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研究生:王世賢
研究生(外文):Shih Hsien Wang
論文名稱:人工輔助爬階輪椅機構之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Manually Assisted Stair-Climbing Wheelchair Mechanism
指導教授:孫明宗
指導教授(外文):M. T. Sun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長庚大學
系所名稱:機械工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:爬階輪椅星輪
外文關鍵詞:stair-climbingwheelchairstar-wheel
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隨著醫療科技的進步,人類平均壽命增加,嬰兒出生率降低,促使台灣快速的轉變成一個高齡化社會,使更多行動不便之年老者及殘障者需仰賴輪椅等輔具來提升生活品質。然而,在台灣仍有許多公共場所缺乏無障礙設施,導致輪椅使用者仍有諸多限制。目前,學術界雖然有許多爬階輪椅的設計,但大部份皆在開發階段。而已商品化者則因構造複雜而笨重不易攜帶與價格昂貴,使得爬階輪椅的使用不易普及。因此,本研究的目的為開發新型的人工輔助爬階輪椅,具有簡單、輕量化、低價位與易操作之特色。此創新的輪椅機構可以協助輔助者輕鬆操作輪椅上下階梯或跨越障礙,進而提高爬階輪椅使用率。機構設計部份是使用具有六臂的星輪來取代傳統輪椅的主大輪,其中具有爬階省力機構和安全裝置。研究的方法為,首先將理論分析與實驗兩部份的結果加以比較,以確認理論分析的正確性。接著,依照降低輔助者負擔的需求進行機構的改良。最後,完成新型人工輔助爬階輪椅之設計與開發。在理論分析上,先是依照階梯尺寸限制找出星輪尺寸的,接著推導爬階運動方程式,用以估算輪椅爬階過程中輔助者所需作用力的範圍。在實驗方面,先按照理論分析的星輪尺寸使用3D繪圖軟體來建構各零件尺寸,接著製作機構實體並裝置於一輪椅上以取代大輪,並進行上階測試與受力量測。研究結果顯示,輔助者施力的理論分析與實驗結果吻合,輪椅總重為22.6 kgw,而且在非大量製造下的總造價僅為新台幣5000元。在施力測試上,當輪椅上乘坐人員體重為60 kgw時最大拉力為 12 kgw,最大支撐力為 19.6 kgw,最大瞬間支撐力為 30.1 kgw。若欲更進一步降低輔助者的施力與支撐力,本研究亦構想藉由肩帶來支撐輪椅之機構,可使前述三種力分別降低為10.4 kgw、10.1 kgw、與19.1 kgw。
With the progress of medical science and technology, the average human life span increases and the infant birthrate decreases. This makes Taiwan an aging population society. The elderly and impaired have to rely on wheelchairs to improve their life quality. However, want of handicap-friendly facilities in Taiwan’s public areas greatly limits the mobility of wheelchair users. Presently, academic research works on stair-climbing wheelchairs focus on their mechanism and most of them are still at the developing stage. Commercialized products are with complex structure and ceiling price so that they are not popular for the wheelchair users. The goal of this research is to develop a manually assisted stair-climbing wheelchair, which is simple, light weighted, cost effective, and easily operative. The innovative mechanism is designed to help the facilitator in operating the wheelchair to climb ladders and cross over obstacles easily. This may promote the utilization of wheelchairs. In the wheelchair, the two big wheels of traditional wheelchairs are replaced by two six-armed star-wheels with a laborsaving mechanism and safety devices. The procedure of the study is (1) comparing the results of theoretical analysis with those of experiment to verify the theoretical model, (2) modifying the mechanism according to the requirement of reducing the facilitator’s effort, (3) finishing the design and development of the innovative manual assisted stair-climbing wheelchair. In the theoretical analysis, the star-wheels’ dimensions have to be sought first according to the constraints of the stair cases’ sizes. Then, the force equations are derived for evaluating the range of force that a facilitator must apply. As for the experiments, a CAD software is used for constructing 3D models of the parts in the mechanism. The mechanism is then fabricated accordingly for stair-climbing tests and force measurement. The results show that the measured forces agree with the predicted forces from the theoretical analysis, the weight of the wheelchair is only 22.3 kgw, and the tailor-made prototype costs only 5000 NTD. As for the applied force measurements, when the weight of the user is 60 kgw, the maximum pulling force is 12 kgw, the maximum supporting force is 19.6 kgw, and the instantaneous supporting force is 30.1 kgw. If further reduction of the facilitators’ loadings is desired, a mechanism that uses shoulder strap for supporting the wheelchair is also analyzed in this study. The three previously mentioned forces can be reduced to become 10.4 kgw, 10.1 kgw, and 19.1 kgw, respectively.
論文指導教授推薦書論文口試委員.............................
審定書...................................................
國家圖書館授權書.........................................iii
長庚大學博碩士紙本論文著作授權書............................iv
誌謝......................................................v
中文摘要.................................................vi
目錄....................................................ix
圖目錄.................................................xii
表目錄..................................................xv
符號說明...............................................xvi
第一章 緒論............................................1
1.1 研究背景與動機.....................................1
1.2 研究目的..........................................2
1.3 研究方法..........................................2
1.4 論文大綱..........................................9
第二章 爬階機構設計....................................10
2.1 階梯設計規範......................................10
2.2 爬階輪椅的主大輪(星輪).............................11
2.3 階梯範圍限制......................................12
2.4 上下階梯方式和安全裝置.............................18
2.5 輪椅爬階重心位置分析..............................19
2.6 省力機構.........................................21
2.7 爬階輪椅實體製作與上階測試.........................22
2.8 改良上下階安全裝置的機構...........................23
2.9 改良型爬階輪椅上階測試.............................26
第三章 爬階運動方程式..................................28
3.1 各點直角座標位置和位置向量.........................28
3.2 修正爬階過程造成輪椅傾斜的向量......................29
3.3 輔助者的拉力和支撐力...............................31
3.4 輔助者的單手瞬間支撐力.............................34
第四章 結果與討論......................................36
4.1 量測輔助者所需的拉力和支撐力........................36
4.2 模擬輔助者所需的拉力和支撐力........................39
4.3 量測值與理論值之比較...............................41
4.4 影響輔助者施力的零件尺寸...........................42
4.4.1 輪椅骨架寬度....................................43
4.4.2 載重物x方向之重心位置............................44
4.4.3 星輪骨架長度....................................45
4.4.4 零件尺寸選用結果.................................46
4.5 輔助者的肩背機構...................................47
4.6 額外輔助爬階動力源-線性致動器.......................51
4.7 額外輔助爬階動力源-馬達.............................52
4.8 輪椅下階安全裝置...................................55
第五章 結論與未來展望...................................57
5.1 結論..............................................57
5.2 未來展望..........................................58
參考文獻.................................................59

圖目錄
圖1.1 MSRox智慧型爬階機器人..............................3
圖1.2 輔助輪機構之輪椅...................................4
圖1.3 腿型爬階輪椅.......................................4
圖1.4 多輪爬階輪椅.......................................5
圖1.5 iBOT輪椅..........................................6
圖1.6 T型輔助機構的輪椅..................................6
圖1.7 研究流程圖........................................8
圖2.1 可折收爪輪機構(折收狀態)...........................11
圖2.2 星輪.............................................12
圖2.3 二階段的爬階過程...................................13
圖2.4 星輪和階梯尺寸的關係..............................14
圖2.5 星輪適用最小階梯尺寸的關係.........................14
圖2.6 星輪骨架長度為283.5 mm適用階梯範圍.................15
圖2.7 星輪在h = 165 mm和w = 100 mm的階梯情況之例.........16
圖2.8 星輪在h = 165 mm和w = 229 mm的階梯情況之例.........16
圖2.9 星輪在h = 165 mm和w = 200 mm的階梯情況之例.........16
圖2.10 星輪在h = 165 mm和w = 260 mm的階梯情況之例........17
圖2.11 星輪在h = 110 mm和w = 270 mm的階梯情況之例........17
圖2.12 爬階輪椅上階方式..................................18
圖2.13 可逆向棘輪機構的安全裝置...........................19
圖2.14 一般輪椅上台階重心位置改變圖.......................20
圖2.15 爬階輪椅上台階重心位置改變圖.......................20
圖2.16 省力機構.........................................21
圖2.17 雙棘爪棘輪機構的安全裝置...........................22
圖2.18 星輪和棘輪.......................................23
圖2.20 輔推桿、棘齒輪和星輪..............................24
圖2.21 骨架、棘齒輪和輔推桿..............................25
圖2.22 改良輪椅雛型實體圖................................25
圖2.23 改良型爬階輪椅爬階測試............................27
圖3.1 各點在輪椅之位置關係..............................29
圖3.2 星輪和小輪之間距離的三視圖.........................30
圖3.3 左星輪和輪椅骨架的自由體圖.........................32
圖3.4 右星輪的自由體圖..................................33
圖3.5 單手支撐的自由體圖.................................34
圖4.1 爬階施力量測實驗...................................36
圖4.2 當l2 = 770 mm和mb = 29.2 kg時,模擬輔助者所需施力...40
圖4.3 當l2 = 1200 mm和mb = 42 kg時,模擬輔助者所需施力....40
圖4.4 第一組輔助者施力之量測值與模擬值的比較...............41
圖4.5 第二組輔助者施力之量測值與模擬值的比較...............41
圖4.6 載重物60 kg爬階所需作用力..........................43
圖4.7 修正尺寸後的爬階輪椅...............................46
圖4.8 肩背機構..........................................47
圖4.9 肩背機構的爬階輪椅.................................48
圖4.10 肩背機構的爬階輪椅(前視圖).........................49
圖4.11 加裝線性制動器的爬階輪椅...........................51
圖4.12 線性制動器所需拉力和瞬間肩背支撐力..................52
圖4.13 加裝旋轉機構的爬階輪椅.............................53
圖4.14 煞車安全裝置......................................56
圖4.15 爬階輪椅下階安全裝置...............................56

表目錄
表2.1 公共場所和自宅的樓梯尺寸規格.........................11
表3.1 各點分量距離之符號意義...............................28
表4.1 當l2 = 770 mm和mb = 29.2 kg時,量測輔助者所需施力....38
表4.2 當l2 = 1200 mm和mb = 42 kg時,量測輔助者所需施力.....38
表4.3 修改輪椅骨架寬度(2×l4y),輔助者最大施力之比較.........44
表4.4 修改載重物之重心位置(l4x),輔助者最大施力之比較........45
表4.5 修改星輪骨架長度(l2),輔助者最大施力之比較.............45
表4.6 修正爬階零件尺寸前後的輔助者施力之比較.................47
表4.7 LAS規格表..........................................52
[1] 內政部全球資訊網,http://www.moi.gov.tw/stat/
[2] M. Dalvand, M. Moghadam, “Stair Climber Smart Mobile Robot (MSRox) ,” Autonomous Robot 20, pp. 3-14, 2006.
[3] M. Mallakzadeh, F. Sassani, “An Experimental Technique to Verify an Instrumented Wheelchair,” Experimental Technique, 2007.
[4] 林穎輝,“輔助輪椅上下台階升降機構之設計與開發”,長庚大學機械工程研究所碩士論文,2006。
[5] G. Wiesspeiner, E. Windischbacher, “Distributed Intelligence to Control a Stair-Climbing Wheelchair,” IEEE. 17th Annual Conference Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Vol 2, pp. 20-23. 1995
[6] M. J. Lawn and T. Ishimatsu, “Modeling of a Stair-Climbing Wheelchair Mechanism With High Single-Step Capability,” IEEE Transactions On Neural Systems And Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2003.
[7] Johnson & Johnson, “iBOT”, http://www.independencenow.com/ibot .
[8] 陳英俊,“輪椅之爬階裝置”,中華民國專利427159,2001。
[9] 廖嘉郁,“輔助輪椅上下台階連桿之設計”,成功大學機械工程學研究所碩士論文,2001。
[10] 營建署,“市區道路工程規劃及設計規範”,一般建築物設計規範第三十三條。
[11] Y. Takahashi, N. Ishikawa, T. Hagiwara, “Soft Raising and Lowering of Front Wheels for Inverse Pendulun Control Wheel Chair Robot,” IEEE/RSJ Intl. Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2003.
[12] 黃淳權譯,靜力學,滄海書局,2006。
[13] 洪榮哲、黃廷合編譯,機械設計製圖便覽,全華圖書,2007。
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