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研究生:曾昱筌
研究生(外文):Yu-Quan Tzeng
論文名稱:小波轉換高頻係數預測為基礎之不需原始資訊數位浮水印技術
論文名稱(外文):A blind wavelet-based watermarking with detail-subband coefficients prediction
指導教授:李建德李建德引用關係
指導教授(外文):J. D. Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長庚大學
系所名稱:電機工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:數位浮水印離散小波轉換人類視覺系統恰可察覺失真最小均方
外文關鍵詞:digital watermarkingdiscrete wavelet transformhuman visual systemjust noticeable distortionleast mean square
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近來,小波轉換大量的使用在多媒體訊號處理的應用中。為了解決多媒體資訊的安全性問題,因此有數位浮水印技術的誕生。本文提出了一個以小波轉換為基礎不需原始資訊的數位浮水印技術,並且考慮人類視覺系統藏匿浮水印在次頻(細節)帶。因為不可視性是浮水印最重要的課題,所以低頻(近似)帶的係數保持不變,而利用修改其他次頻帶的係數來隱藏資訊。根據恰可察覺失真準則(JND)來決定對於所有次頻帶的視覺藏匿權重,而此修改的強度是為了在浮水印的強韌性以及影像品質中取得一個折衷點。在解碼端解出浮水印時,最小均方(LMS)演算法是用來預測原始的次頻(近似)帶係數然後解出所藏匿的浮水印。在本文的實驗結果中可證明本方法有好的強韌性且有絕佳的影像品質。
Recently, the wavelet transform is widely used in multimedia signal processing applications. To provide security solution, the digital watermarking is involved. This study presents a blind wavelet-based watermarking which cooperates with the Human Visual System (HVS) embedding watermarks into detail-subband coefficients. Since the imperceptibility is the most significant issue in watermarking, the approximate band is maintained unchanged, while the other detail subbands are modified to carry information. The perceptual embedded weights for all subbands are determined based on the Just Noticeable Distortion (JND) criterion. The strength of the modification is investigated to provide a compromised result between robustness and image quality. In the decoder, the Least-Mean-Square (LMS) is involved to predict the original detail subbands coefficients and then extract the embedded watermarks. As documented in experimental results, the proposed method provides good robustness and excellent image quality.
目 錄
指導教授推薦信......................................................................................................................
口試委員審定書......................................................................................................................
授權書...................................................................................................................................iii
誌謝.......................................................................................................................................iv
中文摘要................................................................................................................................v
英文摘要...............................................................................................................................vi
目錄......................................................................................................................................vii
圖表目錄...............................................................................................................................ix
第一章 緒論…..............................................................................................................…1
1.1 研究目的與動機….................................................................................................1
1.2 數位浮水印簡介.....................................................................................................1
1.2.1數位浮水印的應用.......................................................................................2
1.2.2數位浮水印的特性與需求...........................................................................4
1.2.3 數位浮水印的分類......................................................................................7
1.3 論文架構...............................................................................................................11
第二章 文獻回顧............................................................................................................12
第三章 背景技術............................................................................................................20
3.1 小波轉換...............................................................................................................20
3.1.1 傅立葉轉換................................................................................................20
3.1.2 短時傅立葉轉換........................................................................................21
3.1.3 連續小波轉換............................................................................................22
3.1.4 離散小波轉換............................................................................................23
3.1.5 小波分解....................................................................................................24
3.1.6 小波合成....................................................................................................26
3.1.7 常見之小波轉換........................................................................................26
3.2 最小均方(LMS)演算法........................................................................................30
3.3 恰可察覺失真(JND) ............................................................................................33
3.3.1 空間域........................................................................................................33
3.3.2 頻率域........................................................................................................37
第四章 小波轉換係數預測的浮水印技術....................................................................38
4.1 LMS演算法訓練濾波器.......................................................................................39
4.2 浮水印藏匿過程...................................................................................................46
4.3 浮水印取出過程...................................................................................................49
第五章 實驗結果............................................................................................................52
5.1 臨限值 的選取..............................................................................................52
5.2 藏匿強度不同對於影像品質的影響...................................................................53
5.3 一階小波轉換的浮水印取出...............................................................................54
5.3.1 5/3一階小波轉換....................................................................................54
5.3.2 9/7一階小波轉換....................................................................................56
5.4 二階小波轉換的浮水印取出...............................................................................58
5.4.1 5/3二階小波轉換....................................................................................59
5.4.2 9/7二階小波轉換....................................................................................61
5.5浮水印強韌性測試......................................................................64
第六章 結論與未來展望................................................................................................77
參考文獻..............................................................................................................................78




圖目錄

第一章 緒論
圖 1.1 可見式浮水印….....................................................................................................8
圖 1.2 不可見式浮水印.....................................................................................................8
圖 1.3 浮水印藏匿與取出過程,需要原始資訊...............................................................9
圖 1.4 浮水印藏匿與取出過程,半需要原始資訊...........................................................9
圖 1.5 浮水印藏匿與取出過程,不需要原始資訊.........................................................10
第二章 文獻回顧
圖 2.1 以展頻方式為基礎的浮水印技術.......................................................................13
圖2.2 浮水印打散方式....................................................................................................14
圖2.3 Hsu, Wu 提出的浮水印技術................................................................................15
圖2.4 三個為一組的小波係數........................................................................................16
圖2.5 影像分解的父子節點關係....................................................................................18
圖2.6 經圓對稱處理後之浮水印....................................................................................18
圖2.7 藏匿浮水印的LENA影像在DFT 域的能量分佈情形.......................................19
第三章 背景技術
圖3.1 短時傅立葉轉換示意圖….............................................…………………...……21
圖3.2 短時傅立葉轉換與小波轉換視窗之比較............................................................22
圖3.3 小波轉換的合成與分解........................................................................................24
圖 3.4 分解過程的降低取樣...........................................................................................25
圖 3.5 合成過程的提高取樣...........................................................................................25
圖 3.6 不同階的小波轉換結果.......................................................................................27
圖 3.7 多重解析,三階小波轉換流程.............................................................................27
圖 3.8 Harr小波轉換.......................................................................................................28
圖 3.9 Harr反小波轉換...................................................................................................28
圖 3.10 N-tap 橫向(transversal)適應性濾波器..............................................................31
圖 3.11 LMS演算法濾波器適應性調整示意圖...............................................................32
圖3.12 背景濾波器............................................................................................................33
圖3.13 視覺臨限值與背景亮度之關係............................................................................34
圖3.14 視覺臨限值與亮度改變之關係............................................................................35
圖3.15 不同視覺臨限值與背景亮度之關係....................................................................35
圖3.16 四個梯度濾波器....................................................................................................36
第四章 提出方法
圖 4.1 不同大小之浮水印.................................................................................................38
圖 4.2 15張灰階訓練影像….............................................................................................41
圖 4.3 LMS最佳化的訓練流程,以一階轉換為例........................................................42
圖 4.4 10張灰階測試影像.................................................................................................42
圖 4.5 10張重建影像之平均PSNR與不同濾波器大小及三種不同轉換之比較……..43
圖 4.6 LMS演算法訓練得到的濾波器…......................................................................46
圖4.7 經亂數打散的浮水印..............................................................................................47
圖4.8 各頻帶所計算出的恰可察覺失真值......................................................................48
圖4.9 浮水印藏匿過程,以一階轉換為例........................................................................48
圖4.10 浮水印取出過程,以一階轉換為例......................................................................50
第五章 實驗結果
圖5.1 取出浮水印的最佳臨限值測試..............................................................................53
圖5.2 不同藏匿強度與影像品質的比較..........................................................................54
圖5.3 5/3一階小波轉換,藏匿浮水印之後的影像品質.................................................55
圖5.4 9/7一階小波轉換,藏匿浮水印之後的影像品質.................................................57
圖5.5 5/3二階小波轉換,藏匿浮水印之後的影像品質.................................................59
圖5.6 9/7二階小波轉換,藏匿浮水印之後的影像品質.................................................61
圖5.7 藏匿浮水印之後遭受攻擊的示意圖....................................................................65
圖5.8 遭受不同攻擊之實驗結果....................................................................................71
圖5.9 和10000個亂數產生的浮水印比較,找出正確的解碼率...................................75






















圖目錄

第三章 背景技術
表3.1 短時傅立葉轉換與小波轉換之比較....................................................................22
表3.2 正反轉小波轉換之濾波器係數............................................................................29
第四章 提出方法
表4.1 依據不同濾波器大小與小波轉換所得到的重建影像品質………………......44
表 4.2 LMS濾波器係數值..............................................................................................46
第五章 實驗結果
表5.1 5/3一階小波轉換,以影像 ”milk” 為例取出之浮水印並經過中間值濾器......55
表5.2 5/3一階小波轉換,最佳的中間值濾波器大小.....................................................56
表5.3 9/7一階小波轉換,以影像 ”milk” 為例取出之浮水印並經過中間值濾器......57
表5.4 9/7一階小波轉換,最佳的中間值濾波器大小.....................................................58
表5.5 5/3二階小波轉換,以影像 ”milk” 為例取出之浮水印並經過中間值濾器…..59
表5.6 5/3二階小波轉換,最佳的中間值濾波器大小.....................................................61
表5.7 9/7二階小波轉換,以影像 ”milk” 為例取出之浮水印並經過中間值濾器…..62
表5.8 9/7二階小波轉換,最佳的中間值濾波器大小.....................................................63
表5.9 一階小波轉換在不同程度攻擊之下的解碼率....................................................72
表5.10 二階小波轉換在不同程度攻擊之下的解碼率....................................................73
表5.11 效能比較................................................................................................................76
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