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研究生:程鴻傑
研究生(外文):Hung-Chieh Cheng
論文名稱:戶外教育活動之經驗銘印效果及其深遠影響
論文名稱(外文):The Imprinting Effect and Long-term Influences on Outdoor Education for Junior High School Students
指導教授:游士正游士正引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-Ceng,Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:休閒運動研究所碩士班
學門:民生學門
學類:運動休閒及休閒管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:147
中文關鍵詞:戶外教育銘印效果體驗學習圈
外文關鍵詞:Imprintingexperiential learning cycleoutdoor education
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:12
  • 點閱點閱:846
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  • 下載下載:242
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:10
本研究主要目的在於了解戶外教育活動對參與者所產生的影響。筆者經由十多年之間的參與和觀察,發現雲林縣正心中學非常重視學生的戶外教育活動,基於學校行政者和教師大力的支持,學生透過各種精心設計的活動,從實務操作、親身體驗、學習圈的反覆運作,似乎將某些經驗和價值予以內化,因而產生了深遠的影響。
長久以來,戶外教育活動即被當成中學教育中另一股重要的影響力,只是在台灣當前重視升學及紙筆測驗的氛圍下,戶外教育活動漸有被忽略的傾向。然而筆者在籌辦正心中學的華山露營活動過程中,發現華山露營活動的過程,必定隱藏了某些價值,才使得學生在歷經多年之後,仍然記憶深刻。例如筆者觀察到,在每一年正心中學的華山露營活動中,總會有畢業的學長姊,回到營地探視師長並重溫舊夢。再者,與一些資深校友的聚會中得知,華山露營總是經常被提及並引起熱烈討論,記憶絲毫不因年代久遠而褪淡,反而歷歷在目、栩栩如生。筆者與其討論中所提及的經驗與歷程,如第一次炊事煮飯的成就感、夜間教育的緊張刺激、登山活動過程中的痛苦與登頂後居高臨下的征服感等等,無不令人震驚,這些記憶與感覺,何以能如此深刻且歷久彌新?於是,筆者想要了解,何以一個持續時間長達四十年的露營活動,究竟對學生造成了何種影響。
研究過程,主要採用質性的研究方法,先從最近一屆參加華山露營活動的學生開始,透過實地觀察法、開放性問卷、結構性訪談等方式,搜集在校學生的經驗內容。希望可以理出何者是學生當下最深刻的記憶。透過逐字稿、訪談內容分析、與照片和攝影內容相對照等方法,歸納出41種最明顯且有意義的經驗內容。
進一步以每隔三至五年為一個週期,從校友資料中搜尋有意願接受訪談者,暢談他們當年參與華山露營活動的種種經歷。並以錄音、結構性問卷、文件整理、編碼等方式,將畢業校友之經驗內容予以分析之。接受訪談的校友中,距離現今之畢業時間約可分成5年、10年、15年、20年、25年、30年,共18名(男性10名,女性8名)。所有分析之結果,則以三角校正的方法,進行信度之考驗。經由不同研究者之詮釋,獲得一致性較高的看法,以取得適當的可信度。
結果發現,不管是最近參與露營活動的在校學生,或是畢業多年的校友們,對於露營活動的體驗,仍是以自我概念的深化、和生活效能的提升為最顯著。這方面與Neill(2000)之報告相符,在生活效能的九個面向上(時間管理、社交能力、成就動機、智能靈活、工作領導能力、情緒控制、主動積極性、自信心、制握信念)皆有明顯的感應或體驗。
除此之外,尚有部份經驗是理論上無法解釋者,例如第一次離家過夜、第一次和同學同寢、如何克服夜間教育的恐懼、第一次連續三天不洗澡、第一次吃自己煮的飯、第一次克服自己體能上的極限登頂(雲林縣大尖山),這些第一次的體驗,即使經過數十寒暑,仍然記憶猶新,從畢業校友的訪談結果即可印證此事。這些現象以訊息處理理論、記憶理論等,並不足以解釋之,故筆者乃借用勞倫斯(1937)的觀點,及其他學者的研究發現,將這種第一次參與華山露營活動,且影響一個人最深刻的經驗,名之為「銘印效果」。
研究中另外發現,戶外教育活動的環境倫理教育功能,與學校組織文化對戶外教育活動所產生的潛在課程影響力量,實可留待後續研究者長期追蹤探討之。
The main purpose of the research is to understand how activities of outdoor education affect the participants. Through ten-year participation and observation, it is found that Sacred Hearts High School in Yun-lin County puts much emphasis on activities of outdoor education for students with the strong support of administrators and teachers. Students internalize some experiences as well as values and are greatly influenced through various kinds of well-designed activities ranging from hands-on experiences to repeated operation of learning cycle.
Activities of outdoor education have been long regarded as an important part in high school education but nowadays they are gradually ignored in the grade-oriented Taiwan society. However, in organizing and planning the Hwa Mountain camping of Sacred Hearts High school, it is found that there must be some values behind the activity and thus many students are still impressed with the activity afterwards. For example, during the camping every year, many alumna and alumnus will come to the campsite to visit teachers and enjoy the pleasure of recollection. Moreover, in the alumnus reunion, Hwa Mountain camping is usually the subject of conversation and vigorously discussed. The memories are so vivid and never fade away with times. To better understand the value of the activity, the research is done to discover how the camping, which has been held for 40 years, influences the students.
The research, done by Qualitative Research, first targets the latest participants of Hwa Mountain camping in 2006. Through observation, interview, and open questionnaire, related materials are collected and some impressive memories can be found. Through literal accounts , analysis of the interview, pictures and comparison, 41 obvious and meaningful experiences can be concluded.
To go further, based on the cycle of every three or five years, find the interviewees from the alumna and alumnus to talk about their experiences of the camping. By recording, questionnaire, filing, numbering, their experiences are analyzed. All the results of the analysis are tested by triangulation. From different interpretation of the interviewees and highly unanimous viewpoints, proper validity can be gained.
The research results show that the remarkable influence caused by the activity on participants nowadays or alumna is the reinforcement of self-concept and the enhancement of life effectiveness, which accords with Neill’s report in 2000 ( Life Effectiveness, Time Management, Social Competence, Achievement Motivation, Intellectual Flexibility, Task Leadership, Emotional Control, Active Initiative, Self Confidence, Locus of Control). In addition, some experiences are unexplained in theory, such as staying out of home for the night, sleeping with classmates for the first time, how to conquer the fear for night education, taking no shower for three days, eating the meal fixed on their own and reaching the hilltop for the first time. As time passes, these first-time experiences are still fresh, which cannot be clearly explained by information-processing theory and memory theory. According to Lorenz’s viewpoints, the first participation in the camping, the most impressive experience is called imprinting.
The research also shows that both educational function of environmental ethics and the effect of organizational culture on outdoor education are left for later researchers to do a long-term exploration.
中文摘要 ………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………………iii
誌謝 ……………………………………………………………v
目錄 ………………………………………………………………vi
表目錄 ………………………………………………………………viii
圖目錄 ………………………………………………………………ix
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究動機…………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的…………………………………………………………3
第三節 研究問題…………………………………………………………4
第四節 研究範圍…………………………………………………………4
第五節 研究限制…………………………………………………………4
第六節 名詞解釋…………………………………………………………5
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………………………7
第一節 戶外教育活動的定義與發展…………………………………7
第二節 戶外教育活動之相關理論……………………………………11
第三節 自我概念與生活效能之探討……………………………………36
第四節 戶外教育活動相關實證研究……………………………………45
第五節 正心中學與華山露營活動………………………………………51
第三章 研究方法………………………………………………………54
第一節 研究架構………………………………………………………54
第二節 研究對象………………………………………………………55
第三節 研究流程………………………………………………………56
第四節 研究方法………………………………………………………57
第五節 資料分析……………………………………………………59
第四章 研究結果分析與討論………………………………………61
第一節 華山露營過程描述……………………………………………61
第二節 華山露營之經驗內容…………………………………………72
第三節 思考、反省與對話……………………………………………92
第四節 結果的浮現……………………………………………………102
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………112
第一節 結論…………………………………………………………112
第二節 建議…………………………………………………………115

參考文獻 ……………………………………………………………117
附錄一 ………………………………………………………………126
附錄二 ……………………………………………………………127
附錄三 ………………………………………………………………128
附錄四 ………………………………………………………………129
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