跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(18.204.48.69) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/28 00:05
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:黃桂蓮
研究生(外文):Huang Kuei Lien
論文名稱:從腦部電腦斷層影像探討大腦動脈硬化與腦中風相關性
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship between Stroke and Cerebral Arteriosclerosis Evidenced by Computed Tomography
指導教授:王愛義王愛義引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang Ai Yi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元培科學技術學院
系所名稱:影像醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學技術及檢驗學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:大腦動脈硬化高血壓腔洞梗塞糖尿病
外文關鍵詞:cerebral arteriosclerosishypertensionlacunar infarctiondiabetes mellitus
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:341
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:109
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
摘 要
大腦動脈硬化是造成缺血性中風重要原因,腦中風有百分之八十是屬於缺血性中風。根據文獻研究大腦動脈硬化與腦中風預後與死亡率有顯著關係。本研究的目的,利用電腦斷層掃描大腦影像所呈現大腦動脈硬化徵兆來評估相關危險因子以及與腦中風的相關性,藉以了解危險因子與大腦動脈硬化症相關性而給予適當預防處理。自民國九十四年十一月一日至民國九十五年三月三十一日間,蒐集臺北榮民總醫院放射線部進行腦部電腦斷層掃描病患共1837位,平均年齡為66.28,年齡層分佈從二十歲到九十八歲。依據電腦斷層結果將他們分成7個類型,包括顱內出血、腦梗塞、腔洞梗塞、動脈硬化、血管鈣化、腦血管中風和腦組織萎縮。影響大腦動脈硬化相關因子分5種,其中糖尿病患者有384人,高血壓有872人,心臟冠狀動脈疾病有236人,高血脂症有159人,心房顫動有81人。大腦動脈硬化佔樣本的25.5%,其中伴隨糖尿病、高血壓、心臟冠狀動脈疾病、心房顫動和高血脂症各自有30.3%、66.5%、16.5%、9.0%及9.0%。依據資料分析顯示年齡老化、高血壓和糖尿病(OR分別為9.657,2.853和2.029;P<0.001)與大腦動脈硬化有顯著相關性。因此,預防與控制高血壓以及糖尿病發生,可以降低大腦動脈硬化症發生率,對改善缺血性腦中風的預後與治療是十分重要的。

關鍵詞:大腦動脈硬化,高血壓,腔洞梗塞 ,糖尿病
Abstract
The cerebral arteriosclerosis is the leading cause of ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke was approximately 80% in the stroke. In the previous studies shown that the cerebral arteriosclerosis has significant relationship with prognosis and mortality rate of stroke. The purpose of this using the computed tomography (CT) image of cerebral arteriosclerosis is to evaluate the correlation risk factor of cerebral arteriosclerosis, the relationship between stroke and giving appropriate prevention processing. This was a retrospective observational study of all patients who took brain computed tomography in Taipei Veterans General hospital from November 2005 to March 2006. One thousand eight hundred and thirty seven patients with a mean age of 66.28 years (20 to 98) were recruited into the study. From the results of CT image there are seven type of disease can be divided, namely, intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, lacunar infarction, the arteriosclerosis, calcification of blood vessel, old cerebrovascular accident and brain tissue atrophy, respectively. Five risk factors for the cerebral arteriosclerosis include diabetes (384 cases), hypertension (872 cases), the heart coronary artery disease (236 cases), hyperlipidemia (159 cases) and atrial fibrillation (81cases). The ratio of the cerebral arteriosclerosis was 25.5% in all patients; it suffers from diabetes (30.3%), hypertension (66.5%), the heart disease (16.5%), atrial fibrillation (9.0) and hyperlipidemia (9.0%). From the results show that the development of cerebral arteriosclerosis correlates significantly with ageing (OR=9.657; p<0.001), hypertension (OR= 2.583; p<0.001) and diabetes (OR= 2.029; p<0.001). For improving the prognosis and treatment of ischemic stroke, it is important to reduce the incidence of arteriosclerosis by diminishing the incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
Key words: cerebral arteriosclerosis .hypertension.lacunar infarction .diabetes mellitus
目錄
誌謝..........................................................Ⅰ
中文摘要......................................................Ⅱ
英文摘要......................................................Ⅲ
目錄..........................................................Ⅳ
圖目錄........................................................Ⅸ
表目錄........................................................ XI
第一章 緒論…………………….....................................................................1
1.1前言...............................................1
1.2 動脈硬化..........................................1
1.2.1 動脈粥樣硬化臨床意義........................2
1.2.2 疾病流行學..................................3
1.2.3 形態學......................................4
1.2.3.1 脂肪斑紋..............................5
1.2.3.2 動脈粥狀硬化斑塊......................6
1.2.4 致病機轉....................................9
1.2.4.1 脂質浸潤理論..........................9
1.2.4.2 血栓生成理論..........................10
1.2.4.3 損傷反應假說..........................10
1.3 腦中風............................................18
1.3.1 腦梗塞......................................18
1.3.1.1 血栓性................................19
1.3.1.2 栓塞性................................19
1.3.1.3 腔洞梗塞..............................20
1.3.2 顱內出血....................................20
1.4 研究動機與目的....................................21
第二章 文獻回顧.............................................................................................24
2.1動脈硬化危險因子...................................24
2.1.1年齡增長.....................................24
2.1.2男性性別.....................................24
2.1.3 遺傳........................................25
2.1.4 糖尿病或者葡萄糖耐受不良....................25
2.1.5 高脂血症....................................25
2.1.6 抽煙........................................27
2.1.7 高血壓......................................27
2.1.8 肥胖........................................28
2.1.9 生活模式....................................28
2.1.10 血中尿酸的濃度.............................31
2.1.11 血中同半胱胺酸的濃度.......................31
2.1.12 慢性發炎...................................31
2.2 腦中風............................................35
2.2.1 高血壓......................................35
2.2.2 心血管病....................................35
2.2.3 糖尿病和血糖濃度............................36
2.2.4 血脂異常....................................36
2.2.5 急性腦血管病史..............................37
2.2.6 吸煙........................................37
2.2.7 飲酒........................................40
2.2.8 妊娠和避孕藥................................42
2.2.9 脂肪酸......................................42
2.2.10 抗心肌磷脂抗體.............................43
2.2.11 同半胱氨酸血症.............................43
2.2.12 感染.......................................43
2.2.13 地理分佈和種族.............................43
2.2.14 藥物.......................................43
2.2.15 放射性及放射性物質.........................44
第三章 研究方法.............................................................................................46
3.1病例選擇...........................................46
3.2 電腦斷層影像......................................46
3.2.1 舊腦血管中風................................46
3.2.2 顱內出血....................................46
3.2.3 腦梗塞......................................48
3.2.4 腔洞梗塞....................................48
3.2.5 血管鈣化....................................48
3.2.6 動脈硬化....................................48
3.2.7 腦組織萎縮..................................49
3.3 相關疾病..........................................52
3.3.1 糖尿病......................................52
3.3.2 高血壓......................................53
3.3.3 冠狀動脈心臟疾病............................53
3.3.4 高血脂症....................................53
3.3.5 心房顫動....................................54
3.3.6 癡呆症......................................55
3.4 統計分析..........................................56
3.4.1 卡方檢定....................................56
3.4.2 邏輯性迴歸分析..............................57
第四章 研究結果.............................................................................................58
4.1.1 影響大腦動脈硬化之相關危險因子..............58
4.1.1.1 年齡..................................58
4.1.1.2 性別..................................59
4.1.1.3 高血壓................................59
4.1.1.4 糖尿病................................59
4.1.1.5 心臟冠狀動脈疾病......................59
4.1.1.6 心房顫動..............................60
4.1.1.7 高脂血症..............................60
4.1.1.8 痴呆症................................60
4.1.2 危險因子之單變項分析........................60
4.1.3 危險因子多變項分析..........................61
4.2.1 大腦動脈硬化與腦中風形態之相關性............61
4.2.1.1 顱內出血..............................61
4.2.1.2 腦梗塞................................61
4.2.1.3 舊的腦中風............................61
4.2.1.4 腔洞梗塞..............................62
4.2.2 大腦動脈硬化與相關形態中風之單變項分析......62
4.2.3 大腦動脈硬化與血管鈣化之相關性..............62
4.2.4 大腦動脈硬化與腦組織萎縮之相關性............62
第五章 討論.....................................................................................................68
5.1 結論..............................................68
5.2 未來研究方向......................................69
第六章 參考文獻...............................................................................................70
1.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monckeberg%27s_arteriosclerosis.
2.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arteriolosclerosis.
3.曾鴻熙,盧俊維(1991) 血管系統 於陳永泰,陳建中,林昇鋒等編譯,病理學,361-373 台北,合記。
4.曾嶔元﹝2005﹞ 血管 於曾嶔元,曾岐元,王國忠等編譯,Robbins病理學-疾病的基礎,498-510 台北,合記。
5.Goldman L and Cook EF. The Decline in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality Rates. An Analysis of the Comparative Effects of Medical Interventions and Changes in Lifestyle. Ann Intern Med. 1984; 101(6): 825-836.
6.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endothelium.
7.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophage.
8.Stary HC, Chandler AB, Dinsmore RE, Fuster V, Glagov S, Insull W, Rosenfeld ME, Schwartz CJ, Wagner WD and Wissler RW. A Definition of Advanced Types of Atherosclerotic Lesions and a Histological Classification of Atherosclerosis. Circulation. 1995; 92: 1355-1374.
9.Libby P. Current Concepts of the Pathogenesis of the Acute Coronary Syndromes. Circulation. 2001; 104: 365-372.
10.Gotto AM. Cholesterol Management in Theory and Practice. Circulation. 1997; 96(12): 4424-4430.
11.Li AC, Glass CK. The macrophage foam cell as a target for therapeutic intervention. Nature Medicine. 2002; 8: 1235-1242.
12.Libby P. Inflammation in Atherosclerosis. Nature.2002; 420: 868-874.
13.Wardlaw JM and Farrall AJ. Diagnosis of Stroke on Neuroimaging. BMJ 2004; 328: 655-656.
14.Hsu LH, Hu HH, Chang CC, Sheng WY, Wang SJ, Wong WJ. Comparison of Risk Factors for Lacunar Infarcts and Other Stroke Subtypes. Chin Med J. (Taipei) 1997; 59:225-31.
15.Thein SS, Hamidon BB, Teh HS, Rasymond AA. Leukoaraiosis as a predictor for mortality and morbidity after an acute ischaemic stroke. Singapore Med J. 2007 May; 48(5):396-9.
16.http://ww2.heartandstroke.ca/Page.asp?PageID=1965&ArticleID=5068&Src=stroke&From=SubCategory
17.McMahan CA, Gidding SS, Malcom GT, Tracy RE, Strong JP, McGill HC and Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth Research Group. Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth Risk Scores Are Associated with Early and Advanced Atherosclerosis. Pediatrics. 2006; 118(4): 1447-55.
18.Strong JP. The Nature History of Atherosclerosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991; 623: 9-15.
19.Grodstein F, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. Postmenopausal Estrogen and Progestin Use and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 645-650.
20.Lieberman EH, Gerhard MD, Uehata A, Walsh BW, Selwyn AP, Ganz P, Yeung AC and Creager MA. Estrogen Improves Endothelium-Dependent, Flow-Mediated Vasodilation in Postmenopausal Women. Ann Intern Med. 1994; 121(12): 936-941.
21.Lloyd-Jones DM, Leip EP, Larson MG, Agostino RBD, Beiser A, Wilson RWF, Wolf PA and Levy D. Prediction of lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease by risk factor burden at 50 years of age. Circulation. 2006; 113: 791-798.
22.Kaste M and Koivisto P. Risk of Brain Infarction in Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Stroke. 1988; 19: 1097 – 1100
23.Kanaya AM, Grady D and Barrett-Connor E. Explaining the Sex Difference in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162(15):1737-45.
24.Barrett-Connor EL, Cohn BA, Wingard DL and Edelstein SL. Why is Diabetes Mellitus a Stronger Risk Factor for Fatal Ischemic Heart Disease in Women than in Men? The Rancho Bernardo Study. JAMA. 1991; 265(5): 627-631.
25.Barrett-Connor E, Wingard DL. Sex Differential in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality in Diabetics: a Prospective Population-based Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1983; 118(4): 489-496.
26.Natali A, Vichi S, Landi P, Severi S, L'Abbate A and Ferrannini E. Coronary Atherosclerosis in Type II Diabetes: Angiographic Findings and Clinical Outcome. Diabetologia. 2000; 43(5): 632-641.
27.Steinberg D. Oxidative Modification of LDL and Atherogenesis. Circulation 1997; 95: 1062-1071.
28.Dammerman M and Breslow JL. Genetic Basis of Lipoprotein Disorders. Circulation 1995; 91: 505-512.
29.Kuivenhoven JA, Jukema JW, Zwinderman AH, de Knijff P, McPherson R, Bruschke AV, Lie KI and Kastelein JJ. The Role of a Common Variant of the Cholesteryl EsterTransfer Protein Gene in the Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis. The Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338(2): 86-93.
30.Lee RG, Kelley KL, Sawyer JK, Farese RV, Parks JS and Rudel LL. Plasma Cholesteryl Esters Provided by Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase and Acyl-coenzyme a: Cholesterol Acyltransferase 2 Have Opposite Atherosclerotic Potential. Circ Res. 2004; 95(10): 998-1004.
31.Bell TA, Brown JM, Graham MJ, Lemonidis KM, Crooke RM and Rudel LL. Liver-specific Inhibition of Acyl-coenzyme a: Cholesterol Acyltransferase 2 with Antisense Oligonucleotides Limits Atherosclerosis Development in Apolipoprotein B100-only Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-/- mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006; 26(8):1814-20.
32.Nordestgaard BG, Stender S, Kjeldsen K. Reduced Atherogenesis in Cholesterol-fed Diabetic Rabbits. Arteriosclerosis. 1988; 8(4): 421-428.
33.Nordestgaard BG, Zilversmit DB. Large Lipoproteins Are Excluded from the Arterial Wall in Diabetic Cholesterol-fed Rabbits. J Lipid Res. 1988; 29(11):1491-1500.
34.Nordestgaard BG, Benn M, Schnohr P and Tybjaerg-Hansen A. Nonfasting Triglycerides and Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Ischemic Heart Disease, and Death in Men and Women. JAMA. 2007; 298(3): 299-308.
35.Thun MJ, Peto R, Lopez AD, Monaco JH, Henley SJ, Heath CW and Doll R. Alcohol Consumption and Mortality among Middle-aged and Elderly U.S. Adults. N Engl J Med. 1997; 337(24):1705-1714.
36.Rifkind BM. Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial: Results and Implications. Am J Cardiol. 1984; 54(5): 30C-34C.
37.Gomez HJ, Cirillo VJ, Sromovsky JA, Otterbein ES, Shaw WC, Rush JE, Chrysant SG, Gradman AH, Leon AS and MacCarthy EP. Lisinopril Dose-response Relationship in Essential Hypertension. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1989; 28(4): 415-420.
38.Pietrzak-Nowacka M, Safranow K, Rulkowska H, Brzosko M, Domański L, Dutkiewicz G, Ławniczak M, Płońska E, Szmatłoch E. Retrospective Analysis of the RiskFfactors in Patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease Hospitalized in the Years 1983-1992. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2006; 52(2): 71-77.
39.Wassertheil-Smoller S, Psaty B, Greenland P, Oberman A, Kotchen T, Mouton C, Black H, Aragaki A and Trevisan M. Association between Cardiovascular Outcomes and Antihypertensive DrugTreatment in Older Women. JAMA. 2004; 292(23): 2849-59.
40.Skoog I, Lernfelt B, Landahl S, Palmertz B, Andreasson LA, Nilsson L, Persson G, Oden A and Svanborg A. 15-year Longitudinal Study of Blood Pressure and Dementia. Lancet. 1996; 347: 1141–1145.
41.Waldstein SR, Giggey PP, Thayer JF and Zonderman AB. Nonlinear Relations of Blood Pressure to Cognitive Function. Hypertension. 2005; 45: 374–379.
42.Honig LS, Tang MX, Albert S, Costa R, Luchsinger J, Manly J, Stern Y and Mayeux R. Stroke and The Risk of Alzheimer Disease. Arch Neurol. 2003; 60: 1707–1712.
43.Harrington F, Saxby BK, McKeith IG, Wesnes K and Ford GA. Cognitive Performance in Hypertensive and Normotensive Older Subjects. Hypertension. 2000; 36: 1079–1082.
44.Kilander L, Nyman H, Boberg M, Hansson L and Lithell H. Hypertension Is Related to Cognitive Impairment. Hypertension. 1998; 31: 780–786.
45.Forette F, Seux ML, Staessen JA, Thijs L, Birkenhager WH, Babarskiene MR, Babeanu S, Bossini A, Gil-Extremera B, Girerd X, Laks T, Lilov E, Moisseyev V, Tuomilehto J, Vanhanen H, Webster J, Yodfat Y and Fagard R. Prevention of Dementia in Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial. Lancet. 1998; 352: 1347–1351.
46.Applegate WB, Pressel S, Wittes J, Luhr J, Shekelle RB, Camel GH, Greenlick MR, Hadley E, Moye L, Perry HM, Schron E and Wegener V. Impact of The Treatment of Isolated Systolic Hypertension on Behavioral Variables: Results from The Systolic Hypertension in The Elderly Program. Arch Intern Med. 1994; 154: 2154–2160.
47.McGill HC. McMahan CA. Herderick EE. Zieske ZD. Malcom GT. Richard E. Tracy RE. and Strong JP. Obesity Accelerates the Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Young Men. Circulation. 2002; 105: 2712-2718.
48.Troiano RP, Flegal KM, Kuczmarski RJ, Campbell SM and Johnson CL. Overweight Prevalence andTrends for Children and Adolescents. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1963 to 1991. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995; 149: 1085–1091.
49.Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, Campbell SM and Johnson CL. Increasing Prevalence of Overweight among US Adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1960 to 1991. JAMA. 1994; 272: 205–211.
50.Stern MP and Haffner SM. Body Fat Distribution and Hyperinsulinemia as Risk Factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis. 1986; 6: 123–130.
51.Gillum RF. Distribution of waist-to-hip ratio, other indices of body fat distribution and obesity and associations with HDL cholesterol in children and young adults aged 4–19 years: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Int J Obes. 1999; 23: 556–563.
52.Daniels SR, Morrison JA, Sprecher DL, et al. Association of body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Circulation. 1999; 99: 541–545.
53.Kurth T, Moore SC, Gaziano JM, Kase CS, Stampfer MJ, Berger K and Buring JE. Healthy Lifestyle and the Risk of Stroke in Women. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166(13): 1403-9.
54.Fessel WJ. High Uric Acid as An Indicator of Cardiovascular Disease: Independence from Obesity. Am J Med. 1980; 68(3): 401-404.
55.Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, Sampson L, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Hennekens C and Stampfer MJ. Folate and Vitamin B6 from Diet and Supplements in Relation to Risk of Coronary Heart Disease among Women. JAMA. 1998; 279(5): 359-364.
56.Lonn E, Yusuf S, Arnold MJ, Sheridan P, Pogue J, Micks M, McQueen MJ, Probstfield J, Fodor G, Held C, Genest Jand Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) 2 Investigators. Homocysteine Lowering with Folic Acid and B Vitamins in Vascular Disease. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354(15): 1567-1577.
57.Zoungas S, McGrath BP, Branley P, Kerr PG, Muske C, Wolfe R, Atkins RC, Nicholls K, Fraenkel M, Hutchison BG, Walker R and McNeil JJ. Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in the Atherosclerosis and Folic Acid Supplementation Trial (ASFAST) in Chronic Renal Failure: a Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47(6): 1108-1116.
58.Ross R. Atherosclerosis: An Inflammatory Disease. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340:115–126.
59.Glass CK and Witztum JL. Atherosclerosis: The Road Ahead. Cell. 2001; 104: 503–516.
60.Fleiner M, Kummer M, Mirlacher M, Sauter G, Cathomas G, Krapf R and Biedermann BC. Arterial Neovascularization and Inflammation in Vulnerable Patients: Early and Late Signs of Symptomatic Atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2004; 110: 2843-2850.
61.Ridker PM, Cushman M, Stampfer MJ, Tracy RP and Hennekens CH. Inflammation, Aspirin, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Apparently Healthy Men. N Engl J Med. 1997; 336(14):973-979.
62.Abboud H, Labreuche J, Plouin F, Amarenco P and GENIC Investigators. High Blood Pressure in Early Acute Stroke: a Sign of a Poor Outcome? Hypertens. 2006; 24(2): 381-386.
63.Langer DJ, Lasner TM, Hurst RW, Flamm ES, Zager EL and King JT. Hypertension, Small size, and Deep Venous Drainage Are Associated with Risk of Hemorrhagic Presentation of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations. Neurosurgery. 1998; 42(3): 481-6; discussion 487-9.
64.Thrift AG, McNeil JJ, Forbes A and Donnan GA. Risk Factors for Cerebral Hemorrhage in the Era of Well-controlled Hypertension. Melbourne Risk Factor Study (MERFS) Group. Stroke. 1996; 27(11): 2020-5.
65.Touboul PJ, Labreuche J, Vicaut E, Amarenco P and GENIC Investigators. Carotid Intima-media Thickness, Plaques, and Framingham Risk Score as Independent Determinants of Stroke Risk. Stroke. 2005; 36(8): 1741-1745.
66.Fujimoto S, Yasaka M, Otsubo R, Oe H, Nagatsuka K and Minematsu K. Aortic Arch Atherosclerotic Lesions and the Recurrence of Ischemic Stroke. Stroke. 2004; 35(6): 1426-1429.
67.Lehto S, Rönnemaa T, Pyörälä K and Laakso M. Predictors of stroke in middle-aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Stroke. 1996; 27: 63-68.
68.Poon M, Zhang X, Dunsky KG, Taubman MB and Harpel PC. Apolipoprotein(a) Induces Monocyte Chemotactic Activity in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells. Circulation. 1997; 96: 2514 – 2519.
69.Amarenco P, Labreuche J, Elbaz A, Touboul PJ, Driss F, Jaillard A, Bruckert E and GENIC Investigators. Blood Lipids in Brain Infarction Subtypes. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006; 22(2-3): 101-108.
70.Hillen T, Cosholl C, Tilling K, Rude AG, McGovern R and Wolfe CD.A. Cause of Stroke Recurrence Is Multifactorial: Patterns, Risk Factors and Outcomes of Stroke Recurrence in the South London Stroke Register. Stroke. 2003;34:1457-1463.
71.Håheim LL, Holme I, Hjermann I and Leren P. Smoking Habits and Risk of Fatal Stroke: 18 Years Follow Up of the Oslo Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1996; 50(6): 621-624.
72.Mukamal KJ, Ascherio A, Mittleman MA, Conigrave KM, Camargo CA, Kawachi I, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC and Rimm EB. Alcohol and Risk for Ischemic Stroke in Men: the Role of Drinking Patterns and Usual Beverage. Ann Intern Med. 2005; 142(1):11-19.
73.Iso H, Baba S, Mannami T, Sasaki S, Okada K, Konishi M, Tsugane S and JPHC Study Group. Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Stroke among Middle-aged Men: the JPHC Study Cohort I. Stroke. 2004;35(5): 124-129.
74.Jeng JS, Tang SC and Yip PK. Incidence and Etiologies of Stroke during Pregnancy and Puerperium as Evidenced in Taiwanese Women. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2004; 18(4): 290-5.
75.Marini C, Carolei A, Roberts RS, et al. Focal Cerebral Iischemia in Young Adults: a Collaborative Case-control Study. Neuroepidemiology. 1993; 12: 70-81.
76.Petitti DB, Sidney S, Bernstein A, Wolf S, Quesenberry C, Ziel HK. Stroke in Users of Low-dose Oral Contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1996; 0335: 8-15.
77.Klein-Platat C, Drai J, Oujaa M, Schlienger JL and Simon C. Plasma Fatty Acid Composition Is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome and Low-grade inflammation in Overweight Adolescents.
78.Camerlingo M, Casto L, Censori B, Drago G, Frigeni A, Ferraro B, Servalli MC, Radice E and Mamoli A Anticardiolipin Antibodies inAcute Non-hemorrhagic Stroke Seen within Six hours after Onset. Acta Neurol Scand. 1995; 92(1): 69-71.
79.Lien LM, Chen WH, Chiu HC, Pan WH, Chen JR AND Bai CH. High Titer of Anticardiolipin Antibody Is Associated with First-ever Ischemic Stroke in Taiwan. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006; 22(4): 225-30.
80.Brattström L and Wilcken DE. Homocysteine and Cardiovascular Disease: Cause or Effect? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72(2): 315-23.
81.Iso H, Moriyama Y, Sato S, Kitamura A, Tanigawa T, Yamagishi K, Imano H, Ohira T, Okamura T, Naito Y and Shimamoto T. SerumTotal Homocysteine Concentrations and Risk of Stroke and Its Subtypes in Japanese. Circulation. 2004; 109(22): 2766-2772.
82.Fabricant CG, Fabricant J, Litrenta MM and Minick CR. Virus-induced Atherosclerosis. J Exp Med. 1978; 148: 335-340.
83.Buja LM. Does Atherosclerosis Have an Infectious Etiology? Circulation. 1996; 94: 872 – 873.
84.Lavallée P, Perchaud V, Gautier-Bertrand M, Grabli D and Amarenco P. Association Between Influenza Vaccination and Reduced Risk of Brain Infarction. Stroke. 2002; 33: 513 – 518.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top