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研究生:鄭秀珍
研究生(外文):Hsiou-chen Cheng
論文名稱:救贖之道:論威廉朗格藍《彼爾士農夫—C版本》中的勞動與怠惰
論文名稱(外文):The Scheme of Salvation:Labor and Sloth in William Langland''s Piers Plowman (the C-Text)
指導教授:王明月王明月引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-yueh Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:外國文學所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:救贖怠惰勞動《彼爾士農夫》朗格藍
外文關鍵詞:salvationslothlaborPiers PlowmanLangland
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本論文旨在探討威廉朗格藍如何透過夢境敘事長詩《彼爾士農夫》描述倫敦城中的怠惰,並闡述中世紀基督徒該如何藉由誠實勞動,在「做好」、「做得更好」、「做到最好」的進程中成為好基督徒。怠惰為七大死罪之一,凡觸犯七大死罪者皆難得到救贖。朗格藍在詩中視怠惰為基督徒不願勤做善工的主要原因,並抨擊人因為怠惰而只願意乞討,輕鬆過活;乞討生活在倫敦城中形成一股仿效風潮,刺激越來越多人選擇此種生活,忽略個人應盡的社會與宗教義務,而與上帝漸行漸遠。在第一章中,我探討「做好」一詞在《彼爾士農夫》中複雜多樣的意涵,進一步檢視朗格藍如何在詩中暗示他所謂的「做好」其實指的就是要基督徒賦予行動,透過誠實地勞動做工來實踐「做好」的一種生活。我也探討朗格藍如何在詩中強烈抨擊倫敦城裡,有勞動力的人為求輕鬆過活而故意行乞的亂象。朗格藍視此等亂象為人的怠惰所造成,並在詩中表達對此亂象敗壞社會風氣、毀壞社會正義的憂心,端此,我主張,朗格藍認為慈善行為須加以限制,僅能提供給真正貧窮的弱勢族群,方能改善行乞亂象,促使基督徒落實「做好」,從而獲致救贖。在第二章中,我試圖探究朗格藍在詩中如何呈現怠惰這個罪行。朗格藍將「怠惰」描述為一個譬喻性人物,在「怠惰」的懺悔中描寫諸多人犯了怠惰之罪時產生的不當行為,例如浪費物資、揮霍時間。其描述手法與佈道文學作者所用類似,但不同於佈道文學作者經常強調怠惰是一種肉慾之罪,朗格藍在詩中著重於描寫怠惰造成人對世俗責任的輕忽。我也平行比較詩中兩個角色:「怠惰」與「夢者吾意」,探討朗格藍讓「夢者吾意」找尋「做好」之任務失敗的意圖何在。朗格藍藉由「夢者吾意」,揭示方濟式堅忍貧窮的主張,透過效法基督,更堅定對上帝的信仰。然而「夢者吾意」與「怠惰」一樣,蹉跎光陰,又執意追求超越理性侷限的知識,忘卻其身為基督徒首要之務在於修補與上帝之間的關係,亦即「償其虧欠」。朗格藍描述「夢者吾意」未完成七大聖事中的修和聖事,修和聖事要求基督徒痛悔從心、告解從口、補贖從工,三者缺一不可,「夢者吾意」深陷怠惰而處於絕望之中,後悔沒有時間補贖從工進而完成修和聖事,得到救贖,而「補贖從工」又必須倚賴做善工與行慈善來落實。朗格藍在詩中為其基督徒同伴鋪陳了一條救贖之道,指出唯有做善工才能避免怠惰之罪,獲致最終救贖。
Piers Plowman exposes a radical social and moral problem of William Langland''s London: the problem of sloth. This thesis argues that true labor is crucial both to the scheme of salvation presented in Langland''s Piers Plowman and to Langland''s idea of how to live an ethical life in a poor and slothful society. Langland uses the complexity of dream narrative to probe the problem of sloth in his day. His moral vision modifies a more severe scholastic approach to the problem of sloth or acedia as a sin of the flesh mainly associated with one’s spiritual dryness. Langland''s depiction of Sleuthe the figure or of the theme of sloth emphasizes more the aspect of one''s negligence of worldly duties than a sin of the flesh. Chapter One aims to demonstrate that the poem presents itself as the site of an emerging awareness of the vital importance of labor to the individual and to the good of society. What do the three Dos mean in the poem? Why does Will the Dreamer fail in his search for Do-Well? By highlighting the fraudulent beggary, Langland demonstrates how dishonest labor can sabotage justice and deteriorate the society. Chapter Two explores Langland’s concept of sloth and the poet''s concern of the waste of worldly goods, time, and manual labor in the society. Langland elaborately describes Will the Dreamer as the embodiment of sloth in order to further reveal the Franciscan ideal of patient poverty. In the inner dreams, Will follows Fortune to the Lond of Longyng, misspending his lifetime without the slightest idea that his primary obligation is to repair his relationship with God--redde quod debes (“pay what you owe”). In the economy of salvation, God demands restitution. Will’s wanhope is a result of his sloth. In traditional teaching, the confession of Sleuthe includes despair or wanhope—the extreme spiritual effect of acedia. Langland not only incorporates the popular images of sloth into the poem, but also associates the sin of sloth with Will''s lack of true labor to win salvation.
Introduction 01
Chapter One: Labor to Do-well 17
Definitions of Do-well 20
The Significance of the Pardon Scene 24
The Idea of Labor 32
False Beggary and the Discriminated Charity 37
The Deserving Poor and Lunatyk Lollares 41
Chapter Two: Will’s Sloth and Wanhope 47
Sleuthe in the C-text 49
Mede''s Charter 50
Patience''s Feast and Patient Poverty 51
Sleuthe''s Attack on Unity 53
Will''s First Inner Dream and the Sin of the Flesh 56
Sleuthe''s Confession 57
Will''s Apologia Pro Vita Sua 62
Will''s Self-Knowledge 67
Redde quod Debes 78
Conclusion 80
Works Cited 84
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