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研究生:陳采鈞
研究生(外文):Cai Chun Chen
論文名稱:輪椅坐姿發球之球速和軀幹與上肢運動學探討
論文名稱(外文):Changes in Ball Speed and Trunk and Serving Arm Kinematics in Wheelchair Sitting
指導教授:朱彥穎朱彥穎引用關係
指導教授(外文):Y. Y. Ju
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長庚大學
系所名稱:復健科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:輪椅網球網球發球動力鏈球速關節角速度線性速度
外文關鍵詞:wheelchair tennistennis servingkinetic chainball speedangular velocitylinear velocity
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【研究背景】輪椅網球是一項近年來廣受歡迎的殘障運動,越來越多身心障礙者參與其中。相較於一般網球選手,輪椅網球選手有較高的上肢運動傷害比例。以網球發球的動作來說,除了動作限制會影響輪椅坐姿發球之外,由於整體動力鏈長度的減少,球速表現與肢體動作也會改變,甚至產生代償現象。然而,這樣的改變與代償仍未有詳盡的探索或精確的定量,因此本研究探討在站姿和輪椅坐姿執行網球發球時,在球速表現上以及軀幹與上肢相關運動學參數上的改變。 【方法】我們藉由雷達測速槍以及三維電磁動作分析系統,觀察比較15位精嫻網球發球技巧的健康男性受試者在站姿與輪椅坐姿的發球姿勢下,其球速以及軀幹與上肢相關的運動學參數。 【結果】輪椅坐姿發球相較於站姿發球,在球速表現上約減少24.5%;而且在軀幹和上肢的運動學參數上也有顯著的差異,包括:手臂後拉期的肩關節外展角度、腕關節伸展角度,擊球後續動作期的腕關節彎曲角度、軀幹旋轉角度,整體動作的腕關節伸展-彎曲角度、軀幹旋轉角度,和加速期的腕關節彎曲角速度,呈現輪椅坐姿發球大於站姿發球;相對的,在手臂後拉期的肩關節外轉角度、軀幹伸展角度和軀幹旋轉角度,擊球後續動作期的肩關節內轉角度、軀幹彎曲角度,整體動作的肩關節外轉-內轉角度、肘關節彎曲-伸展角度、軀幹伸展-彎曲角度,加速期的軀幹、肩部、肘部、腕部線性速度,肩關節內轉角速度、肩關節內收角速度、肘部伸展角速度、軀幹旋轉和彎曲角速度,則是輪椅坐姿發球小於站姿發球。 【結論】在輪椅坐姿下執行發球,球速表現上約減少24.5%,而且在軀幹和上肢的運動學參數上也有相對應的顯著改變。這些差異主要源自於輪椅坐姿時的發球動作限制與調適,以及肢段代償現象。 【臨床應用】本篇研究觀測並探討輪椅網球和一般網球之發球表現和運動學上的差異,研究結果可以提供給研究者、臨床工作者或是教練在評估輪椅網球選手其發球表現時之參考,以瞭解其可能出現的代償性動作差異策略,有助於相關運動傷害的預防、治療與或是復健訓練。
Background and Purpose. Wheelchair tennis has been a world-wide sport. Contrast to general able-bodied tennis players, wheelchair tennis players suffer from higher rates of upper extremity injury. Particularly in wheelchair tennis serving, the distal body segments are often required to compensate the short of kinetic chain, in addition to movement limitation, and force or energy dismissed. However, suchlike compensatory movements, as well as the compromised ball speed are not clear. This study therefore aimed to document these differences by comparing the performance and kinematic differences of trunk and serving arm during tennis serving between in standing and wheelchair sitting positions. Methods. Fifteen healthy male tennis players participated in this study. A radar gun and a 3-diemential electromagnetic motion tracking system measured the ball speed and selected kinematic parameters of trunk and serving arm during serving in standing and wheelchair sitting positions. Results. Wheelchair sitting serving resulted in a reduction of 24.5% in ball speed. There were statistically significant changes in trunk and serving arm kinematics, including increases in the range of motion(ROM) in shoulder abduction, wrist extension during the cocking phase, and wrist flexion, trunk rotation during the follow through phase, and wrist extension-flexion, trunk rotation in total motion range, and wrist flexion angular velocity during the acceleration phase; oppositely, decreases in the ROM in shoulder external rotation, trunk extension and trunk rotation during the cocking phase, and shoulder internal rotation, trunk flexion during the follow through phase, and shoulder external-internal rotation, elbow flexion-extension, trunk extension-flexion in total motion range, and trunk, shoulder, elbow, wrist linear velocities, and the angular velocities of shoulder internal rotation, shoulder adduction, elbow extension, trunk flexion and trunk rotation during the acceleration phase. Conclusions. Wheelchair sitting serving resulted in serving velocity reduced about 24.5% and significant kinematic changes of trunk and serving arm. These differences resulted from the movement limitation, adaptation, and compensation during tennis serving in wheelchair sitting position. Clinical Relevance. This study quantified the performance reduction and kinematic changes in wheelchair tennis serving. It provides a fundamental reference for researchers, clinicians, and coaches to further evaluate wheelchair tennis serving, as well as the invisible compensatory motor strategies, thus contributes to injury prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.
指導教授推薦書
口試委員會審定書
博碩士論文電子檔案上網授權書……………………………………iii
博碩士論文著作授權書………………………………………………iv
誌謝……………………………………………………………………v
中文摘要………………………………………………………………vi
英文摘要………………………………………………………………viii
目錄……………………………………………………………………x
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………xiv
表目錄…………………………………………………………………xvi
第一章 簡介……………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究背景…………………………………………………………1
1.2 研究動機…………………………………………………………5
1.3 研究目的…………………………………………………………6
1.4 問題與假設………………………………………………………6
1.5 重要性……………………………………………………………8
第二章 文獻回顧………………………………………………………17
2.1 輪椅網球…………………………………………………………17
2.1.1 輪椅網球之簡介………………………………………………17
2.1.2 輪椅網球的好處………………………………………………19
2.1.3 輪椅網球的相關運動傷害調查………………………………20
2.1.4 網球發球的重要性……………………………………………23
2.2 網球發球…………………………………………………………24
2.2.1 投擲動作分析…………………………………………………24
2.2.2 投擲動作在運動上的應用……………………………………26
2.2.3 網球發球之動作分期…………………………………………27
2.2.4 力量性與精準性網球擊球……………………………………30
2.3 動力鏈的理論機制與應用………………………………………32
2.3.1 動力鏈的定義…………………………………………………32
2.3.2 動力鏈的功能性量測…………………………………………34
2.3.3 動力鏈障礙與關節傷害的關係………………………………37
2.4 網球發球的動作分析與球速之相關研究………………………39
2.5 總結………………………………………………………………41
第三章 研究方法………………………………………………………48
3.1 研究設計…………………………………………………………48
3.2 研究對象…………………………………………………………49
3.3 實驗儀器…………………………………………………………51
3.4 實驗步驟…………………………………………………………54
3.5 資料處理與統計分析……………………………………………59
第四章 結果……………………………………………………………70
4.1 受試者基本資料…………………………………………………70
4.2 一般站姿與輪椅坐姿發球之球速比較…………………………71
4.3 一般站姿與輪椅坐姿發球之關節活動度比較…………………71
4.3.1 手背後拉期之關節活動度比較………………………………71
4.3.2 擊球後續動作期之關節活動度比較…………………………72
4.3.3 整體發球動作之關節活動度比較……………………………73
4.4 一般站姿與輪椅坐姿發球之關節角速度比較…………………75
4.5 一般站姿與輪椅坐姿發球之肢段線性速度比較………………76
4.6 結果摘要…………………………………………………………76
第五章 討論……………………………………………………………82
5.1 網球發球表現……………………………………………………82
5.1.1 網球發球球速討論……………………………………………82
5.1.2 輪椅坐姿發球表現……………………………………………83
5.2 輪椅坐姿發球的運動學比較……………………………………84
5.2.1 關節活動度的比較……………………………………………85
5.2.2 加速期關節角速度的比較……………………………………89
5.2.3 加速期肢段線性速度的比較…………………………………90
5.3 代償作用與受傷機制……………………………………………91
5.3.1 代償作用………………………………………………………91
5.3.2 受傷機制………………………………………………………92
5.4 研究限制…………………………………………………………95
5.5 臨床應用…………………………………………………………96
5.6 未來方向…………………………………………………………97
第六章 結論……………………………………………………………99
參考文獻………………………………………………………………102
附錄一、受試者基本資料……………………………………………114
附錄二、受測者同意書………………………………………………116
附錄三、三維電磁動作分析系統效度測試…………………………120
附錄四、球速校正測試………………………………………………124
附錄五、人體試驗委員會審查同意書………………………………127

圖目錄
圖1-1、肩關節外轉示意圖…………………………………………11
圖1-2、肩關節外展示意圖…………………………………………11
圖1-3、肘關節彎曲示意圖…………………………………………12
圖1-4、腕關節伸展示意圖…………………………………………12
圖1-5、軀幹伸展示意圖……………………………………………13
圖1-6、軀幹旋轉示意圖……………………………………………13
圖1-7、肩關節內轉示意圖…………………………………………14
圖1-8、肩關節內收示意圖…………………………………………14
圖1-9、肘關節伸展示意圖…………………………………………15
圖1-10、腕關節彎曲示意圖…………………………………………15
圖1-11、軀幹彎曲示意圖……………………………………………16
圖1-12、軀幹旋轉示意圖……………………………………………16
圖2-1、網球發球動作分期…………………………………………43
圖2-2、動力鏈由近端往遠端的連續性動作………………………43
圖2-3、動力鏈連續性力量傳遞……………………………………44
圖2-4、動力鏈連結概念模型圖……………………………………44
圖2-5、動力鏈肢段所提供之能力與力量…………………………45
圖2-6、動力鏈障礙之趕上現象……………………………………45
圖2-7、代償現象發生部位…………………………………………46
圖2-8、網球發球動力鏈表現………………………………………47
圖3-1、三維電磁動作分析系統……………………………………62
圖3-2、感應器擺放位置……………………………………………62
圖3-3、手持雷射測速槍……………………………………………63
圖3-4、高速攝影機…………………………………………………64
圖3-5、網球輪椅……………………………………………………64
圖3-6、網球、網球拍………………………………………………65
圖3-7、模擬式網球場………………………………………………65
圖3-8、實驗步驟流程圖……………………………………………66
圖3-9、上肢動態肢體活動…………………………………………67
圖3-10、站姿體前彎伸展……………………………………………67
圖3-11、股四頭肌群以及脛前肌群…………………………………68
圖3-12、肩肘部位伸展………………………………………………68
圖3-13、體側、肩部以及背部伸展…………………………………69

表目錄
表2-1、上肢投擲動作的運動技術應用分類………………………47
表4-1、受試者基本資料……………………………………………78
表4-2、球速…………………………………………………………78
表4-3、手臂後拉期之最大關節活動度……………………………79
表4-4、擊球後續動作期之最大關節活動度………………………79
表4-5、整體發球動作之最大關節活動度…………………………80
表4-6、加速期之最大關節角速度…………………………………80
表4-7、加速期之最大肢段線性速度………………………………81
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