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研究生:鄭家宸
研究生(外文):Jia Chen Jheng
論文名稱:錶式無線照護系統
論文名稱(外文):Wireless Watch Health-Care system
指導教授:詹曉龍詹曉龍引用關係
指導教授(外文):H. L. Chan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長庚大學
系所名稱:電機工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
論文頁數:176
中文關鍵詞:心電圖手錶照護系統無線傳輸事件
外文關鍵詞:ECGWatchCare SystemWireless TransmissionEvent
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隨著老年人口的增加,及人們對醫療更方便性的需求下,再加上嵌入式系統與通訊技術等的發展,促使整個醫療電子之進展。本研究所提出一個手錶式的照護系統,該手錶可取樣受測者之兩個導程的心電圖(ECG)訊號及受測者手腕活動的訊號,藉由這些訊號,可以分析受測者的生理與活動狀態,且可顯示時間、事件及心律。
Recently, the innovation in technology alters the way of healthcare for the elderly. Wearing a wireless and portable monitoring system can allow the elderly to move freely and safely. This study proposes a wireless system which integrates multiple sensors, two-lead ECG, three-axis accelerometer, two-axis Gyroscope, a Altimeter, to monitor physical conditions of the elderly. While falls or heart-rate irregulation were detected, an alarm would be sent to an healthcare system. Also, the system provides event-reminding function. Possible events for reminding include current weather, temperature and time for medicine taken.
目錄
第一章 緒論.............................................1
1.1 前言.................................................1
1.2 研究動機與目的.......................................2
1.3 論文架構.............................................4
第二章 硬體電路設計.....................................5
2.1系統架構..............................................5
2.2心電圖電路............................................6
2.3加速度量測...........................................12
2.4角速度量測電路.......................................16
2.5高度計量測電路.......................................18
2.6電源電路.............................................22
2.7微控制器.............................................32
2.8無線傳輸模組.........................................46
2.9資料儲存裝置.........................................54
第三章 韌體架構........................................58
3.1系統軟體設計.........................................58
3.2硬體抽象層...........................................59
3.3類比轉數位部分.......................................61
3.4事件.................................................63
3.5無線傳輸.............................................66
3.5.1 nRF24L01..........................................66
3.5.2 CC2480............................................66
第四章 結論與未來展望..................................71
參考文獻................................................79
附錄A SD Card與FAT檔案格式系統.........................82
A.1 快閃記憶體的介紹....................................82
A.2快閃記憶體之種類與架構...............................82
A.3快閃記憶體之物理特性.................................85
A.4快閃記憶體之組織架構.................................86
A.5快閃記憶體之操作模式.................................88
A.6 SD快閃記憶卡之沿革與發展............................90
A.7匯流排協定...........................................90
A.8 SD動作流程..........................................94
A.8.1 SD確認模式........................................94
A.8.2 SD資料傳輸模式....................................96
A.9 SD之讀取實作........................................99
A.10 Micro SD Card.....................................103
A.11 FAT簡介...........................................105
A.12 FAT實作...........................................107
附錄 B IEEE 802.15.4 標準.............................115
B.1 IEEE 802.15.4 無線通訊協定的整體特性............116
B.1.1 IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN 的組成元件...................118
B.1.2 LR-WPAN的網路拓樸與整體網路概念.................120
B.2 IEEE 802.15.4的PHY................................122
B.2.1 IEEE 802.15.4 的實體層..........................122
B.2.2 802.15.4實體層整體描述..........................123
B.2.3 802.15.4 PHY 服務規格...........................124
B.2.3.1 PHY資料服務...................................126
B.2.3.2 PHY管理服務...................................126
B.2.4 802.15.4 PHY訊框格式............................126
B.2.5 802.15.4 PHY PIB................................127
B.3 IEEE 802.15.4的MAC................................128
B.3.1 802.15.4 MAC 整體描述...........................128
B.3.2 802.15.4 MAC 子層服務規格.......................131
B.3.3 802.15.4 MAC 訊框格式...........................133
附錄C ZigBee 標準.....................................136
C.1 ZigBee NWK.........................................137
C.1.1 NWK 整體描述.....................................138
C.1.2 NWK 服務規格.....................................141
C.1.3 NWK 訊框格式.....................................144
C.1.4 NWK 的Routing....................................145
C.2 ZigBee APS.........................................146
C.2.1 APS 整體描述.....................................146
C.2.2 APS 服務規範.....................................148
C.2.3 APS 訊框格式.....................................150
C.3 ZigBee Device Object...............................151
C.3.1 ZDO 功能與物件...................................151
C.3.2 ZigBee Device Profile............................152
C.4 Profiles,Object 與其它............................153

圖目錄
圖2-1硬體簡單架構圖......................................5
圖2-2 ECG前置訊號處理電路方塊圖..........................7
圖2-3 ECG前置訊號處理電路................................7
圖2-4 INA321內部電路架構圖...............................9
圖2-5 Sallen-Key的等值元件法............................11
圖2-6 ADXL330接腳圖.....................................14
圖2-7 ADXL330功能方塊圖.................................14
圖2-8三軸加速度感測電路.................................15
圖2-9 IDG-300 接腳圖....................................17
圖2-10角速度感測電路....................................18
圖2-11 SMD-500接腳圖....................................19
圖2-12 SMD-500電路圖....................................20
圖2-13三軸加速規與高度計訊號示意圖......................22
圖2-14使用N-MOSFET的電池反接保護電路示意圖..............23
圖2-15 Si2312接腳圖.....................................24
圖2-16 TPS799xx系列接腳圖...............................26
圖2-17 TPS799xx內部方塊圖...............................26
圖2-18 TPS799xx穩壓電路圖...............................27
圖2-19 REF1004-1.2接腳圖................................28
圖2-20 REF1004-1.2產生參考點電壓電路圖..................29
圖2-21 TPS61040之接腳圖.................................29
圖2-22 TPS61040之3.3V升12V的應用電路....................30
圖2-23 LTC4054之接腳圖..................................31
圖2-24 LTC4054之USB充電應用電路.........................32
圖2-25 MSP430FG4618功能方塊圖...........................34
圖2-26操作模式和電流消耗比較圖..........................35
圖2-27 Timer_A3模組方塊圖...............................36
圖2-28上數模式..........................................37
圖2-29上數模式旗標設定..................................38
圖2-30 ADC12類比數位轉換器方塊圖........................40
圖2-31 USART在SPI模式功能方塊圖.........................44
圖2-32 MSP430為主,外部模組為僕.........................45
圖2-33 MSP430為僕,外部模組為主.........................45
圖2-34 nRF24L01方塊圖...................................47
圖2-35無線模組實體圖....................................48
圖2-36無線模組接腳圖....................................48
圖2-37 nRF24L01封包描述.................................48
圖2-38 ShockBurstTM技術說明.............................51
圖2-39有無使用ShockBurstTM技術的電流消耗比較............51
圖2-40 nRF24L01於星形網路的設置示意圖...................52
圖2-41 微控制器和microSD記憶卡的SPI通訊介面圖...........54
圖2-42 signal block寫入操作.............................55
圖2-43 SD記憶卡指令格式.................................55
圖2-44 Response R1格式..................................56
圖2-45 Data response token格式..........................57
圖3-1韌體架構圖.........................................58
圖3-2本研究系統的一開始初始化流程圖.....................60
圖3-3 ADC到FAT寫入的流程................................62
圖3-4心律與跌倒偵測之事件流程圖.........................63
圖3-5事件其它運作方式之流程圖...........................64
圖3-6 ZigBee State Machine..............................67
圖3-7 CC2480 初始化流程圖...............................68
圖3-8 CC2480 傳送流程圖.................................69
圖3-9 CC2480 接收流程圖.................................70
圖4-1為ECG結果..........................................71
圖4-2二軸陀螺儀結果.....................................72
圖4-3三軸加速規結果.....................................72
圖4-4 整個的完成品與內部PCB.............................73
圖4-5 RTC日期與時間的顯示...............................74
圖4-6 RTC日期與時間的顯示...............................74
圖4-7後端照護系統提醒吃藥的事件.........................75
圖4-8後端照護系統提醒氣候寒冷的事件.....................75
圖4-9第二代之手錶PCB電路板正面照........................76
圖4-10第二代之手錶PCB電路板反面照.......................77
圖4-11第二代之ECG PCB板子...............................77
圖A-1快閃記憶體的架構...................................82
圖A-2快閃記憶體產品應用範圍.............................84
圖A-3快閃記憶體細胞單元之運作...........................85
圖A-4 NAND 型快閃記憶體之組織架構.......................87
圖A-5 Pin Configuration.................................89
圖A-6命令與回應協定.....................................91
圖A-7 (多重)區塊讀取協定................................91
圖A-8 (多重)區塊寫入協定................................92
圖A-9 SD 命令格式.......................................92
圖A-10 SD 回應格式......................................93
圖A-11 SD 資料格式......................................93
圖A-12 SD Card介面模組方塊圖...........................100
圖A-13 SD Card介面模組之命令處理單元...................101
圖A-14 SD Card介面控制器中之回應處理單元...............102
圖A-15 SD Card介面控制器中之資料傳輸單元...............103
圖A-16 FAT檔案格式示意圖...............................106
圖A-17分割區的結構.....................................107
圖A-18檔案叢集連結說明.................................113
圖B-1協定堆疊架構圖....................................115
圖B-2網路拓樸圖........................................120
圖B-3功能方塊圖........................................125
圖B-4訊框格式圖........................................127
圖B-5 superframe架構圖.................................130
圖B-6 MAC功能方塊圖....................................131
圖B-7 Acknowledgment訊框格式...........................133
圖B-8 Data訊框格式.....................................134
圖B-9 MAC Command訊框格式..............................134
圖B-10 Beacon訊框格式..................................135
圖C-1 ZigBee 通訊協定堆疊架構圖........................137
圖C-2 NWK中支援三種拓樸................................139
圖C-3 NWK 服務參考模型.................................142
圖C-4 NWK Command Frame................................144
圖C-5 NWK Data Frame...................................144
圖C-6 APS 服務參考模型.................................149
圖C-7 APS Data、APS Command 與Acknowledgement frame....150
圖C-8 ZigBee 通訊協定堆疊..............................153


表目錄
表2-1 SMD-500接腳敘述表.................................20
表2-2 Timer_A計數模式...................................37
表2-3參考電壓設定方式...................................41
表2-4 ADC轉換模式的說明和設定方法.......................42
表2-5無線模組接腳功能描述...............................48
表2-6 nRF24L01操作模式設定..............................50
表2-7 SD記憶卡指令描述..................................56
表A-1快閃記憶體的種類...................................84
表A-2磁碟分割表位置....................................108
表A-3 PTB表............................................108
表A-4 BPB表............................................109
表A-5 FDB表............................................111
表A-6屬性一覽表........................................112
表B-1通道表............................................123
表C-1三種裝置的功能列表................................138
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