 7
2.1.4心情理論的反思 15
2.1.5心情在判斷與決策上的實驗典範 18
2.2決策捷思 24
2.2.1捷思與風險承擔的分野 24
2.2.2代表性捷思 25
2.2.3定錨與調整捷思 26
2.2.4可獲性捷思 35
2.3心情狀態對捷思的影響 45
2.3.1心情狀態與認知策略 47
2.3.2心情狀態及定錨與調整捷思 49
2.3.3心情狀態與可獲性捷思 51
三、研究一:心情狀態與定錨效果 56
3.1前言 56
3.2 研究方法 56
3.2.1研究設計 56
3.2.2受試者 57
3.2.3 研究工具 59
3.2.4 研究程序 64
3.3 分析與結果 70
3.3.1回想法心情操控效果檢定 70
3.3.2情境故事法心情操控效果檢定 74
3.3.3留職機率與各背景變數之相關分析結果 77
3.3.4心情狀態與定錨效果間假設驗證 79
3.4 討論 86
四、研究二:心情狀態與可獲性捷思 90
4.1前言 90
4.2 研究方法 90
4.2.1研究設計 90
4.2.2受試者 91
4.2.3 研究工具 92
4.2.4 研究程序 96
4.3 分析與結果 99
4.3.1相關分析結果 99
4.3.2各群受測者的情緒智力、外向性與神經質人格差異 104
4.3.3心情狀態與資訊回想之假說驗證 105
4.3.4心情狀態與錄取機率之假說驗證 107
4.3.5 心情狀態與可獲性捷思之驗證 109
4.4 討論 115

五、綜合討論 118
5.1理論貢獻 118
5.2研究方法上的貢獻 119
5.3實務貢獻 120
5.4研究限制與未來研究建議 121
參考文獻 123
附錄一 情緒智力與人格量表 141
附錄二 自我評估任務內容 146
附錄三 記憶力任務內容 148
附錄四 同理心任務內容 152
附錄五 定錨與調整捷思實驗內容 156
附錄六 可獲性捷思實驗內容 162
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